(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The History of Painting in Italy: From the Period of the Revival of the Fine Arts to the End of ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



S2|. ■ 



.PLn 



?6R 



Tl^k,. 



IfWtmttn. 





3028766481 



BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY. 



THE HISTORY OF PAINTING, 

Sfc. 



VOLUME III. 



I^«*^PHHP 



■■A -.A 
I" 



1847. 



HI 



THE 



HISTORY OF PAINTING 



IN 



ITALY, 



FROM THE PERIOD OF THE REVIVAL OF THE FINE ARTS TO THE END 
OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY: TRANSLATED FROM 

THE ITALIAN OP THE 

ABATE LUIGI LANZL 



BY THOMAS ROSCOE. 



VOLUME III. 

CONTAINING THE SCHOOLS OF BOLOGNA, FERRARA, GENOA, AND 

PIEDMONT, WITH THE INDEXES. 



Aeto ISHtttott, tebfeelr. 



LONDON: 

HENRY G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1847. 



Printed by J. & H. COX, (Bbothbkb)! 
74 & 75, Great Qaeen Street, lAnooIn's-Inn Fields. 




CONTENTS OF VOLUME IH. 



HISTORY OF PAINTING IN UPPER ITALY. 

Book HI. 

B0L0GNB8E SCHOOL. 

PAGB 

!Epoch I. — ^The ancient masters ... ... ... 5 

Epoch II. — Various styles, from the time of Francia to 

that of the Caracci ... ... ... ... 33 

Epoch III. — The Caracci, their scholars and their sac- 

cessors, until the time of Cignani ... ... 64 

Epoch IV.— -Pasinelli, and in particular Cignani, cause 
a change in the style of Bologneso painting. 
The Clementine academy and its members ... 142 

Book IV. 
school of febhara. 

Epoch I. — ^The ancient masters 183 

Epoch II. — Artists of Ferrara, from the time of Alfonso I. 
till Alfonzo II., last of the Este family in 
Ferrara^ who emulate the best Italian styles... 196 

Epoch III. — The artists of Ferrara borrow different 
styles from the Bolognese school — Decline of 
the art, and an academy instituted in its 
support ... ... ... ... ••• 213 

TQL. in. a 



VI CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Book V. 
Epoch I. — ^The ancient masters •••233 

Epoch II. — Perino and his followers 239 

Epoch III. — The art relapses for some time, and is re- 
invigorated by the works of Paggi and some 
foreigners .. 254 

Epoch IV. — ^The Roman and Parmesan succeed to the 

native style — Establishment of an academy ... 275 

Book VI. 

history op painting in piedmont and the adjacent 

territory. 

Epoch I. — Dawn and progress of the art until the six- 
teenth century 290 

Epoch II. — ^Painters of the seventeenth century, and 

first establishment of the academy .... ... 302 

Epoch III. — School of Beaumont, and restoration of the 

academy ... ... ... ... ... 313 



Index I. — Professors of Painting mentioned in the 

work ; together with the dates, &c. ... ... 321 

Index II. — Historical and Critical Publications relating 

to the Art, cited in the Work 458 

Index III. — Of some of the most important Matters 

contained in the Work ... ... ... 485 



*^* With regard to the Abbreviations of words adopted in the above 
Indexes, that of b. is applied to dates qf birth, and that qf d. to the 
deaths qf artists. The rest mil be perfectly intelligible to the English 
reader. 



HISTORY OF PAINTING 



IN 



UPPER ITALY. 



BOOK III, 



BOLOGNSSE SCHOOL. 

DuRiKG th^ progress of the present work, it has been ob- 
serred that the tame of the art, in common with that of iettera 
and of arms, had been transfened from place to place ; and that 
wherever it fixed its seat, its influence tended to the perfec- 
tion of some branch of painting, which bj preeedh^ artists 
had been less studied, or less understood. Towarda tiie dose 
of the sixteenth oentuir, indeed, there seemed not to be left 
in nature, any kind of beauty, in its outward fora^ or aspect, 
that had not been admired and represented by some great 
master ; insomuch that the artist, howeyer ambitious, was com- 
pelled, as an imitator of nature, to become, likewise, an imi- 
tator of the best masters ; while the diseovery of new styles 
depended upon a more or less skilful combination of the old* 
Thus the sole career that remained open for the display of 
human genius was that of imitation ; as it appeared impossible 
to desigpti figures more masterly than those of Bonamioti or Da 
Vinci, to express them with more grace than Ra&ello, with 
more animated colours than those of Titian, with more lively 
notions than those of Tintoretto, or to give them a richer dra- 
pery and ornaments than Paul Veronese f to present them to 
the eye at every degree of distance, and in the perspective, 
with more art^ more fulness, and more enchanting power than 

VOL. III. B 



2 BOLOONESE SCHOOL. 

fell to the genins of Correggio. Accordingly the path of imi- 
tation was at that time pursued by every school, though with 
yery little method. Each of these was almost wholly subser- 
yient to its prototype ; nor was it distinguished in any other 
portion of the art than that by which its master had surpassed 
all competitors. Byen in this portion, the distinction of 
these followers consisted only in copying the same figures, and 
executing them in a more hasty and capricious manner, or at 
all events, in adapting them out of place. Those devoted to 
Raffaello were sure to exaggerate the ideal in eveiy picture ; 
the same in regard to anatomy in those of Michelangelo ; 
while misplaced vivacity and foreshortening were repeated ia 
the most judicious historic pieces of the Venetians and the 
Lombards. 

A few, indeed, there weie, m we have noticed, in every 
place, who rose conspicuous above those popular prejudices 
and that igi^onmce which obiowred Italy, and whose aim was 
to select from the masters of different states the chief merit of 
-each ; a awthod of which the Oftmpi of Cremona more espe- 
daUy fittmihed commeadable examples. Tet diese artists 
iMiing Bneqiial in point of geains and leanung» broken into dif- 
ferent fldiools, separated by private interests^ accnstoiQed to 
direct iheur pofals only in the exact path they themselves trod, 
^and abraysr confined, within the Umits of their native pisovinoe, 
. &.iled to iastmet Italy, -or at least to prapagate the method of 
.correct' and famdable imitatioo. . This honour was reserved for 
iBologoa, wWe destiiiy waa dficlased to be the art of teaching, 
-vi govenoBg wjui said to be that of Bome ; and it was not 
the work of an academy, but of a single faonae. Gifted with 
genius, intent upon obtaining the seofets more thftn ihe sti- 
pends of their art, and unanimons in their resolves, the &mily 
of the Oaracoi discovered the true sfyle of imitation. • First, 
they inculcated it through the ndighbooring state of Bamagna> 
whence it was communicated to &b rest of Italy ; so that in 
ib. little while nearly the whole conntzy was filled with its 
i^ntatioB. The result of their learning went te shew that the 
artist ought to divide his studies between nature and art, and 
that he should ahemately keep each in view, selecting only, 
acoording to his natural talents and disposition, what was most 
enviable in both. By such means, that school, which appeared 



BOXiOONEiB 0OUCNIL. 8 

last in ibe series tliast flourisbed, became tbe Sni to instniot the 
age ; and wbat it bad acquired from eadi it alterwanis taugbt 
to all ; a sdbool whiob, uittil that poiod, bad aasamed no Cmn 
or cbaiBcter to distingaiBb it fnltn othcnr% bnt wbich stibse- 
qnentlj prodnced aimoet as manjnew nuomeis, as the indivi- 
dnals of tbe &mily and their pnpils. The mind, like the pen, 
-would gladly airiye' at that fortunate epoch : aiming at the 
most compendious ways to reach it, and studiously avoiding 
whatever may impede or divert its course. Let Malvasia 
exclaim against Yasari as much as he pleases : let him vent 
his indignation upon his prints, in which Bagnacavallo appears 
with a goat's physiognomy, when he was entitled to that of a 
gentleman : let him farther vituperate his writings, in whidi 
Bolqgnese professors are either omitted, dismissed with faint 
praise, or blamed, until one Mastro Amico and one Mastro 
Biagio &11 under his lash : — to attempt to reconcile or to 
aggravate such feuds will form little part of my task. Con- 
cerning this author I have sufficiently treated in other places ; 
though I shall not scruple to correct, or to supply his informa- 
tion in case of need, on the authority of several modem 
writers.* Nor shall I ^Eulto point out in Malvasia occa- 
sional errors in sound criticism, which seem to have escaped 
him in the effervescence of that bitter controversy. The 
reader will become aware of them even in the first epoch ; in 

* No Italian school has heen described by abler pens. Hie Co. Canon. 
Malvasia was a real man of letters ; and his life has been written by CrespL 
His two Yolmnes, entitled '' Feldna Pittrice," will continiie to supply 
abundance of valoable formation, collected by the pnpils of the Caracci, 
to whom he was known, and by whom he was assisted in this work ; 
charged, howev&r, with a decree of patriotic zeal at times too fervid. 

Crespi and Zanotti were his continoators, whose merits are considered 
in tbe last epoch. To these volumes is added the work entitled, ** Pitture, 
Scultore, e Architetture di Bologna," of which the latest editions have 
been supplied with some very valuable notices (drawn also from MSS.) 
by the Ab. Bianconi, already commended by us, and by Sig. MaroeDo 
Oietti, a very diligent collector of pictoric anecdotes, as well as by other 
persons. I cite this work under the title of the '' Guide of Bologna;" in 
addition to which I mention in Romagna that of Ravenna by Beltrami, 
that of Rimini by Costa, and of Pesaro by Becci, which is farther illus- 
trated by observations upon the chief paintmgs at Pesaro, and a disserta- 
tion upon the art } both very ably treated by the pen of Sig. Canon* 
liBzzaiini. 

B 2 



4 OLOONESE SCHOOL. 

treating which, agreeably to my own method, I shall describe 
the origin and early progress of this eminent school. Together 
Irith the Bolognese, I shall also giye an account of many pro- 
fessors of Romagna, reserving a few, however, for a plac^ in 
the Ferrarese school, in which they shone either as disciples 
or as masters. 



BOLOGNESE SCHOOL 

EPOCH I. 



The Andente. 

The new Guide of BologDa, published in the year 1782, 
directs our attention to a number of figures, in particular those 
of the VirgiD, whick on the strength of ancient documents, 
are to be assigned to ages anterior to the twelfth century. Of 
some of these we find the anthers' names indicated ; and it 
forms, perhaps, the peculiar boast of Bologna to claim three of 
them during the twelfth century : one Guide, one Ventura, 
and one IJrsone, of whom there exist memorials as late back 
as 1248. Most part, however, are from unknown hands, and 
so well executed, that we are justified in suspeding that 
they must have been retouched about the times of Lippo 
Dahnasio, to whose style a few of them bear considerable 
resemblance. Yet not so with others; more especially a 
specimen in San Pietro, which I consider to be one of 
the most ancient preserved in Italy. But the finest monument 
of painting possessed by Bologna, at once the most unique and 
untouched^ is the Catino of San Stefano,. on which is figured 
the Adoration of the Lamb of God, described in the Apo- 
calypse ; and below this are several scriptural histories ; as the 
Birth of our Lord, his Epiphany, the Dispute, and similar 
subjects. The author was either Greek, or rather a scholar 
of those Greeks who ornamented the church of St. Mark in 
Venice with their mosaics ; the manner much resembling 
theks in its rude design, the spareness of the limbs, and in the 
distribution of the colours. It is, besides, certain that these 
Greeks educated several artists for Italy, and among others 
the founder of the Ferrarese school, of whom more in its ap- 
propriate place. However this may be, the painter exhibits 
traces that differ from those mosaic- workers, such as the flow 



6 B0L0GNE8E SCUQCL. — ^EPOCH I. 

of the beard, the shape of the garments, and a taste less bent 
on thronging his compositions. And in respect to his age, it is 
apparent it mnst have been between the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, from the form of the characters, collated with 
other writings belonging to the same period. 

Entering upon the age of Giotto, the most disputed of all, 
on account of the Florentines haying declared themselves the 
tutors of the Bolognese, and the aversion of the latter to admit 
that they have been instructed by the Florentines ; — I decline 
to dwell upon their writings, in which the heat of controveri^ 
has effectually obscured the candour of real history. I shall 
rather gather Hght from the figures of the trecentUti dispprsed 
throughout the city and all parts of Bomagna, and from the 
ample coUectioBS which are. to be seen in various pkoes. Such 
is tiiat of the Padri Claaaensi at Raarenna, that of the Institute 
at Bologna^ and in the same plaoe one at the MalTeiti palace, 
wfaeie &e piotures of the ancient mast^nsi afe exhibited in long 
series, with their names; not always inscribed, indeed, in 
andent duisBuster, nor always equally gennine ; bat siill cal- 
culated to reflect henonr upon the noble fiumly tiiat made the 
collection* In all these I discoTered paintings, some mani«- 
festly Greek ; some indisputably GiotteB<|ue ; eertain others 
of V (Mietaan style ; and not a few in a manner which I never 
saw, except in Bologna. They possess a body of eolonring, a 
taste in perspective, a method of designing and draj^ng iJie 
figures, not met with in any other cities ; aa for instance, in 
several places I saw scripture Mstories, where the Bedeemer 
invariably appeam armyed in a red mantle ; while other 
characters appear in garments trimmed in a certain novel 
style witk gilt bordees ; trifles in themeelvefi^ yet not appazent 
in any oth^ sehooL From similar observations we seem to 
be jukifled in conclnding that the Boiognese ef that age like<» 
wise had a. school of their own, not indeed so elegant, nor so 
celebr^ed^ but nevertheless peculiar, and so to say, municipal, 
derived from ancient masters of mosaie, and wo from those 
in miniatnre. 

On this head, notwithstanding our pioposed brevity, I most 
here ref^ to the words of Baldinneei in his notices ol tiie mi- 
niatnre painter, Franco : ^^ After Giotto^ that very celebnited 
Florentine painter, had discovered his novel and fine method 



THB urcnBnn. 7^ 

hj wUck he gttmad the name of tiie fifst xmtonr of ih# art of 
pointiiig, or lather to hare niaed it from utter extiBetion ; 
aad aiil;^ he bad aofnired with indostrious diligence that fine 
mode of pBBidng which is called di mmto,* whieh for the most 
part consisiB IB cohering TeiydiBiiiintrrefignxee; manyothen 
alsa af^lied thenndTes to the like art, and soon be<»rae iUos- 
tziion& One of these was Oderigi d'Agobfaio^ eoneeming 
whom we hare ^x)ken in his proper fxlaes anong the diseiplw 
of Ciniabne. We dtseoTered thait thia Oderigi, as we are 
assured by Yellatello in his eomnent upon Dwite, in the 
eleventh canto of the Porgatono^t was master in the art to 
Franco Bolognese, whidi assertion aoquixes great credit from 
his haTing woi^ed much in miniature in die city of Bologna, 
according to these w(»ds that I find said of hkn by Benvennto 
da Imola, a oonten^rarj of Petrarch, in his comment np<«' 
Bante : ^ Iste Odoiisius fidt magnns miniator m ciritate Bo* 
nomsB^ qui eat yM» yanus jactator artis samJ From this 
Franco, according to the opinion of Mahrasia, the most noble 
and cprer glorious city of Bdiogoa recced the first seeds of the 
hieaatifal art of painting.'' 

With tins narrative does the author proceed, like a careful 
cahurist, gentiy sprinkling with refiFesfaing drops his pictoric- 
txee, whose seed he had shortly before planted, in order to trace 
the whoie demaition of eaiiy artists from the leading stock <^ 
GimahuAr It has eisewheie been obserred that thu hmowi 

^ IK MtKtVy a peeidlar red e(^oiir, used tiao m oS-paimtBig, and wett 
Iedowq to tibe wosieBiM, wbo on featal da^s were icwtBuicd to OfimaflBb 
intli it ttw hot of JoveV itBtne, as alaa tl»t at tka mtom oo da^ of 
tnunph. FUny and othen explain the andent method of eaaiplojaia it. 
The tenn, in its simple acceptation, means here the art of designing and 
ocdovring m mimatuye (from di mh&h), earlj applied to Ae emamentiag 
and ffl>MnwMithig of aneicnt woiks and MSS^-'^E. 
t " Oh diisi lui non 80* tn Oderisi^ 

L'onor d* Agnbbio, e 1' -onmr di ipu^' arte 
Che aflnminar d chfamata a Farisi ? 
Trate, diss' egli, piu ridon le carte 
Che pemie&egia Franco Bolognese: 
It* onor. e tntto or suo, e tsao in paite. 
Ben Don sard stato d cortese 

Mentre ch' io vissi per lo gran disio 
DeH' eccellenza, ore mio cor intese. 
ki tal superbis qtd a paga il fio." 



8 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH I. 

tree can IxMUSt no root in HiBtoiy ; that it eprong ont of idle 
conjectures, pat together as an answer to the ^' Felsina Fit* 
trice" of Malyada, in which the Bolognese school is made to 
appear, as it were, autoctonOy derived only from its^. Now : 
Baldinncci, in order to gtve its origin to Florence, would per- ' 
suade us that Oderigi, a miniaturist, and master of. Franco, the . 
first painter at Bologna on the revival of the arts, had actually 
been a disciple of Cimabue. His argument amounts to this : 
that Dante, Giotto, and Oderigi, being known to have lived on > 
the most intimate terms together, and all three greatly, devoted . 
to the fine arts, must have contracted their friendship in the 
■school of Cimabue ; as if such an intimacy might not have 
sprung up at any other time or place amongst three men who 
travelled. It is besides difiicult to believe that Oderigi, am- 
bitious of the fame of a miniaturist in ornamenting books,.- 
^ould have applied to Cimabue, who in those times was not 
the best designer of figures, though the most eminent painter 
in fresco, and of grand figuies. 

A more probable supposition, therefore, is, that Oderigi ac- 
quired the art from the miniaturists, who then greatly abounded 
in Italy, and carried it to further perfection by his own design. 
Neither are the epochs themselves, fixed upon by Baldinucci, 
in £Ekvour of his system. He would have it that Giotto, at ten 
years of age, being about the year 1286, began to design in 
the school of Cimabue, when the latter had attained his forty- 
sixth year ; nor could Oderigi have been any younger, whose 
death happened about 1299, one year before that of Cimabue, 
his equal in reputation, and in the dignity of the pupil, who 
already surpassed the master. How difficult then to persuade 
ourselves that a genius, described by Dante as lofty and full 
of vaunting, should demean himself by deigning to design at. 
the school of a contemporary, near the seat of a mere child , 
and subsequently surviving only thirteen years, should acquire 
the fame of the first miniaturist of his age, besides forming the 
mind of a pupil superior to himself. It is no less incredible 
that Oderigi, after having seen Giotto's spedmens in minia- 
ture, '^ should in a short time become famotts." Giotto, in 
1298, when twenty -two years of age, was at Rome in the ser- 
vice of the pope ; where, observes Baldinucci, he also illumi- 
nated a book for the Car. Stefsweschi ; a circumstance not 



THE ANCIENTS. 9 

mentioned by Yasari, nor supported by any bistoiical dooa- 
ment. Yet taking all this for granted, what length of time is 
afforded for Oderigi to display his powers, on the strength of 
seeing Giotto's models ; for Qderigi, who having been already 
some time, before deceased, was found by Dante in purgatory, 
according to Baldinucci's computation, in the year 1300 ? 

I therefore refer this miniaturist to the Bolognese school, 
most probably as a disciple, assuredly as a master ; and 
on the authority of Yellutello, as the master of Franco, 
both a miniaturist and a painter. Franco is the first among 
the Bolognese who instructed many pupils ; and he is almost 
deserving the name of the Giotto of this school. Nevertheless 
he approflohed only at considerable distance, the Giotto of 
Florence, as fisur as we can judge from the few relics which are 
now pointed out as his in ^he Malvezzi museum. The most 
undoubted specimen is one of the Yirgm, seated on a throne, 
bearing the date of 1313; a production that may compare 
with the works of Cimabue, or of Guide da Siena. There are 
also two diminutive paintings, displaying much grace, and 
eimilar miniatures, ascribed to the same hsmd. 

The most eminent pupils educated by Franco in his school, 
accordii^ to Malvasia, are by name, Yitale, Lorenzo, Simone, 
Jaoopo, Cristoforo; specimens of whose paintings in fresco 
are still seen at the Madonna di Meacaratta. This church, in 
respect to die Bolognese, exhibits the same splendour as the 
Campo Santo of Pisa, in relation to the Florentine school ; a 
studio in which the most distinguished trecentisti who fion- 
lished in the adjacent part«, competed for celebrity. They 
cannot, indeed, boast all the simplicity, the elegance, the 
happy distribution, which form the excellence of the Giot- 
tesque ; but they display a fancy, fire, and method of colour- 
ing, which led Bonarruoti and the Caracci, considering the 
times in which they lived, not to undervalue them ; insomuch 
that, on their shewing signs of decay, these artists took mea-^ 
sores for their presN*vation. In the foremen tioned church, 
itiien, besides the pupils of Franco already named, Galasso of 
Fenara, and an unknown imitator of the style of Giotto, 
asserted by Lamo in his MS. to have been Giotto himself, 
painted, at different times, histories from the Old and New 
Testament. I am inclined rather to pronounce the unknown 



10 BOLOONBSB BCH0OL.--«^eP00H X. 

artist to be Gidtto'0 inritaior ; both because Taaari, in Mezza- 
vatta» makes no mention of Giotto, and because, if the latt^ 
bad painted, he would have ranked with the most eminent, 
and would have been selected to pursue his labours, not in 
that Goiner ornamented with paintings in the Florentine 
style, but in some more imponng ntnation. 

I ought not to omit to mention in this place, that Oiotto 
emplojreid himsdf at Bologm. There is one of hicri^tar-pieces 
still preserved at San Antcmio with the superscription of 
^ Magister loetns de Fknentia." We, moreorer, learn from 
Yasari that Paecio Capanna, a Florentine^ and Ottaviano da 
Faenm, with one Pace da Faenza, all pupils of Giotto, pur- 
sued th^ labouirs more or less at Bologna. Of these, if I 
mistake not, there are ooeasional specimein still to be met 
witii in colleotioBS and in churches. Nor are there wanting 
works of the sueoessois of Taddeo Gaddi, one of Hie school of 
CKotto, which, as I have seen great numbers in Florence, X 
have been aUe to distinguish with little ^difficulty among 
specimeaQS of iUi other schooL Bendes this style, another 
was introduced into Bdogna from Florence, that of Orcagna, 
whose NoTissirai <tf S. Maria Novella were almost copied in a 
chapel df Sen PetrMiio, painted after the year 1400) the 
same edifice which Yasan, on the s fag en g th of popular tradition, 
has asserted, was ornamented by Buffidmaeco^ From this 
informatioa, we are brought to conclude that the Florentines 
exerdsed an influence over tiie art, even in Bologna; nor 
can I commend Malvasi^ who, in recounting the progress of 
his school, gives them no place, nor makes them any acknow- 
ledgment* Their models, which at that period were the most 
^ceellent in the art, there is reason to suppose, may in those 
times have afforded assistance to tiie young Bolognese artists, 
as those of the school of Caraoo, in another age, instructed 
the youth of florenoe. It is time^ however, to return to the 
pictures of Mezxarstta. 

The audiors of those Just recorded, were, some of them, 
contemporary with the disciples of Giotto ; others flourished 
anbseqfuent to tiiem ; nor is there any name more ancient than 
that ^ Yital da Bologna, called dalle Afad&nne^ of whom 
there are aoeouats from 1320 till the year 1345. This artist, 
who painted for that church a picture of the Nativity, and 



THE JOtCnSKTB* 11 

from whose hand one of S. Benedetto with otiier saints k seen 
in the Malvezzi paJaee, bad more dryness of design thna 
belonged to the diseiples of Giotto at that period ; and he 
employed compositions that diffezed from tint aofaool, so 
extremely tenaeions of Giotto's ideas. If Baktinnoci Tentued 
to assert of him that his style^ in erery paitionlar, agrees with 
that of his Florentine contemporaries, he wrote on the Mthof 
others ; a sufficient reason with him for affirming that he was 
pnpil to Giotto, or to some one of his disciples. I wonld not 
venture so far; hut rather, to ja<^ &cm the hand of Yitale^ 
which Baldi, in his Biblioteca B:>logBese, entitles *^mannm 
elimatissimam," from the dryness of design, and from hie- 
almost exdnsiye custom of painting Madonnas, I argna that 
he had not departed much from the example set by Franco, 
more of a miniaturist than a painteiv and iSmt his school could 
not haye been that school more elevated, varied, and rich in 
ideas, formed by Giotto. 

Lorenzo, an artist, as is elsewhere observed, of Venice 
more prolmUy than of Bologna,* who produced the His- 
tory of Daniel^ on which he inscribed his name, painted 
during the same period, and attempted copious compositionB. 
He was greatly inferior to the Memmi, to the Laurati, to the 
Gaddi, though he is represented as their equal in reputation 
by Malvasisfc He betrays the infancy of the art^ no lees in 
point of design than in the expressions of his countenances, 
whose grief sometimes provokes a smile; and in his forced 
and extravagant attitudes m the manner of the Greeks. 
Hence it is here out of the question to mention Ctiotto, fa 
whose school, caationaly wroiduig every kind of extravagance, 
there predominates a certain gravity and repose, oeoasienally 
amounting to coldness ; descSbed by the author of the Bolog- 
nese Guide as the statuary maimer ; and it is one of those 
marks 1^ which to distii^ish tiist school from others of the 
same age. 

At a later period flourished Gaiaeso^ who is to be sought for 
in the list of aHasts of Ferrafla, along with the three supposed 
disciples of Yitale ;. namely, Gristoforo, Simone, and Jaoopo ; 
all of whom, in niataxe age,, were engaged in pictures to 

♦ Vol.ii.p.79. 



12 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL. ^BPOCH I. 

decorate the chnrcb at Mezzaratta, wbich were completed in 
1404. Vasari writes that he is uncertain whether Cristoforo 
belonged to Ferrara, or da Modena ; and whilst the two cities 
were disputing the honour, the Bolognese historians, Baldi, 
Masini, and Bumaldo, adjusted the difference by referring him 
to their own Felsina. For me his country may remain 
matter of doubt, though not so the school in which he flou- 
rished ; inasmuch as he certainly resided, and painted a great 
deal, both on altar-pieces and on walls, at Bologna. At that 
period, be must have attracted the largest share of applause ; 
since to him was committed the figure of the altar, which is 
still in existence, with his name. The Signori Malvezzi, 
likewise, are in possession of one of his altar-pieces, abound- 
ing with figures of saints, and divided into ten compartments. 
The design of these figures is rude, the colouring languid; 
but the whole displays a taste assuredly not derived from 
the Florentines, and this is the principal difficulty in the 
question. 

Simone, most commonly called in Bologna Da Crocifissi, 
was eminent in these sacred subjects. At S. Stefisino, and 
other churches, he has exhibited several fine specimens, by no 
means incorrect in the naked figure, with a most devotional 
cast of features, extended arms, and a drapery of various 
colours. They resemble Giotto's in point of colouring, and in 
the posture of the feet, one of which is placed over the other, 
but in other respects th^ approach nearer the more ancient. 
I have seen also some IMfadonnas painted by him ; sometimes 
in a sitting posture, at others in half-size, with drapery and 
with hands in the manner of the Greek paintings. In features, 
however, and in the attitudes, they are bdth carefully studied 
and commendable for those times ; a specimen of which is still 
to be seen at S. Michele in Bosco. 

Among the Bolognese trecentist! Jacopo Avanzi is the most 
distinguished. He produced the chief part of the histories at 
the church of Mezzaratta^ many in conjunction with Simone, 
and a few of them alone ; as the miracle of the Probation, at the 
bottom of which he wrote Jotcobus pinxit. He appears to 
have employed himself with most success in the chapel of 
S. Jacopo al Santo, at Padua, where, in some very spirited 
figures, representing some exploit of arms, he may be said to 



JACOPO AYANZI. 13 

liave conformed his style pretty nearly to the Giottesque ; and 
even in some measure to have surpassed Giotto, who was not 
skilful in heroic subjects. His master-piece seems to have 
been the triumphs painted in a saloon at Verona, a work com- 
mended by Mantegna himself as an excellent production. He 
subscribed his name sometimes Jctcohus Pauli ; which has led 
me to doubt whether he was not originally from Venice, and 
the same artist, who, together with Paolo his father, and his 
brother Giovanni, painted the ancient altar-piece of San Marco 
at tiiat place. The time exactly feivours such a supposition ; 
the resemblance between the countenances in the paintings at 
S. Marco and at the Mezzaratta, farther confirms it ; nor can 
I easily persuade myself that Avanzi would have entitled him- 
self Jacoh\i9 PauHy had there flourished another artist at the 
same period, likely, from similarity of signatures, to create a 
mistake. In the ^^ Notizia" of Morelli, p. 5, he is called 
Jacomo Davanzo^ a Pctdtian^ or Veronese^ or as some maintain 
a Boloffnese^ words whidi may create a doubt of the real place 
of his birth. Without entering on such a question, I shall only 
observe, that I incline to believe that his most fixed domicile, 
at least towards the close of his da3rs, was at Bologna ; and it 
has already been remarked, that some artists were accustomed 
to assume their place of residence for a surname. It would 
seem that two painters of this age derive their parentage from 
him ; one who on an altar-piece at S. Michele in Bosco signs 
himself Peirus Jaeobi^ and the same Orazio di Jacopo men- 
tioned by Malvasia. At all events it is observable in each 
school, that, where an artist was the son of a painter, he 
gladly adopted his father's name as a sort of support and recom- 
meocUition of his own. One Giovanni of Bologna, unknown in 
his own country, has left at Venice a painting of S. Cristoforo, 
in the school of the Merchants at S. Maria dell' Orto, to which 
he adds his name, though without date ; and, from his ancient 
manner, we are authorized to believe that he really belongs to 
the place which is here assigned him. 

Lippo di Dalmasio, formerly believed to be a Carmelite 
friar, until the Tarin edition of Baldinucci proved that he had. 
died married, sprung from the school of Vitale, and was 
named Lippo dalle Madonne. It is not true, as reported, that 
he instructed the Beata Caterina Vigri in the art, by whom 



14 BOLOONEttB 8CH00Xi.-^SP0CH I. 

there lemain some miQiatmeB, and an inJbnt Chrkt painted on 
panel. Lippo's manner scarcely Tartes from the ancient, ex- 
cept perliaps in better harmonj of tints and flow of drapery ; 
-to which last, however, he adds fringes of gold laoe tolerably 
wide, a practice rery generally preralent in the eaily part of 
the fifteenth century. His heads are beantifal and novel, 
more particularly in several Madonnas, which Guido Reni 
never ceased to admire, being in the habit of declaring that 
Lippb must have been indebted to some supernatural power 
for his es:hibition in one comitenance of aU the majesty, the 
sanctity, and the sweetness of the holy mother, and that in 
this view he had not been equalled by any modem. Such is 
iihe account given by Malvasia^ who relates ity he adds, as he 
heard it. He moreover assnres ns, on the authority of Guido, 
that Lippo painted several histories of Elias in fresco, with 
.great spirit ; while, on the experience of Tiarxm, he would per^ 
suade us that he painted In oil at B. Procolo in via S. Stefano, 
imd in private honses ; on which pmnt he impugns the com- 
monly received opinion x^especting Jkntonello, examined by us 
more than once. Contemporary with Lippo must have flou^ 
rished Maso da Bcdogna, painter of the ancient cnpola of the 
-cathedral 

Subsequent to 1409, the latest epoch of the paintings of 
Lippo, me Bolognese school began to dedine ; nor coidd it 
well be otherwise. Dalmasio, an instructor of youth, was not 
by profession a painter of history ; and, as p<nrtntit*painters 
never particularly promoted the progress of any school, so <m 
his paart, he confened little benefit on his own. This decline 
has been attributed to some specimens of art brought feom 
'Constantinople, overcharged wMi dark Imes in the contonxs 
and folds, and in the remaining parts resembling rather the 
dryness and inelegance of the Greek mosaic-'workers, than the 
softness and grace then sought to be introduced by the most 
eminent Italians in the art. Copies of these were eagerly 
inquired for in Bologna, and in all adjacent cities, which pro- 
duced that abundance of them, still to be seen in the irale- 
shops and private houses throughout those districts, besides 
several in the city and state of Venice.* But, in these 

* The Greeks, during the earliest periods, having nniformly rejjresentod 
Die Txrgin in so mde a style, were always pleased with Bunibur pamtiiigt* 



LIFFO DI BALMAIffO. 15 

insCances, they irei« only eopied; in Bologfna tbey -were 
imitated likewise by sereral pii|Hk of lippo, who, either in 
part or altogeHier, adopted that sfyle in thdr own oompon- 
tiofns. One Lianori, nmially inseribing his name Petnu 
Jbannis^ and known bj some works intere^rsed in different 
chnrches and collections, is most aconsed of this extxwmgance ; 
an Orazio di Jaoopo (perhaps ddT ATanzi), of whcmi there 
remains a portrait of S. Bernardino, at the chnrdi of the 
Osserranza ; a Serero da Bologna, to whom is asorUied a rade 
altar-piece, in the Malvezzi Mnsenm ; with several others^ 
either Httle known or nnmentioned, whose names I am not 
sniprised should be omitted by Yasari, who, in the same way, 
passes over the least disttngnished of his own country. It is 
tme, he makes mention of one Gblante da Bologna, who, lie 
avers, designed better than I^^, his master ; bnt in this he 
is still taken to ta^ by Malvasia, who indudes Ghdante 
among the inferior pupils of Dalmasio. 

Nevertheless, the gem of good painting was not wanting, 
as £ur as the times permitted it to exist, both in Bologna and 
throughout Romagn^ Malvasia eoomiends one Jaoopo Bi- 
panda, who long flourished at Borne, where, as is commemo- 
rated by Yoherrano, he began to design the bassi-rilievi of the 
Trajan Column; one Eroole, a Bolognese^ who somewhat 
improved the symmetfj ef the human figure ; ooe Bombo- 

I fitite this to lemove a verj pmnient error, dot every Madonna of Greek 
style, with distended eyes, long fingers, and dark complexion, in the style 
of that of Pisa, called *' Degli Oigani,'' or tiiose of Cim^ne, is to be 
r efe ri ed to Ihe i - em o tost dates. Indeed I hmt soen spedmens of the six* 
teenUi, nsmteenth, aad even eighitecnth oeBtnnes, particnlarfy in tlie 
Classe MnseuE^ in that of Cattaio, and in the palaces of Yenettan nobles. 
One in the possession of Hie E. S. Signori Ginstixttani Becanati, has, not- 
withstanding its very antique air, red letten inscribed on a gold ground, 
expressing, XEIP E^MMANOTHA inPSOC . . . . a . . , X$, Mamu 
EmamalU Stuerdoiit, an. ii60. Prom the hand of the same Greek 
.pfliert, wdl known ta Venetian artists, there are otlier altar-pieces with a 
sinnlar inscription ; and it is still customary in that city to reproduce spe- 
cimens of a similar kind, to sattisly the contimial inqniries of liie Greek 
merchants. To judge correctly, then, of the age of snch images, we must 
look ^ other indieations beodes tiieir design, such as the letters (see 
vol. i. p. 60), the fiishion of the cornice, the method of colonring, or thiose 
diembs, holding a gold crown over the head of the Virgin, in the edges 
and the folds of whose drapery are imprinted marks of ages nearer to 
\sot own* 



16 BOLOONESE BCBOOU-^EBOCH I. 

logno, a carver of crucifixes, like Simone, but of more refined 
composition. He more particularly celebrates a Michel di 
Matteo, or Michel Lambertini ; in whose comm^idation it 
may be enough to state, that Albano praised one of his 
pictures, supposed to be in oil, completed in 1443, for the| 
iish-market, and even preferred it for its softness to those of 
Francia. The few which we still possess in pur own times^ 
both at the churches of S. Pietro and S. Jacopo, might be 
put in competition with the contemporary works of almost 
any master. 

But the artist who produced an epoch in his school is Marco 
Zoppo, who having transferred his education under l4ppo to 
the studio of Squarcione, rose to equal eminence with Pizzolo 
and Dario da Trevigi ; and, like them, vied with the genius 
of Mantegna^ and gave a further spur to his exertions. He 
also studied some . time in the Venetian school, where he 
painted for the Osservanti, at Pesaro, a picture of the Viigin 
on a Throne, crowned, with S. Giovanni the Baptist^ San 
Francesco, and other saints, and signed it ^^ Marco Zoppo da 
Bologna Dip. in Yinexia, 1471." This is the most celebrated 
production which he left behind him ; itom which, and a few 
other pieces in the same church, and at Bologna, we may 
gather some idea of his style. The composition is that com* 
men to the quattrpcentisti, particularly the Venetians, and 
which he probably introduced into Bologna, a style which con- 
tinued to the time of Francia and his school, for the most part 
unvaried, except in the addition of some cherub to the steps 
of the1;hrone, sometimes with a harp, and sometimes without. 
It is not a free and graceful style, like that of Mantegna, but 
rather coarse, particularly in the drawing of the feet ; yet leas 
rectilinear in the folds, and bolder, and more harmonious, per- 
haps, in the selection of the colours. The fieshes are as much 
studied as in Signorelli, and in others of the same age ; while 
the figures and the accessories are conducted with the moot 
JSnished care. Marco was, likewise, a fine decorator of fa9ade8, 
iu which kind of painting he was assisted by his companion 
and imitator, Jacopo Forti, to whose hand is ascribed a 
Madonna, painted on the wall, at the church of S. Tommaso, 
in Mercato. In the Malvezzi collection there is also attributed 
to Jacopo a Deposition of the Saviour from the Cross; a 



FRANCESCO FIUKCIA. l7 

work which does not keep pace with the progresaire improve- 
ments of that age. The same remark will applj to a great 
number of others, produced about the same period, in the same 
city, which, towards the close of the century, displayed a 
striking deficiency in good artists. It was owing to this oir- 
cnmstance that 6io. Bentivoglio, then master of Bo>logna^ 
wishing to ornament his palace, which, had fortune feiToured 
him, would one day have become that of all Romagna, invited 
a numlber of artists from Ferrara and Modena, who introduced 
a better taste into Bologna, besides affording an occasion for 
the grand genius of Francia to develop itself likewise in the 
art of painting, as we shall proceed to shew. 

This artist, whose real name was Francesco Raibolini, was, 
according to Malvasia, ^^ esteemed and celebrated as the first 
man of that age ;" and he might have added, '' in Bologna," 
where many so considered him ; being there, as is attested by 
Vasari, ^^ held in the estimation of a god." The truth is, that he 
had a consummate genius for working in gold ; on which account 
the medals and coins taken with his moulds rivalled those of 
CaradoBso, the Milanese ; and he was also an excellent 
painter, in that style which is termed modem antique, ajs may 
be gathered from a great number of coUections, where his 
Madonnas rank at the side of those of Pietro Perugino and 
Gian Bellini. Baffaello, too, compares him with them, and 
even greater artists, in a letter dated 1508, edited by Malvasia, 
in which he praises his Madonnas, ^^ never having beheld any 
more beautiful, more devotional in their expression, and more 
finely composed by any artist." His manner is nearly between 
that of these two heads of their schools, and participates in the 
exoellence of both ; it boasts Perugino's choiceness and tone of 
colours ; while, in the fulness of its outlines, in the skill of 
the folding, and ample flow of thq draperies, it bears greater 
resemblance to Bellini. His heads, however, do not equal the 
grace and sweetness of the former ; though he is more digni- 
fied and varied than the latter. In the acicessories of his 
landscapes he rivals both ; but in landscape itself, and in the 
splendour of his architecture, he is inferior to them. In the 
compo&dtion of his pictures he is less fond of placing the divine 
inBmt in the bosom of the Virgin than upon a distinct ground, 
in the ancient manner of his school ; and he sometimes addd 

VOL. III. c 



IB BOLOfiNEgE. SCHOOL. — SPOCH I. 

to tk^a some kalf-%ines of raiBts, as was CBstoinaij wi&tiie 
Tenetiaos of that peziod.. On the whole, howeyer^ he 
i^p|H!oaehes neazer to the Bomoa school ; and, notimfr^qnentlj, 
as is notioed by Malrasia, his Madonnas have been ascribed 
bj less expert jndges to Pietro Peragino. He likewise |«o- 
•dttced works in fresco at Bologna, commended by Yasari - 
and both there and elsewhere are many of his akar-pieoes yet 
remaining, dL^kying figores of larger dimensiims than those 
nsnally painted by Bdlini and Petngkio ; the peculiar merit 
of the Bolognese school, and hj degrees extended to others, 
ai^paaenting at onee the grandeur of paintiiig and. of the temples 
it adorned. 

But the chief praise due to him yet semains to be recorded, 
and this is, that he did not begin to ezerdse his pencil until 
he had arrived at manhood, and, in the eourse of a few years, 
displayed the rare example of becoming a scholar and a 
mastw, able to •compete with the best artists of fenaraand 
Medina. These, as we have mentioned, wew invited by 
Gio. BendT^glio, in order to decocate his palace. There, too, 
Francia was em^oyed ; and he was afberwards^oimnisBioned 
to paint the altar-piece <rf the Bentivogli chapel, in 1490, 
'wbere he signed Mmself ^Fiancisons f^raneia Anxi&x," as 
much aa to Imply that he belonged to the goldsaiith's art, not 
to that of painting. Nei^Brth^Ms, that work is a beautiful 
specisMU, dts^yingtfae most finiehed delicai^of art in evBxy 
individual figove sad emaaient, e^edniily in the azabesque 
pilasters, in the Xantegna maomer. In process of time he 
enlarged his sfyle ; a cireumstanoe that induoed historians to 
make a distuidson betweoi his first and sec<Hid. mann^. 
OavaEsoai, who wvote veapecting the Madonms of Bologna, 
wishes to persuade us that Baffaello himself had availed him- 
self of Fiaacia's models, in order to dilate that diy manneir 
whidi he imbibed from Peragino. We tAutll award this glory 
to the genius of Eaffi^llo, whose youthful pedbrmances at 
San Sev€sro <^ Ferula, display a greater degree of softness 
than those of his master and of fVancia ; and after hlsgeniusi, 
to the examples of F. Bartolommeo d^la Porta, and of 
Michelangelo; leaving, we fear, no room, to include the name 
of Francia. When Rafiaello, at R(»ae» was regarded xatber 
in the light of an angel than a man, and had alr^y exeented 



fioxne wcHrks at Bdogna, lie began a oonfespoadenoe with 
Fraoda^ loged to it bj Ins letters ; RsffiaeUo became bia friend , 
and, on sending to Bologi» bis picture of S. Geeilia, be en- 
treated bim, on diaoorering any error in it, to correct it ; an 
BurtsBce of modesfy in our ApeBes, more to be admired eren 
Hian bis |MUBting8. This eccnrred in 1518, in which year 
Yaeari ^dcsee Im LMe of Fraacia, who he dedaree died with 
excess of paflsion, on first beholding that grand perframance. 
Mahrasia, howerer, refutes bim, by proving Franoia to ^' bare 
Hyed many years afterwards, and when aged and declining, 
«Ten to have changed his manner ;" and in what way, except 
iqjMm ihe models 'Of Raffi^ello ? In his new manner he painted 
and exhibited, in a chamber of the Mint, his celebrated piece 
of SL SelNMtiaa, whidi, according to a tradition handed from 
the Garacci 4o Aibano, and from tite latter to MalTaaa, 
s^red as a stiKlio for the Bolognese papiLi, who copied its 
proportiona with as mndi aeal as the ancients wonld hare 
done these ci a statue of Polydetes, or the modems of the 
Apollo, or of the ^opposed Antinoas of Behideie. Albani has 
added that Fcancm, on peromring the conoonrse of people 
increase romid his {nctnre, and diminish round the ;8t. OeeiUa 
of Ra&ello, ihen dead, apprebensive lest ihey xhoidd suspect 
him of haying executed and ^xlnbited his own m competition 
with soeh an artist, instantly removed and placed it In the 
«hiireh of the Miserioordia, where, at this time, tl^re remains 
a copy of it 31ie precise year of his decease, hitherto 
unknown, has been communicated to me by the Sig. CW. 
Batti, who fonad on an ancient drawing of a female saint, 
now in possession of Sig« HcmmsBo Bematdi, a noble of Lncca^ 
a memorandam of this «vent baring occurred on the serenib 
day of April, 15S8. 

Francia, in addition to his cousin Ginlio, who devoted him- 
self but little to painting, gave instracti<»]s in the art to his 
<fwn son of the name of Giacomo. It is often donbtfal, as we 
find in the galkay of the princes Ginstiniani, whether sach a 
Madonna is by the hand of Fraacesco Franda, or by that of 
his son, who, in similar pictures imitated closely his Aether's 
style, alihoagh, in MalVasia's judgment, be never equalled it. 
In woi^s on a lar^r scale, toe, be is sometimes to be pvs- 
soimced inferior, in comparison with his father, as in S« Yalaite, 

c2 



20 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH I. 

at Bologna, where Francesco painted the cherubs round a 
Madonna, in his first manner, somewhat meagre, perhaps, but 
still beautiful and full of animated movements, while Giacomo 
drew the figures, representing a Nativity of our Lord, more 
soft in point of design, but with features less beantiful, and in 
attitudes and expressions bordering on extravagance. At 
other times, the son seems to have surpassed the father, as at 
S. Giovanni, of Parma, where there is no artist who would not 
wish to have produced that fine picture by Giacomo, marked 
with the yc;ar 1519, rather than the Deposition from the Cross, 
by Francesco. Elsewhere too, as in the picture of S. Giorgio, 
at the church of San Francesco in Bologna, he rivals, perhaps, 
the finest works of his father ; insomuch that this specimen 
was ascribed to the latter, until there was recently noticed 
the signature I. (meaning Jacobus) Franda^ 1526. He 
appears, from the first, to have practised a design approach- 
ing that of the modems ; neither have I observed in his paint- 
ings such splendid gildings, nor such meagre arms, as for 
some time distinguished the elder Francia. He rather,- in 
progress of time, continued to acquire a more free and easy 
manner, insomuch that a few of his Madonnas were more than 
once copied and engraved by Agostino CaraocL His heads 
were extremely animated, though generally less select, less 
studied, and less beautiful, than his father's. He had a son, 
named Giambatista, by whom there remains, at S. Rocco, an 
altar-piece, and a few other specimens, displaying mere me- 
diocrity. 

Among the foreign pupils of Francia, the Bolognese enume- 
rated Lorenzo Costa, and, indeed, he thus ranks himself, by 
inscribing under the portrait of Gio. Bentivoglio, X. Costa 
Frandae discipulus. True it is, that such inscriptions, as I 
have frequently found, might come from another hand ; or 
that, granting he wrote it, he may have done so more out of 
regard to such a man, thsui for the sake of acquainting the 
world, as Malvasia contends, that he had been his sole master. 
Yasari is of a different opinion, introducing him to us at 
Bologna as an established artist, aJready employed in several 
considerable cities, and bestowing the highest eulogium on 
his earliest production, the S. Sebastiano at the church of S. 
Petronio^ declaring it the best specimen in wjater-colouis 



LORENZO COSTA. 21 

that had, till then, been seen in the city. Add to this, that 
Francia exhibited his first altar-piece in the Bentivogli chapel 
in 1 490, a few years after he had devoted himself to the art ; 
and there Costa placed the two lateral pictures, tolerably ex- 
cellent in point of composition, and filled with those very 
spirited portraits of his in 1488. . Now had he boasted only 
Francia for his master, of what rapid improvement mnst we 
suppose him to have been capable ! Besides, wonld not his 
style almost invariably resemble that of Francia, at least in the 
works he produced at Bologna ? Yet the contrary is the case ; 
and from his less free, and sometimes ill-drawn figures ; from 
the coarser expression of his countenances, his more hard and 
dull colouring, and his abundance of architecture, with the 
taste shewn in his perspective, it is evident he must have 
studied elsewhere. Still I believe that he received the rudi- 
ments of his education in his own country ; that then passing 
into Tuscany, he formed himself, not by the voice^ but, as Vasari 
avers, upon the pictures of Lippi and Gozzoli ; and that finally 
seeking Bologna, he painted for the Bentivogli, and resided 
aIso with Francia rather in quality of an assistant than a 
pupil. A farther proof I gather from Malvasia himself; that 
in the journals of Francesco, in which he read the names of 
two hundred and twenty pupils, he found no mention of Costa. 
In the rest, however, I concur.; as to his having availed him- 
self of the works of Francia, in imitation of whom a number 
of Madonnas are seen in the collections at Bologna, much in- 
ferior to the paintings of the supposed master ; but occasionally 
not unworthy of being compareid with them. Such is an altar- 
piece, divided into several compartments, removed from 
Faenza into the Casa Ercolani ; a production characterized by 
Crespi, in his annotations to Baruffaldi, as being executed 
^^ with a fervour, a refinement, softness, and a warmth which 
may be pronounced altogether Bafiaellesque." He particularly 
«hone in his countenances of men, as may be seen from those 
of the apostles at S. Petronio, and from his San Girolamo, 
which there offers the finest specimen of his art. He was less 
employed in his own country than in Bologna, though he gave 
sevenSl pupils to the former ; among others the celebrated 
Dosso and Ercole of Ferrara. He mostly resided at Mantua, 
at which court he was highly appreciated, although MaHtegna 



22 BOLOOMBBOB aCHOOUo— BPOCH I. 

had bem his inunediate piadeoessor, and Gialio Romano 8nc- 
oeededfajm. I may rrfer to what I them wrote leepectingr 
ibiB artist. ' 

A ksi doubtful pnpil of Francia's vnm C^rolamo Mareliesi 
da Coti|^la, Hbs portraits ore maok praised by Yasari, but 
bis compoaitaoBS nmeh less so. He was by no means ba/ppy in 
all ; and in pacticnlar one which he prodnoed at Rimini is 
seyeiely eritieised by the Ustorian. There are yarious altar- 
pieees by him at B(dogna and elsewhere^ all <^ the nsnal com- 
position of tlie qQatfa^centisti, which goes to redeem Mb fault. 
One of these, exhibiting rery beantifdl perspectiye, is in pos^ 
session ei the Serviti at Pesaro, where the Yir;^ is seen on 
a. throne, be£oie which, in a kneeling posture, is the M arehesa 
Ginevra Sfona, with her son Constantmus II. ; nor is this the 
only specimen of his works conducted in the seryice of royal 
houses. The design is rather dry, but the colour teir pleas- 
ing ; the heads grand, the draperies well disposed ; and m short, 
were it the only prodnetion'of his hand, he would well deserve 
to rank among the most illustrious painters in ike old style. 
That he obtained no reputation at Rome^ or Naj^es, as Yasari 
obserree^ was owing to his airiyii^ in those cities too late, 
namely^ in the pontificate of Paul III. ; so that his slyle being 
then regarded merely in 1^ light of an arMde out of fashion, 
he was usable to make his way. He died during the same 
pontificate, between the intervid of 1594 and 1549. Orlandi, 
who kings in the decease of Ootignohi as early as 1518, is 
not only refuted by the above dates marked hj Yasari, and, 
with slight difference, by Bamffiddi^ but moreorer by a pic- 
ture of S. Girolamo at the church of the Conventual friars of 
Sw Marino^ eoEecuted in 1520. 

Amioo Aqpertini is enrolled by Malvasia (pp. 58^ 59) in the 
school of Francia, a &ct that Yasari did not choose to notice, 
being whdly bent on amusing posterity with a portraSb of the 
person and manners of ^ Mastro Antico," who was indeed a 
compound of pleasantry, ecoenhicity, and madnes. He had 
adopted a maxim in painting, which in regard to fiterature 
was commonly received in that age ; to wit, that every indi^ 
vidual ought to impress upon his works the image of nis own 
genius ; and, Uke Erasmus, who exposed to ridicule Cicero's 
imitators in writing, this artist was fond of deriding those of 



AMI€0 JkSFBBTIMI. IS 

TtaffitfllTo in ponitki^ It wwb his leading prindple to take the 
toor of Italy, to copy hexe aod there, without discriiiuiiatioiiy 
whatever most pleased him, and aUterwairda to form a style of 
his owsy ^ like an experienced inyentor/' to preserre an ex-> 
}»ie8sion of Yasari. Gondnctod on this plan is a Pietk by him, 
in the chsroh of 8. Petronie, whieh may be eompased with the 
treoentisti in point of forms, the attitodes, and the gronping 
of the fignres. We may add, howerer, with GnerciBO) that 
this ardst seemed to haadle two pencils ; with one of which 
he painted for low prices, or out of despite, or for rerenge ; 
and thi» he made use of in S. Petronio and several other pieees ; 
the other he practised only on behalf of those who remune- 
rated him hononrably for his kboors, and wew eantions how 
th^ ]»6voked him ; and with this he displayed his art in 
Tarions &9ades o£ palaces, commended by Yasari himself; in 
the church of S. Martino ; and in many other works dted 
by Malvaaia,. who describes him aa a good imitator of Gior^ 
gione. 

He had an eUeir brother of the name of Gnido, a yenth who 
employed unfroniroon diligence and eate, earned pezhaps to 
excess, in his art. He died at the age of thirly-fiye, aad was 
lamented by hi» more po^cal foUow-citiagens in elegiac strains. 
Malvasia ia of opinion, that, had he sorvired, he would have' 
equalled the fime of BagnacayaUo ; such was the promise' 
hidd forth by a painting cf the Crocifixien under the pertieo 
of S. Pietro, and by his other works. Aecoainig to tiie same 
biographer, it was Yasari's malioe which led Um to assign 
Er«>le of Eerxara for Guide's master, being jealous of aflbcd- 
ing M. Amico the-feune of fonimig such a pnpiL I heL per- 
suaded, with Yasari, no less from the a^ al Guido iliaa feom 
his taste, aad fjNxm the date of 1491, which he inseribed on 
thishighly-oommended pictnre, thatasanzadlyit cannot belong 
to the pupil of a pupil formed by Francia. Similar critical 
errors we have already noticed in Baldinncei ; and they arst 
not rery earily to be avoided where a party spirit is apt to 
prevail. 

Gio. Maria Chiodarolo, a rival of the preceding, and subse* 
quentiy of Innoeenio da Imola, in the palace of Yiola, left 
beluna him a name above the generality of this schooL Mai*- 
tasia mentions twenty-four other schokns of Francesco Fianeia^ 



24 B0L06NE8E SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH I. 

in wliicb lie was followed by Orlandi, when treating of Lorenzo 
Gandolfi. By aome mistake these pupils are referred by him 
to Ck^sta ; while Bottari, misled by Orlandi, fell into the same 
error, although he laments ^^ that men, in order to spare trou- 
ble, are apt to follow one another like sheep or cranes." Yet 
in very extensive and laborious works it is diffionlt sometimes 
not to nod; nor should I occasionally note down others' inequal- 
ities, except in the hope of finding readers considerate enough 
to extend the same liberality towards mine. The foremen- 
tioned names will prove of much utility to those who, in 
Milan, in Pavia, in Parma, and other places in Italy, may 
turn their attention to works in the ancient Bolognese style, 
and may hear them attributed, as it ofiten happens, to Francia, 
instead of the pupils formed by him to practise in those dis- 
tricts, and invariably tenacious of his manner. He had also 
others, who from their intercourse with more - modem artists, 
claim place in a better epoch; and for such we shall reserve 
them. 

We must previously however take a survey of some cities 
of Romagna, and select what seems to b^ong to our present 
argument. We shall commence with Ravenna, a city that 
preserved design during periods of barbarism better than any 
other in Italy. . Nor do we elsewhere meet with works in 
mosaic so well composed,* and in ivory, or in marble, cut in so 
able a manner; all vestiges of a power and grandeur worthy 
of exciting the jealousy of Rome, when the seat of her princes 
and exar^ was removed to Ravenna. This city too having 
fallen from its splendour, and after many vicissitudes being 
governed by the Polentani, was no less indebted to them for 
an illustrious poet in the person of Dante, than a great painter 
in Giotto.^ This artist painted in the church called Porto di 
Fuori, several histories from the Evangelists, which still remain 

* It is remarkable that, a century previous to the arrival of Giotto, we 
find in Ravenna one Johannes Pictor; a fact supplied by the learned 
Count Fantuzziy to whom both Ravenna and the public owe so much 
valuable information. See his ** Monumenti Ravennati, during the mid- 
dle ages, for the most part inedited," vol. i. p. 347. In vol. ii. p. 210, 
there is mention of a parchment of 1246, in which one Graziadeo, a notary, 
orders that in the Portuense church there be made ** imagines magnse et 
spatiose ad aurum,*' which means mosaic, or painting upon a gold ground,, 
a custom so mudi practised in those times. 



• NlCOOIiO BORDIICELLO. 25 

there ; ftod at S. Franoesco and other plaices in the eitj, we may 
tsace reliqnea of his pencil, or at least of his style. The Pu- 
lentani being expelled, and the state brought under the subjeo* 
tion of Venice, from this. last capital the city of Ravenna 
derived the founder of a new school. 

This was Niccolo Rondinello, mentioned by Yasari as one 
*' who, above all others, imitated Gian Bellini, his master, to 
whom he did credit, and assisted him in all his works." In 
the Life of Bellini, and in that of Palma, Yasari gives a list 
of his best pidntings, exhibited in Ravenna. In these his 
progress is very peroeptiUe. He displays most of the antique 
in his picture of S. Giovanni, placed in that church, for which 
he also executed one of the Yirgin, upon a gold ground. His 
taste is more modem in the laiger altar-piece of San Domenico ; 
whose eonqK>jsition rises above the monotony of the age, giving 
a representation of saints in great variety of attitudes and 
situations. The design is exact, though always inclining to 
diyness, the countenances less select, and the colouring less 
vivid than those of his master; with equal care in his 
dn^ries, richly ornamented with embroidery in the taste of 
those times. It is, however, uncertain whether he had 
obtained any idea of the last and most perfect style of Bellini. 

He had a pupil and successor in his labours at Ravenna in 
Francesco da Cotignola, whom Bonoli, in. his History of Lugo, 
and that of Cotignola, as well as the describer of the Parmese 
paintings, agree in snnuuiung Maidiea, while in the Gnide 
to Ravenna . he . is denommated Zaganelli. Yasan commends 
him, as a very pleasing colourist ; although inferior to Ron- 
dinello in point of. design, and still more of composition. In 
this he was not happy, if -we except his cel^rated Resurrec- 
tion of Lazarus, which is to be seen at Oasse ; his extremely 
beautiful Baptism of Jesus Christ, at Faenza, and a few other 
histories, where he checks his ardour, and more carefully 
disposes his figures, for the most part fine and well draped ; 
occasionally whimsical,. and in proportions less than life. One 
of his most extraordinary productions is a large altar-piece at 
the church of the Osservtuiti, in Parma, where he represented 
the Yirgin between several saints, enlivened by several por- 
traits in the back-ground. He never, in my opinion, produced 



tt BOLOGHfBSE 8GHOOL.—- ]£PO0H I. 

any woA mxae solid in conoeptloiiy bof mate faan&aiiiottdj 
disposed, nor more ingemoofi in tke ooliOiinade, and the other 
aooeas^7 parts. Here he pneeerved tfaa nost moderate tmts, 
contrary to his naaal practioe, whack was glowing and highly 
animated, and distributed more in tibe manner' of Mantegna^ 
than of any other ma«ter. He had a bvether named Bernar- 
dino, with whom, in 1504, he paintiri a Tery oelelwated altar- 
piece, rejmaeniing the Yirgin between S. Franoesco and the 
Baptist, plaeed in the interior chapel of die Fadri Osserranti, 
in RaTonna ; and imether to be seen at Imoia, in the church 
of the Bifonnati, with the date 1509. Bernardino, likewise, 
displayed tolexaJble ability akne^ and among the paintings at 
Pavia, there- is one at the Oannine, insoribed with his name ; 
a fiEict that may oonect an error of Grespi, who names the 
elder brother Francesco Boxsuuidine^ making the two into one 
artist. 

Contemporary with Um, Baldassare Cffioari was employed 
at Bayenna along wi^ his son Matteo, botk nadTes of that 
state. Th^ painted for Sam Domenieo the celebrated altar- 
piece of S. Bartokmmeo, wiiJx tke grado, containing rery 
elegant histories of the Holy Apostle. Such is its merit, as 
hardly to yield to the gcao^idDseav of Lnoa Longki, wko jdaeed 
one of Ms own pictures near it. It was one of the earliest 
which was pamted in oil in BaTenna ; and it deseirved the 
eulogium bestowed by Pope Julius IL, who on beholding it, 
in 1511, deelared isiaa^ the altaxs of Borne could boast no 
pieces whick surpassed it in point of beauty. The paints 
there left his portrait in die figure of S. Pietro, and that of 
BondindUio in the & Bartolommeo, somewhat older; an 
obserranee shewn in those times by the pn|nls towards their 
masters. Yet I should not here pronomiee it such, as Tasari 
is not whoUy ollent as to his school, but omits eren his name. 
At Bimini, where the Malatesti spared no expense to attract 
Hie best mftsters, the art of painting flourished. It was at 
this time that the churek of San Francesco, one of tho 
wonders of the age, was nobly erected, and as richly decorated. 
A nmnber of artists at Bimini had succeeded Giotto in his 
school ; and it is to them the author of the Guide ascribes the 
histories of the B. Miohelina, which Yasari conceiTed were 



27 

from GiAito's own IiaiuL* At a later period one Bitino, 
whose name I am ha/ppy to rescue from obliyion, was employed 
at the same place; aa artist not perbaps exedled in Italj, 
about the year l^OT, when he painted an altar-piece of the 
titnlar saint, for the church of S. Ginliana Arennd it he 
represented the discoyery of his body, and other firsts relating 
to the subject ; extremely pleaung in point of inyention, archi- 
tecture, countenances! diaperiea, and oolonring.f Another 
noble production is a S. Si^smondo, at whose 6et appears 
Sigismondo Malatesta, with the inscription, ^Franciscus de 
Burgo, f. 1446;" and by the same hand there is the Scourg- 
ing of our Sayiour. Both these paintings aape seen on the 
win of S. Franoesco; abounding in perspeetiyes and ca- 
prieci, with character approaching so nearly to the taate ai 
Pietro della Franoesca, l^en liying, as to induce me to bdieye^ 
that they are either by him, and that he has thus Latinized 
the name of his house, at by Bome one of his pupils, whose* 
name has periled. Not such has been the £ifte of Benedetto 
Coda, of Ferrara, who flourished at Bimini, as w^ as his son 
Bartolommeo, where they left a number of their works. 
Yasari, in his Life of Gio. Bellini, makes brief mention of 
them, describing Benedetto as Bellini's pupil, ^^ though he 
deriyed small adyanta^ from it." Yet the altar-piece repre*- 
senting the Marriage of the Virgin, which he i^aoed in the 
cathedral, with the inscription oi ^* Opus Benedicti,'^ ia a yery 
respectable production ; while that of the Boaaxy, in posses- 
sion of the Dominicans, is eyen in better taste, though not yet 
modem. This, faoweyer, cannot be said of the son, one dT 
whose pictures I saw at S. Boeeo da Pesaro, painted in 1529, 
with such exoellent method, as almost to remind us of the 
golden age. It represents the titular saint of the church along 
with S. Sebastiano^ standing round the throne of the Virgin, 
with the addition of playful and beautiful cherubs. Another 
pupil of Gio. Bellini is noticed by Bidolfi. Lattanzio da 

* To tbis period belonged that Joannes Rimerid Pictor Arimini, who 
is pointed out to ua in 1386, hy Count Marco Vaotiusiy in hia ** Mona- 
menti lUvennatif'' voL yL edited in the year 1804. 

f In the aboTe-named yokime (vi.) we find laentlon of the son of thi& 
distinguished man: ''Magister ^iitoniiu Pictor quondam Mag. Bictina 
Pictoria de Aximinoy lAb6." 



28 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL.-— EPOCH I. 

Rimino, or Lattansio della Marca, referred by others to the 
school of Pietro Perugino, which, perhaps too, produced Gio. 
da Rimino, one of whose pictnres, bearing his signature, 
belongs to the grand Ercolani collection at Bologna.* 

Forli, as £Bur as I can learn, boasts no artist earlier than 
Guglielmo da Forli, a pupil of Giotto. His paintings in 
fresco, conducted at the Francescani, no longer surrive, nor in 
the church of that order could I meet with any specimen of 
the thirteenth century, besides a Crucifix by some unknown 
hand. From that period, perhaps, a succession of artists 
appeared, there being no scarcity of anonymous paintings from 
which to conjecture such a fact ; but history is silent until the 
time of Anso^no di Forli, who has alr^dy been included 
among the pupils of Squarcione. I have my doubts whether 
this artist could be the master of Melozzo, a name venerated 
by artists, inasmuch as he was the first who applied the art of 
foreshortening, the most difficult and the most severe, to the 
painting of vaulted ceilings. Considerable progress was made 
in perspective after the time of Paolo Uccello, with the aid 
of Piero della Francesca, a celebrated geometrician, and of a 
few Lombards. But the ornamenting of ceilings with that 
pleasing art and illusion, which afterwards appeared, was 
reserved for Melozzo. It is observed by Scannelli, and 
fallowed by Orlandi, that in order to acquire the art he studied 
the works of the best ancient artists, and though born to 
fortune, he did not refuse to lodge with the masters of bis 
times, in quality of attendant and compounder of their 
colours. Some writers give him as a pupil to Pietro della 
Francesca. It is at least probable, that Melozzo was ac- 
quainted with him and with Agostino Bramantino, when they 
were employed at Rome by Nicholas Y., towards the year 
1455. However this may be, Melozzo painted on the ceiling 
of the great chapel, at Santi Apostoli, the Ascension of our 
Lord, where, says Vasari, " the figure of Christ is so admirably 
foreshortened as to appear to pierce the vault; and in the 

* I made a mistake in my former edition in supposing bim to have 
been a pupil of BeUino, who died in 1516. Concerning this Oio., who 
snbscriMd himself likewise Gio. Francesco, we observe that Oretti, in his 
** Memorie, MSS." points out two pictures with the iBtn of 1459 and 
1461 . He adds, that there are accounts of his having been living in 1470. 



MELOZZO. 29 

same manner the angels aie seen sweeping through the field of 
air in two opposite directions." This painting was executed 
for Card. Biario, nephew to Pope Siztus lY., about the year 
1472 ; and when that edifice required to undeigo repairs, it 
was removed and placed in the Quirinal palace in 1711 ; where 
it is still seen, bearing this inscription : ^' Opus Melotii Foro- 
liviensis, qui summos fomices pingendi artem yel primus in- 
Tenit vel illustravit/' Several heads of the apostles which 
surrounded it, and were likewise cut away, were deposited in 
the Vatican palace. Taken as a whole, he approaches Man- 
tegna and the Paduan school nearer tluin any othei: in point 
of taste ; finely-formed heads, fine colouring, fine attitudes, 
and almost all as finely foreshortened. The light is well dis- 
posed and graduated, the shadows are judicious, so that the 
figures seem to stand out and act in that, apparent space ; 
dignity and grandeur in the principal figure, and white 
drapery that encircles it; with delicacy of hand, diligence 
and grace in every part What pity that so rare a genius, 
pronounced by his contemporaries ^ an incomparable painter, 
and the splendour of all Italy,"* should not have had a cor- 
rect historian to have described his travels and his pursuits, 
which must have been both arduous and interesting, before 
they raised him to the eminence he attained, in being commis- 
sioned by Card. Biario to execute so great a work. At Forli, 
there is still pointed out the fii9ade of an apothecary's shop, 
displaying arabesques in the first style ; and over the entrance 
appears a half-length figure, well depicted, in the act of mix- 
ing drugs, said to have been the work of Melozzo. Yasari 
states, that in the villa of the dukes of XJrbino, named the 
Imperial, Francesco di Mirozzo, from Forli, bad been em- 
ployed a long while previous to Dosso ; and it would appear 
that we are here to substitute the name of Melozzo, to correct 
one of those errors which we have so frequently before 
remarked in Yasari. In the lives of the Ferrarese painters 
there is named a Marco Ambrogio, detto Melozzo di Ferraro, 
who seems to be confounded with the inventor of foreshorten- 
ing ; but it is my opinion that this was quite a different artist, 
of which his name itself gives us reason to judge. Melozzo di 

* Morelliy Notizie, p. 109. 



so BOLOGNESB fiCBOOIto — ^EPOCH I. 

Forli was atiU alire in 1494 : siaoe F. Laea PMcioli, paUkb- 
rskg tiie same year his ^ Samma d' AziteLetioa e €kiem6tri%" 
ranks him amoDg painters in pexspeetive, ^^ men faiMm and 
supreme,*' who Jourished in those da3ra. 

Towards the begimxing of the sixteeni^ century, or shortly 
afterwards, Bortolommeo di Forli flonrkihed in the same city, 
a papil of Franeia, noticed hy Matrasia, whose style was more 
dry than tfa«t of the generauty of his fellirw*<papils. Next to 
him I pkee Pahnegiam, transformed by Yasari into Parme- 
giano ; a good, yet almost unknown artist, of whom, in books 
upcm the art, I have found mention only of two woi^ althou^ 
I have myseif seen a great number, fie wa» cautious too tlmt 
posterity should not forget him, for the most part inscribing 
his name and country upon his altar-pieces, and upon pictures 
for private ^msment^ as foUowjB : MaretuPiator ForolivienHB: 
or McMTCUB Paknasantu P. Parolimenns pimMbaU He seldom 
bAAa the year, as in two in possession of Pnnee Eicohni, on the 
fmat of which we find the date of 1518, and <m the seowid that 
of 1 537. In the forementioned pktmaei, -and mcnse particulaily 
in those of Fcvli, wemay percervB that he piactised mote than 
one style. His earliest was in eomnon wiih that ^ the quat- 
trdcentisti, in the extremely nmple position of the figures, in 
theg^ ornaments, in study of eadi minute part^ as well as in 
the anatomy, which in those times consisted alaiest wholly in 
drawing with some skill a S. ^Sebastian, or some holy anchiv- 
rite. In his second manner he was noM arttfi^ in his 
grouping, fixUer inhis outlines, and greater in his prepofftions ; 
though at times more free and less nuded in his heads. He 
was aocostomed to add to his principal subject some other 
unconnected with it, as in his picture of the -Cmcifixionf at 
S. Agoetino diForii,whi0re be inserted two or three groups on 
dilfeient gnmnds ; in one of which is seen 8. Paul visited by 
S. Ant(ftiy ; in another, 8. Augustine convinoed by the angel 
on the subject of the incompxehensibility of the SufHreme 
Triad ; and in these c&nmutive figures, which he inserted 
ei^r in the altar-pieces or on the steps, he displa^fs an art 
extremely v^Kned and pleasing. His landscape is likewisid 
•ttiimated^ and his aichitecture beautifiil, while his Madonnas 
and other portraits are superior in point of beauty to those of 
Oost% but not equal to Fianci% whose style of colouring he 



less resembles than tihat of !BoiDdiBe]ib ; a cirBOBwiaiice which 
led Yasari to attribute to the artist of BaTenna an aItav-]Meoe 
in the eai^iedral, undoabtedly fxam th* hand of Paimegiani. 
The works of the latter sm \ery maoeitmB in Bomag^na ; and 
exist in the state of Yesiee. Ono of his Madonnas was in 
poBsesaon of the Ah. Faeeiolaiti, in Padna, and mentioned bj 
Bottari ; and another bdongs to the 8ig. Dsitore Antonio 
Larber, at Baasano. The select gallery of Count lodgi Tadini^ 
at Crema, possesses a tfaiid ; tfa^ going up ei. Jesns to Mount 
OalTEiy ; and I saw a Dead Chiwt between Nioodemns and 
Joseph, in the Yieentini palace at Yicenza ; a yery beautifal 
picture, in winch the dead has truly the appearance of death, 
and those liying of real life. I had long entertained a curiosity 
to learn whose pupil so considerable an artist could have been ; 
until I was gratified by finding diat Paodoli, in his dedication 
of the aboye-cited yolume, addressed to Guidubaldo, duke oi 
TJrbino, calls him the " attached disciple of Melozzo." 

I was made acquainted with an artist of Foorli, who flou- 
rished at the period of Paimegiani, by his Eminence Card. 
Borgia, who in the church of S. Maria dell' Orto, at Yelletri, 
transcribed the foUowing inscription : ^^ Jo. Baptistade Bositis 
de Forfiyio pinxit, I.B.0.0. de Memse Martii." The picture 
is on panel, and displays both good design and good eolonring. 
It represents the Yirgin, with the holy child in her arms, 
seated in a round temple supported by four columns, and each 
of these columns is clasped by an angel, as if bearing the 
temple in procession through the air. The angels are wholly 
arrayed in heroic dress. For this description I am indebted 
to the very worthy cardinal. 

In respect to the other cities of Bomagna, I can easily sup-^ 
pose that I am rather in want of materials, than that these 
haye had no artists to boast. I haye recorded, not long since, 
one Ottayiano, and also one Pace da Faenza, pupils of Giotto ; 
and there was pointed out to me as the production of the latter, 
an ancient figure of our Lady, in a church of the same city, 
an edifice formerly belonging to the Templars. Giacomo Fi- 
lippo Carradori is included, from his style, among the ancients; 
in other points it is hardly possible that he could haye reached 
the fifteenth century. There are more especially two pictures, 
in which he exhibits a change of style, although he neyer dis- 



Sf BOLOONESE SCH0OL.*->SPO0a L 

pla]^ the powers of a superior artist. One of them bears the 
date of 1580 ; the other that of 1582. 

Another artist of Faeuza better deserved mention in the 
first edition, but I had then no account of him. This wa9 
Giambatista da Faenza, one of whose pictures is preserved in 
the Comunal Collection of the Lyceum, with the author's 
name, and dated 1506. It exhibits the Holy Yir^n ; on 
whose right two angels support the mantle, and on the steps 
of the throne appear St. John the Baptist, a youth, and another 
ehernb, in the act of playing on the harp. It is correct in 
point of design, the tints are very pleasing, and the folds some- 
thing similar to those of Albert Durer; in other respects, 
equal to Costa, and perhaps, also, not inferior to Francia. 
Ue was the father of Jacopone da Faenza, and of his brother, 
Baffaello, from whom descended Gio. Batista Bertuzzi, like- 
wise an artist. 

There is a Francesco Bandinelli da Imola, a pupil of 
Francia, pointed out by Malvasia ; and one Gaspero, also of 
Imola, was employed in painting at Ravenna. In his native 
state, there is to be seen, at the Conventual friars, a picture 
of our Lady, between Saints Rocco and Francis, in a style 
inclining to the modem, accompanied with two portraits, very 
animated in point of expression. 



38 



SCHOOL OF BOLOGNA. 

EPOCH II. 



Vaiiovui styles from the time of Fraada to that of the Caraoci. 

SuBssQiTBNT to the discoveij of the new style, when everjr 
school of Italy was devoted to its cultivation in the track of 
one of its masters, the Bolognese artists, having none at home 
from whom to acquire it, either removed elsewhere to study it 
under the eye of living masters, or, if remaining in their 
native x>lace, they contrived to attain it from such foreigners 
as had there conducted, or at least sent thither their works. 
Of these they possessed, hesides the St Cecilia, and a few 
small paintings by Raffaello, other productions by his pupils, 
such as the St. John, coloured by Giulio, and the St. Zao* 
chary, a work by Garofolo. Nor was it long before the 
Lombufd style was introduced into Bologna ; Parmigianino 
having there produced his St Rocco and his St Margaret, 
pictures which are enumerated among his happiest efforts, and 
Gbohuno da Carpi, and Nicoolo dell' Abate having long 
leaded, and left there many fine specimens of their mixed 
style, between the Lombard and the Roman. Another artist 
sojourning there was Girolamo da Tr^vigi, an imitator of 
Baffaello, not without some mixture of Yenetian taste, some 
of whose productions are still seen at Bologna. A still more 
constant resident there was Tommaso Laureti, a Sicilian, a 
pupil, according to Yasari, of Sebastian del Piombo, and 
assuredly a more powerful colourist than most of his age. 
He there conducted a number of works, and among others the 
painting of a recess seen di sotto in nty for the house of Yizzani, 
which Father Danti, commending Yignola's perspective, pro- 
nounces perfectly unique in its kind. At the same place he 
left compositions abounding in figures, displaying much fancy, 
not however to be placed in competition with the history of 
VOL. ni. J> 



34 BOLOGNESE 6CHOOL.-^EPOCH U. 

Brutus, which he afterwards completed, along with several 
more in the Campidoglio at Rome, where he long resided and 
taught. At Bologna is also the altar-piece of Boldraffio, 
pupil to Yinci, and varioos other pieces bj a Florentine who 
«igns himself lul. Flor, read by some for JulitiSy and by 
others Julianus. Possibly he might be that Giulian Bugiar- 
dini, poor both as inrentor and composer, but excellent in 
point of copying and colouring. Whoever he may have been, 
the whole of his productions, particularly his St. John, which 
^oms the sacristy of St St^he&'s, shew him to have been an 
imitator of Yinci, ahnost on a par with the Luini, and the 
best known Milanese artists. Michelangelo shone there in die 
<^aracter of a statuary in the time of JuHus II., but neitlier 
produced any paintings, nor left behind him, among artists, 
any wish for his return, having for some little indisoteet word 
treated Francia and Costa with the most sovereign contempt^ 
in the same manner as at another period he criticised Pietro 
Pemgino. His style, nevertheless, took root in Bologna within 
« very few years, no less from the studies pursued by Tibaldi at 
Borne, as wOl be seen, than from the examj^es left by Giorgio 
Yasari at San Michele in Bosco, in Bologna, in Midielaageki's 
«tyle. Nor did these examples prove more nseful to the Bolog- 
tiese than they had done to the Florentine artists ; and here also 
they opened the path to a less eorreet style. It is known that 
Yasari's works were much commended there, md eopied by 
young artists ; that he had, moreover, assistants amoi^ the 
iBolognese, sudi as Bagnacavallo, the younger, and Fontana, 
vrho instructed not a few ei his fellow citizens in the art To 
these causes we may attribute the circnmstaoee, lliat those 
Bolognese artists, nearest to the Caraed, were aeenstomed to 
colour, for the most part, like the Fk>rentiae8 of the third 
«poeh, that several were extremely careless of the cfaiaroeBuro, 
4ind firequenily pursued the ideal and the practical^ more than 
nature and truth. Yet these compbints do not apply dither 
to 60 great a number of Bolognese, or to so hag a period, as 
to give a difierent aspect to the wh<^ epoch. The one which 
we are now about to describe, abounds with excellent artists ; 
;and to this shortly succeeded the epoch of the Oamoci, which 
improved the good, and brought many extravagant artists into 
41 coneet method* 



BAfRlACATALXA. 95 

The earlkrt feanders of tke new lehooi iraie Bftrtoloflnmeo 
Ramenghi, called BagnaoRTallo, being Bpnmg from thenee, and 
Innocenzio Fnuienoei da Imola. Bodi ednatod hj Fnuici% 
ihe fonner subsequently ''f^eat to Rome, where we bare grren 
an account of bim among Raila^lo's aanstants ; tbe latter to 
Florence, wbere be attached bimself to tiie sdiool of Albert!-* 
nelli, besides studying veiy aosarately, if I mistake not, the 
works of Frate and Andrea del 8arto. Bodi, on retnmiag to 
Bologna, met with livals, Aongh less with the pencil than the 
tongue, in Aspertini and Cotignnola, artists iHkmb works 
present no instance of a style wholly modem. One master, 
Domenico, a Bolognese, then flourished, equal to compete with 
tbe first names, but who resided out of bis natire pkoe. His 
name, lost during two or more centuries, was brought to Hght^ 
a few years ago^ from the archives of S. Sigtsmondo of Cre- 
mona, in whose church be executed, upon tbe ceiling, a |Mcture 
of Jonah ejected ^m tbe whale, which, in respect of tbe di 
wtto in sUy is most admirable. It was completed in 1537^ 
when this art was yet new in Italy ; and I am at a loss to say 
whether Domenico acquired it fiom Corteggio, or, as is more 
likely, from Melozzo, whose style he most resembles of the 
two. I have seen no other work, nor met with any other 
notice of ^is artist, unknown even to the Bolognese historians, 
perhaps on account of his constant residence out of the ^aee. 
Tbe first artist, therefore, who introduced a new stjde into 
Bologna, and establisfaed it there, was BagnacavaDo, who had 
practised at Rome under RdO&ieUo, and not without advanti^e. 
He bad not the depth of design possessed by Giulio Romano, 
or Perino ; but be nearly approached to the hitter, and was 
perhaps equal to him in taste of colouring, while, in tbe gtace- 
fulness of bis countenances, at least et the infimtine and 
boyii^L, he surpassed him. In his composition he most affected 
Raffaello, as may be gathered from the celebrated Dispute of 
St Auguistine at tbe Scopetini, where the maxims of the 
school of Athens, and of other copious and noble conceptions 
of Sauzio, are apparent. Indeed in those subjects, treated by 
the latter, Bagnacavallp contented himself with being a mere 
copyist, declaring that it was madness to attempt to do better ; 
in which it would seem he followed Yida's opinion, and that 
of other poets of his age, who inserted in their pages fiagmente 

D 2 



36 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH II. 

of Virgil, because tliey despaired of excelling him. Such a 
maxim, whioh, whaterer truth it may contain, opens a wide 
field for indolence and plagiarism, very probably injured him 
in the eyes of Yasari, who confers on him the pnuse due to a 
good practitioner rather than to a master grounded in the 
theory of his art Still he conducted some paintings, on the 
strength of his own invention, at S. Michele in Bosco, at 
S. Martino, and at S. Maria Maggiore, which absolve him 
from such an accusation ; nor can I believe that the Caraoci, 
Albauo, and Guide, would have copied from him and imitated 
his works, had they not recognized in them the hand of a 
master. 

There was a son of Bagnacavallo, named Gio. Batista, who 
was employed as an assistant to Vasari in the palace of the 
chancery at Home, and to Primaticcio in the court of France. 
He likewise left various original works in Bologna, more, 
nearly inclining, if I judge rightly, to the decline of the art in 
his own time, tiian to the examples of his father. In addition 
to his son, mention ought here to be made of Bagnacavallo's 
companion, called BiagioPupini, and sometimes Maestro Biagio 
dalle Lamme, who, having been at Rome with Ramenghi^ 
contracted with him at Bologna a community of labours and 
of interests, and assisted him in the Dispute just before men- 
tioned, as well as in other works. He formed the same con- 
nection with Girolamo da Trevigi and others, uniformly 
acquiring, if we are to credit Yasari, more money than reputair* 
tion, and at times injuring that of his companion by his eager-* 
ness to finish. Whatever opinion we may entertain regarding' 
such fiicts, this artist by no means merits contempt ; and 
perhaps Yasari might have treated him with more lenity, had 
there not existed between them mutual rivalship and disgust. 
In Pupini's style, where he exerted his powers, we trace the 
manner of Francesco Franda, his master, though a good deal 
enlarged, with the relief, and the various other cliaracteristica 
of. Che good age. Of this taste is a Nativity of our Lord 
which he painted at Bologna, and which now adorns tha 
institution of that place. 

Innocenzio, bom at Imola, but residing always in Bologna, 
was admitted into the school of Francia in 1506 ; from which 
we are not to infer, with Malvasia, that he did not spend some 



OIULIO ROMANO. B7 

years at Florence in company with Albertindli. Tbis is 
attested by Yasari, and confirmed by the resemfolanoe of his 
style to that of the most distinguished Florentines of the age. 
He produced several altar-pieces, composed in the taste of tiie 
fourteenth century ; but following the example of Frate and 
of Andrea, he placed the Virgin aboye, without the ancient 
gildings, and with great art he grouped and disposed the saints 
who attend her ; while, with equal novelty, he distributed the 
train of cherubs over the steps and through the surrounding 
space. Sometimes, as in the extraordinary picture displayed 
in the cathedral of Faenza, and another in possession of prince 
Ercolani, he added, some noble architecture, bold, and drawn 
from the antique. In other instances, as in the church of the 
Osservanti, at Pesaro, we observe the most attractive land- 
scape, combined with an aerial perspective, sufficient to 
remind us of Vinci. He was accustomed too to insert little 
histories, as in S. Giacomo at Bologna, where, at the foot of 
the picture, he painted a Christ in the manger, of which it is 
enough to add^ that it is perfectly Rafiaellesque. This, 
indeed, was the style to which he invariably aspired, and so 
nearly attained, that very few of Raffaello's own pupDs could 
equal him. Those who may be desirous of convincing them- 
selves, may examine the altar-piece at Faenza in all its parts, 
and ihat of S. Michele in Bosco; to say nothing of his 
Madonnas and his Holy Families, interspersed throughout the 
Bolognese collections, and in the adjacent cities. He is pre- 
ferred to Francia and to Bagnaoavallo, in all that relates to 
erudition, majesty, and correctness. I am not aware that he 
executed compositions very new, or subjects requiring fire and 
vigour, nor would they have been consistent with his genius, 
which is described as of a gentle and tranquil cast. 

The fame of the two masters, just celebrated, did not then 
extend &r beyond their native districts, being eclipsed by the 
celebrity of many contemporaries, who swayed the regions of 
the art ; in the hst of whom was Giulio R(»nano. His repu- 
tation drew to Mantua Francesco Primaticdio) instructed in 
design hy Innocenrio, and by Bagnacavallo in colouring. 
Under Giulio he afterwards became a painter on a great 
scale, and a very copious composer of large histories, as well 
as a decorator in wood and stucco in a magnificent style suit- 



98 BOLOONBSE 8CH00Xi.--*IIP0CH IL 

able orily for a palace. In this way, having stodied six jeaas 
in Mantii% he wm sent hy Ginlio to the coort of the Fzeneh 
king Fraiicaa» imd ^ere^ though Rosso the Floieotine had 
amred a year bef(ne> and exeoc^ed a variety of works, yet we 
leaan ihsA ^ the finrt stncooe and the first works in fiasco %£ 
any consideration in Fianoe, took their rise from Pximatioeia," 
in the words of Yajwri. Nor has he oraiUed to mention, that 
the king bestowed npon this artist the abbey of 8t. Martin, 
thongh he did noi add ^at it branght hsm an annnal inoome 
of eight thousand erownsi, while Bosso possessed only a canon* 
ship worth one thonsuid. In regard to this last omission he 
is severely taaced wxtJi malioe by Mslvaflda, with what reason 
the reader will best jndge for himself. We further learn from 
Yasari that this artist employed himself, as well as his yonng 
assistants, in decorating a mraiber of the balls and chambers 
at FonteinebleaB, that he sopplied the court with many ancient 
iomrUes, and many mocdds of esculent scnlptiire, lr<mi which 
he had oasts aftenrards taken in bronae ; in a word, that he 
was like another CKiilio, if not in ardiitectare, at least in 
every other kmd of knowledge appertaining to the arts» The 
works eomdncted by him in Fnoice have been described by 
Felibien, and from the same pen is that appropriate ealogy«-* 
'^ that the geniuses of France are indebted to Ptimatiocio and to 
M^ Niccplo (dell* AbateX for many exqidsitej»rodnctions, and 
that they are entitled to ^ Inne ef having been &e first who 
introduoed Koman taste into France, wi^ all the beau ideal 
of ancient pakiting and sddptnre/' At the Te of Mantua 
t^eie remains the frieae ci stuceos, so highly commended by 
y asari, from Primatioeio's own hand, as w^ as a few pictures, 
which last, however, ate not so assuredly his. His pietioes 
indeed are dijects of the utmosi rarity in Italy, and in Bologna 
itself. In the grand Zambecoari gallery theie is a eonoert by 
htm, with three femide figures, aUegether enchanting ; the 
forms, the molsGns, the colouring, the taste of the lines and 
folding so easy and chaste, all combiBed with a certain origi- 
nality pervading the whdie, are well caknlated to attract and 
rivet the eye at the first moment. When dying, he assigned 
Niceolo Abali, called too dell' Abate, to continue his grand 
works, because he had brought him from Bologna, and laid the 
ground-work of his fortunes^ An account ^ this delightful 



PBUAGRINO FBMJSBPfl. 39" 

painter may be found in the Modenem aoiiool. He was net 
IPrimatkwto'a pnwl, but one Bnmero Rnggieii waa, and oon- 
ducted bj bim into France^ be left lew paintings in his own 
eonniry ; to whom we may perhaps add one Francesco Cac- 
cianeBoiei, called by Yasari bis disciple, frmn whose band, at 
HologD% these only lenain a lew doobtlol specimens. 

Much nnder the same circumstances as Prtmatiocio and 
Abaii appeared Pell^grino PeUegrini, whose patronymic was 
Tibaldi^ a natire of Yaldelsa in the JIObuieBe ; ihons;h residing 
from bk childhood, educated, and established at B(£)gna. Ho 
next filled the same situalion at the oonrt of Spain, as the two 
preceding bad done at that of France ; he decorated it with 
bis paintings, improved its taste in architecture, formed pupils, 
and rose in fortime until be at length became Marquess of that 
Yaldeba^ wbese bis father and uncle had resided as poor 
nuusons Wore ihey went to Bologna. It is not known who 
first imbued bis Hb^al spirit with the elements of learning ; 
but Yaaari traces bis progress from some pictures of bis in tbo 
zofectoiy of S. Micbele in Bosoo, cepmd by Tiboldi when 
young, aloi^ with other select pieces at Bologna. From this 
place be follows him toEome in 1547, eager to study the finest 
works in that capital, wb^re, after three yeara' readenee^ he 
reconducts bim to Bologn% still yery young, but advanced in 
ihe knowledge of bis art. His style was in great part formed 
upon the models of JBficbelangelo— ^vast, correct in dmwing, 
bold, and happy in the foreshorteaings ; yet at the same time, 
tempered with so much meHowuessand softness, as to induce 
the Oaracci to denominate bim the rdbzmed Michelangelo.. 
The first work which be oondueted, subsequent to the year 
1550, is in the Bolognese Institution, and it is the most per- 
fect, in Yasari's opinion, ever executed by him. It contains 
in partiCttlar various stories from the Odyssey, and this work, 
with that by Niccolino, mentiimed elsewhere,* both executed 
for the Institution, were afterwards finely engraved by Sig. 
Antonio Buratti of Yenice, aocompanied with ^e lives of the 
two painters, written by Zanotti. Both there, and in the 
great merchants' ball at Aneona, where be subsequently repre- 
sented Hercules, the monster-alayer, Tibaldi exhibited the true 

* In Tol* ii. p. 354« 



40 BOLOONBBE SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH II. 

method of imitating the terrible in the style of Michelangelo, 
which consisted in a fear of too nearly sf^roaching him. 
Although Vasari greatly commends these works, the Caracci, 
to whose judgment we would rather defer, have bestowed 
higher praises on those executed by Pellegrino for the church 
of S. Jacopo ; and it was on these pictures that both the Caracci 
tod their pupils bestowed most study. In one is represented 
die preaching of St. John in the desert ; in another the sepa- 
ration of the elect from the wicked, where, in the features of 
the celestial messenger announcing the tidings, Pellegrino dis- 
played those of his fEiyorite Michelangelo. What a school 
for design and for expression is here ! What art in the distri- 
bution of such a throng of figures, in varying and in grouping 
them ! In Loreto too, and in different adjacent cities, he pro- 
duced other histories, less celebrated perhaps, but all neariy as 
deserving of the burin as those executed at Bologna. Such is the 
Entrance of Trajan into Ancona, in possession of the Marchese 
Mancinforte ; and various exploits of Scipio, belonging to the 
accomplished nobleman, Marchese Ciccolini, which diHSorate 
one of his halls, where he himself pointed them out to me. It 
is a work conceived in a more refined and graceful taste than 
we meet with in other compositions of Tibaldi ; and of the 
same composition I have seen some of his pictures on a veiy 
small scale ; but rare, like all his pieces in oil ; wrought 
with the exquisite finish of a miniaturist; mostly rich in 
figures, full of fine spirit, vivid colouring, and decorated with all 
the pleasing perspectives that architecture could afford. This, 
indeed, was his fi&vonrite art ; which, after he had afforded 
some beautiful specimens of it in Pioeno, and next at Milan, 
procured him an appointment from Philip II. to superintend 
the engineers at the Spanish court There again, after the 
lapse of twenty years, during which he never touched the 
easel, he resumed the lurt of painting ; and we meet with a list 
of his works in the Esourial of Mazzolari. 

Domenico Tibaldi de' Pellegrini, once conjectured to be the 
son, was the pupil and brother of Pellegrino ; and his name 
is in great repute among the architects and engravers of Bo- 
logna. His epitaph at San Mammolo states him also to have 
been a distinguished painter ; but we must receive the authority 
of epitaphs with some caution ; and not even a portrait from hu 



FRAKCESCO BEZZI. 41 

iiand is to be met with. Fftberio speaks less highly of his 
powders, aad in the funeral oiation npon Agostino Caiaoci, 
whose master he had been, he mentions him as an able designer, 
engrarer, and architect. PeUegrino's pupils in painting, and 
no obseure artists, were Girolamo Mimoli, commended by Ya- 
sari among the artists of Romagna, who left one of his frescos 
at the Servi, in Bologna, and sereral other pieces at Parma, 
where be filled the office of court-painter, and there died ; and 
secondly, Gio. Francesco Bezzi, called Nosadella, who painted 
a great deal at Bologna and in other cities, in the style of his 
master, exaggerating it m point of power, but not equalting it 
in care, and in short, reducing it to mere mechanic labour and 
despatch. 

Yasari, in his life of Parmigianino, has mentioned with 
praise Yincenzio Caocianemici, of a good ^unily in Bologna, 
respecting whom there have been some discussions, to avoid 
confounding him with Francesco, who bore the same surname. 
The correctors of the old '^ Guide" suppose him to be the 
author of a Decollation of St. John, placed at 8. Petronio, in 
the family chapel ; a picture well designed and better coloured, 
and executed, as they observe, in the style of Parmigianino. 

Whilst the three great geniuses of the Bolognese school 
were residing abroad, the two first mentioned in France, and 
the third in Milan, and afterwards in Spain, the art continued 
stationary, or, more correctly, declined in Bologna. In the 
year 1569 three masters are pointed out by Yasari, namely, 
Fontana, Sabbatini, and Sammachini, whom he calls Fumac- 
cini. For what reason he excluded Ereole Procaccini, an 
artist, if not of great genius, at least of finished execution, 
I am unable to say. Certain it is that Lcnnazzo, whilst he 
resided with him m Milan, mentioned him in the highest 
terms, and enumerated in the list of his pupils Sabbatini, and 
Sammachini too. I shall not here repeat what I have detailed 
in the Milanese school respecting Ereole and his sons ; but» 
passing on to the others, I ahidl begin with Fontana, the 
principal cause of the decline above alluded to. 

The long protracted life of this artist comprehended the 
whole of the period now under our view, and even extended 
beyond it. Bom in the time of Francia, educated by Imola, 
who at his death selected him to finish one of his pictures, and 



— ■. -, ,>, 



48 BOLOOMSBB 8CH00L.«— EPOCH II. 

eubseqiieiitly employed for a long period na the assistant of 
Yaga^ and €i Yasari, he oontinoed to hkbour and to teach 
without interminion, until the Caraoci, <mee his disciples, drew 
all hk eonuoianonB and followers to themselres. For this 
result he was indebted to his own conduct. Devoted to plea- 
sure (the nM>8t fatal enemy to an artisfs refpntatien) he could 
only provide the means of gratification hr harthening hims^ 
wiUi wcHcks, and executing them with bttle care. He pos- 
sessed a festilitjr ef ideas, a vehemence, and a cultivation of 
mind, well adapted for works of magnitude. ' Abandoning, 
therefore, the careful inish of Francucci, he adopted the 
method oi Yasari, and Kke him covered with his works a vast 
number of walls in a short space of time, and nearly in the 
same taste. In dengn he is more n^ligent than Yasari, in 
his motions more energetic ; his colours have the same yellow 
cast, but laihar more delicacy. In Cittk di Oastello a hall of 
the noble family of Yitelli is filled with fiimily histories, 
painted by him in a few weeks^ as Malvasia informs us, and 
the work confirms the assertion. Similar Eroemmens^ or but 
little superior, axe met with in Rome at the YiDa (Hi^a, and 
at the PalaEso di Toscani, in the Campo Mandb, and in vari- 
ous houses in Bologna. Yet in other places he appears an 
artist of merit for a denning age ; as in his Epiphany, at the 
Gtazie, where he displays a facility, a pomp of drapery, and 
a magnifioenoe neaiiy af^roaehiag Ihe style of Paul Yeronese. 
This work bears the name of the painter written in letters of 
gold. But his best claim to distinction is founded on his 
portraits, which are more highly prised in cabinets than 
are his compositions in the diurshes. It was this talent 
which induced Midbelangelo to present him to Julius III. by 
whom he was pensioned as one of the Palatine painters of his 
time. 

He had a danghter and a puj»l in Lavinia Fontana, named 
also Zappi, from the fimiilyof Imohs into which shewas married. 
This lad^ executed several altar-pieces at Bome and at 
Bologna in the paternal style, as far as regards colouring ; but 
less BucoeBsfid in point of design and composition, ^e felt 
the inferiority, as is observed by Baglione, and sought repa- 
tatioQ ficom portrait-painting, a branch in which she is pre- 
ferred by some to Profl^ro. It is certain that she wrought 



I«OB»ZO SABBATmi. 4^ 

witk a sort of £»ni]iuie peneTeranee, in order that her por- 
traits ahonld moze fiutUiiily express eyery line and feature of 
nature in the oountenaooesy every refinement of art in the 
drapery. She beoame paints to Pope Gregory XIII., and 
was nMre partioaloKiy applied to by the Roman kidies, whose 
ornaments she displayed mote perfeetly than any male artist 
in. the world. 8iie attained to so high a degree of sweetness 
and sofikness in the art, especially after knowing the works of 
the Cancel, thai one or two of her portraits have been attri - 
Imted to Onidflu With equal ability she prodnoed a number 
of eabinei pictnres, such as that Holy Family for the Escurial, 
so muck commended by Manc^ri, and her Sheba at the 
throne of Solomon, which I saw in the collection of the late 
Marcheee Giaeomo Zambeeeaii. She has there expressed, in 
the form of allegory, the Duke and Duchess of Mantna, sur- 
rounded by many lords and ladies of their court, arrayed in 
splendid style; a painting that would reflect credit on the 
Yenetian school. Gifted with such genius, she was by no 
means ekaiy of her own likenesses executed by herself, which 
ornament the royal gallery at Florence and other collections. 
Bnt there remains no specimen more truly speaking and 
delightful than the one belonging to the Conti Zappi, at 
Inn^ whesre it is accompanied by the portrait of Proi^ero in 
his dedining days, also painted by her. 

Lorenso Sabbatini, called likewise Lorenzin di Bologna^ 
was one of tihe most graceful and delicate painters of his age. 
I hare heard him ennmerated among the pupils of Raffaello 
by keepers of the galleriea, deceived doubtless by his Holy 
Families, designed and composed in the best Soman taste,, 
althoi^h imranably more feebly coloured. I have also seen 
some of his Holy Virgins and Augels painted for private 
ornament, which resemble Parmigianino. Nor were his altar* 
^eces inferior; the most celebrated of which is that, of St. 
Michel, engraved by Agostino Caracci, from an altar of S. 
Giaeomo Maggiore; and this he held up as an example of 
gracefnlness and beauty to his whole school. He was, more- 
over, a fine fresco painter, correct in design, of copious inven- 
tion, universal master in the subjects of the piece, and what 
is still more remarkable, most rapid in point of execution. 
Gndowed with such qualities, he was engaged by many noble 



44 BOLO0NESE SCHOOL.-<e-£PO'CH II. 

bouses m his nati7e place ; but on proceeding to Rome in the 
pontificate of Gregory XIII., according to Baglione, he there 
met with success ; insomuch, that even his fleshes and naked 
figures were highly commended, though this was by no means 
a branch of his pursuits at Bologna. In the CapeUa Paolina, 
he represented the histories of St. Paul ; in the royal hall, the 
picture of Faith, shewn in triumph over Infidelity; in the 
gallery and the lodges a variety of other pieces, always in 
competition with the best masters, and always with equal 
applause. Hence, in the immense list of artificers at that 
period congregated at Rome, he was selected to preside over 
the labours of the Vatican, in the enjoyment of which honour- 
able post he died at an early age in 1577. 

It is difficult to believe, as asserted by some writers, that 
Giulio Bonasone was his pupil, an artist who practised engrav- 
ing in copper as early as 1544. On reaching a more mature 
age, he seems to have devoted himself to painting, leaving 
several paintings on canvass, but feeble and varying in their 
style. At S. Stefano there is one of Purgatory, in the style 
of Sabbatini, extremely fine, and composed, as it is conjectured, 
with the assistance of Lorenzino. The productions, also, of 
Cesare Aretusi, of Felice Pasqualini, and of Giulio Morina, 
are in existence, though the name of Sabbatini might perhaps 
be justly substituted for theirs ; such was the part he took in 
their labours. The latter, with Girolamo Mattioli, after the 
celebrity gained by the Caracci, became their eager followers. 
The labours of Mattioli, who died young, were distributed 
among different private houses, particularly in that of the 
noble family of Zani : those of Morina are seen in various 
churches at Bologna, and for the most part betray a degree of 
affectation of the style of Parma, at which city he some time 
painted in the service of the duke. 

Orazio Samacchini, the intimate £riend of Sabbatini, his 
contemporary, and who followed him at a short interval to the 
tomb, began his career by imitating Pellegrino and the Lom« 
bards. Proceeding next to Rome, and employed in painting 
for the royal hall, under Pius lY., he succeeded in catching 
the taste of the Roman school, for which he was praised by 
Yasari (who calls him Fumaccini), and afterwards by Borghini 
and Lomazzo. In the displsFir of this his new style, however, 



ORAZIO 8AMACCHINI. 45 

he contriyed to please others more thun himself ; and return- 
ing to Bologna, he was accustomed to lament that he had ever 
removed from Upper Italy, where he might haye carried his 
early manner to greater perfection, without deyiating in search 
of a new. Still he had no reason to feel dissatisfied with that 
wbich lie had thns formed of yarious others, and so moulded 
by bis own genius, as to exhibit something singular in its eyery 
character. In his altar-piece of the Purification, at 8. Jacopo, 
it ifl aQ exquisite delicacy, in which the leading figures enchant 
US with at once a majestic and tender expression of piety; 
w^hile those in&nt figures seen conyersing near the altar, and 
that of the young girl holding a little basket with two doyes, 
gazing on them in so peculiar a manner, delight us with their 
mingled simplicity and grace. Skilful judges eyen can take no 
exceptions but to the display of too great diligence, with which» 
daring several years, he had studied and polished this single 
painting. This, howeyer, as one of the most celebrated of its 
school, was engrayed by Agostino, and it would seem that 
even Guido ayailed himself of it in his Presentation, painted 
for the cathedral of Modena, yet he was an equally powerful 
artist where his subjects required it of him. His chapel^ of 
which we gave an account in the Parmese school, is highly 
commended, though his most vigorous efiTort is shewn in the 
ceiling of S. Abbondio, at Cremona. The grand and the 
terrible seem to strive for mastery in the figures of the pro* 
phets, in all their actions and positions ; the most difficult horn 
confinement of space, yet the best arranged and imagined. 
There is, moreover, a truth in the shortenings, and a skilful 
use of the sotto in sti^* which appears in this instance to haye 
selected the most difficult portion of the art, in order to 
triumph over it. His forte is believed to have consisted in 
grand undertakings in fresco, on which he impressed, as it 
were, the seal of a yast spirit, at once resolute and earnest, 
without altering it by corrections and retouches, with which 
he laboured his paintings in oil, as we haye stated. 

Bartolommeo Passerotti has been commended by Borghini 
and Lomazzo; and he is casually named also by Yasari 
among the assistants of Taddeo Zuccaro ; indeed, it may 

* Foretdiortemng figures ; here meant on a ceiling. 



46 BOLOOMBSB ACHOOL.-^EFOCH II. 

mther be said, thbi u thB artist with whom Yaiaari eoauaeB to 
vriie, and Malrasia to inveigh.* He possessed excellent 
skill in designing with his pen ; a gift which drew to his 
school Agostino Oaraoci, knd which asnsted the latter as a 
guide in the art of engraving. He likewise wrote » book, 
imm whidi he tan^t the symmetrj and anatomy of the 
hmmoi bocty, essential to the artist ; and was the first who^ to 
make a grander c^hij, began to vary scriptural histories at 
Bologna by drawing the naked torsL The finest of these 
4Bpeeimens are, the Beheading of St Panl, at Rome, in the 
Tre Fontane; and at 8. Giacomo, of Bologna, a piotoie of the 
Virgin among rariooa saints ; a work meant to compete with 
the Caracd, and embellii^ied by their praise. One of his 
pictures too of ^^Tizio" was much celebntod, which, bdng 
exhibited to the public, was supposed by the professors of 
Bologna to hare been the work of liichelaogelo. This 
exquisite degree of diHgence and refinement he rarely nsed ; 
most generaJly he was bold and free, somewhat resembling 
Oesare, <mly more correct. In his portraits, howevw, he is 
hj no meaiks a common painter. After Titian, Guide included 
him among the very first, not prefnring before him the 
Oaracei thraMelres, whose name, indeed, in several gaUeries^ 
is attached to the portiaits of Piasserotti. The most com^ 
mendable of all however, aie those he executed lor the noUe 
&mily Legnaai— -ontire figures extremely varied in oostame, in 
action, ana attitudes ; it being his usual cnstcMn to compose 
portraits, soch as Ridoifi described of Paris, whkk should 
aj^Mar ideal pictures. By means of such a talent, which 
made him agreeable to tbe great, by his polite and refined 
manners and malicious strictures, he became a match for ilie 
Caracci ; forwhom he also prepared rivals in a number of his 
Jons,' whom he eavefolly instructed in the art Among these, 

* This worthy writer would appear to hare been aware that he some- 
times exceeded due boanda. In the oonrse of that wwrk w<e Mest with 
•other ocpiesikMia higihly creditable to Vaswi ; and it is well kaovB, ^t 
having spoken contemptuoosly of Raffaellp, by deaigaating him ioeealaio 
Urbinate, the potter of Urbino, because some vases Siere had been 
painted from his designs, ** he repented of the expression so mnch as to 
lead him to erase it from as many copies of the work as he could meet 
with."— Xe«. put. vol, vu. p. 130. 



DIOKIftIO CALVART. 47 

Tibnnio posseflsed veal ment, of wliidi his fine picture of the 
Martyrdom of Si. Catherine, conducted in the taste of his 
father, displays saiSoient pioofL Passerotto and Yentoia^ 
hofvrerei^ were beloir mediocrity. Aorelio was a good 
miniatimst, and in the same bianch Oaspero, a son of 
TilNurzioy also met with soccess. In the works of Bartolom- 
meo we olfcea meet with a sparrow, the symbol of his own 
name ; a costom deriYed from the anoamts, and followed by 
maay of oar own artists. It is a well-known fact relating to 
two senlptotSy Batraoo and Saaro, that for their proper names 
tbey snbkitnted, the former a hog^ and the latter a lizard. 

Dionisio Calwty bom at Antwerp, and hence also called 
Dionisio the Fleming, came, when young, into Bologna, and 
displayed some ability in landscape painting. In order to 
become a %nre painter, he entered first the school of Fontana, 
and next tln.t of Sabbatini, whom he greatly asdsted in his 
labours for the Yatioan. But after fitting also this master^ 
and oecnpying himself, some little time, in designing from 
Baffiidb's pictues, he letomed to Bologna, opened a studio, 
and there ednoated aa many as a hundred and thirty-seyen 
masters in the art, some of whom were excellent. He was a 
fine artist for his age ; nndezstood perspeotiye well, which he 
aeqoired from Fontana, and designed both correctly and grace- 
folly in the taste of SabbatinL He moreoyer possessed the 
art of eoloaring, in the taste of his own countrymen, a quality 
which induced the Bolognese to regard him as a restorer of 
their school, which in tibis branch of painting had declined. 
If there were some degree of mannerism in his style, some 
action in his figures too little dignified, or too extrayagant ; the 
foimer was the tualt of his age, and the latter of his tempera- 
ment, which is described as extremely restless and yiolent. 
Notwithstanding, he instructed his pupils with assiduous care, 
and l&om the cartoons of the most celebrated inyentors he gaye 
ikem lectures in the art. Diffiarent collections abound with 
his small pictures, painted chiefly on copper, representing 
incidents from the Gospel, which attract by the abundance of 
the figures, by their spirit, and by the lusciousness of their 
tints. Similar commissions in this line were then yery fre- 
quently giyen in Bologna ; most times proceeding from the 
norieiate nuns, who were in the habit of carrying with them 



48 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH II. 

into the cloister similar little paintings to decorate their lonely 
cells ; and Calvart proyided abundance of them, with the assis- 
tance of his young men, whose pieces he retouched ; and they 
obtained immense circulation both in Italy and Flanders. In 
particular those conducted by Albano and Guide, his two 
pupils, boast the most attractiye graces, and may be known 
by a certain superior decision, knowledge, and facility. In 
the list of his altar-pieces, the S. Michele, at S. Petronio, and 
the Purgatory, at the Grazie, bear the palm ; and from these, 
as well as others, the best disciples of the Caracci confessed 
the assistance which they received. 

On the rise of the new Bolognese school, the pupils of CaU 
yart for the most part changed their manner, attaching them* 
selyes some to one master, and some to another. Those who 
preserved most evident traces of their former education, in 
other words, who continued more feeble and less natural than 
the Caracceschi, were but few. Malvacda enumerates Gio. 
Batista Bertnsio in his list, who vainly aspired at resembling 
Guide, leaving a variety of paintings both at Bologna and ite 
villages, displaying beauties more apparent than real. Two 
other artists. Pier Maria de Crevalcore, a painter in oil, and 
Gabriel Ferrantini, known by his frescos, called also Ghbbriel 
degli Occhiali, seem both to have seen, and attempted to imi- 
tate the Caracci. Emilio Savonanzi, a Bolognese noble,, 
attached himself to the art when nearly arrived at manhood, 
but he attended Cremonini more than Calvart; and strongly 
addicted to changing masters, entered the school of Lodovica 
Caracci, next that of Guide at Bologna, of Guercino at Cento, 
and finally the studio of Algardi, an excellent sculptor at 
Rome. By such means he became a good theorist and an able 
lecturer, applauded in every particular of his art ; nor wa« h» 
wanting in good practice, uniting many styles in one, in which 
however that of Guide most prevails. Still he was not 
equally correct in all his pieces, even betraying feebleness of 
touch, and not scrupling to denominate himself an artist of 
many hands. He resided at Ancona, next at Camerino, at 
which places, as well as in the adjacent districts, he left a 
variety of works. Of other Bolognese, who flourished at 
the same period, there remains at Ancona a picture of the* 
offering of the Infant Jesus at the Temple, ornamenting ther 



BARTOLOMMEO CESt. 49 

larger altar of S. Jaoopo. The inscription shews him to hare 
reidded at Brescia, — F. Tihurtius Baldmus Bononien$^i$ F, 
SrioBUBj 1611. This date proves him to have belonged to the 
present epoch. His taste, from what I am informed by Sig. 
Cav. Boni, extremely well-informed on subjects of the fine 
arts, reminds ns of the excellent school that flourished in 1500 ; 
magnificence in the architecture, great copiousness of compo- 
«ition, and clearness of effect, except that in the general tone 
of his tints, and in his fleshes, he is somewhat cold. One 
artist there was, who declared that he had laid down for him- 
self a maxim, never to alter with other styles that of Calvart ; 
and this was Yincenzo Spisano, called likewise l^isanelli. He 
lioweyer is inferior in solidity and truth of design, and displays 
enite as much caprice and mannerism as any of the practi- 
iioners of his time. Nor does he always pieSerre the Colours 
peculiar to his school ; but deadens them with a leaden hue, 
which is still not unpleasing. His altar-pieces, executed at 
Bologna, and in the neighbouring cities, are less celebrated 
than his small pictures for private ornament, which abound 
in Bologna, and which he was in the habit of enlivening with 
very attractive landscape. It has already been observed that 
those who were mannerists in thmr style, like Zuecaro and 
Oesari, always when working on a smaJl scale, improved upon 
themselves. 

Bartolommeo Cesi fills the rank also of head of a school, 
among those who cleared the path to the good method pur- 
sued by the disciples of the Caracci. From him Tiarini 
acquired the art of painting fresco, and his works gave the 
first impulse to Guido in attaining to his sweet and graceful 
manner. On examining a work by Cesi, it sometimes spems 
doubtful whether it may not have been that of Guido when 
young. He dares little, copies every thing from nature, selects 
fine forms of each period of life, and makes sparing use of the 
ideal ; his lines and folds are few, his attitudes measured, and 
his tints more beautiful than strong. He has some paintings 
at San Jacopo, and at San Martino, which are extremely 
pleasing ; and it is said that Guido, during his early youth, 
was in the habit of sitting to contemplate them sometimes for 
hours. His frescos, perhaps, display more power, where he 
has introduced many copious histories with great judgment, 
VOL. in. s 



^0 BOLOGNEflB BCBWHt^'^tlPOCH U. 

Tariety, and mastezy ; and each are iliose o( iBneM, in tW 
Fayi palace. His Aidb. of Forli, painted for Ckmeiit YIII., 
with different exploitSi sarpnses us even more. Thongli ex- 
posed to the action of the open air, daring so many year£^ 
this piece retains the viTidiMss of its tints to a surprising 
degree. Malrasia's opinion, in commendation of ikia artist, is 
very remarkaUe, that he had a manner whioh at onoe satisfies, 
pleases, and enamours the heholder, as tndy exquisite and 
«weet as any style of the best Tuscan masters in tresco« In 
the larger chapel of the Bcdognese monastery of Oarthusiazui^ 
there ave distinguished examples in both kinds of painting; 
and the deseriber of the Carthusian monastery, in his account 
of them, likewise emunerates Cesi's works for other monas- 
teries of the same order, those of Femuis of Florence, and 
Siena. He was held in esteem by the Caracci, and very gene- 
rally so by the different professors, no less for the candour of his 
chsuracter, than for his lore of the art. To his eiSbrts it was 
chiefly owing that the company of painters, in 1595, obtained 
a separation from the artifksers of swords, cf saddles, and oc 
scabbards, with all of wh<Mn they had for centuries been united 
in the same corporation, and that a new one being formed of 
painters and of cotton manufacturers,* it not being possible 
wholly to exclude the latter, they were to rank inferior to the 
artists, or, to use the words of Malyasia, ^^ that they should 
condescend to furnish to the amonnt of two hundred, or more, 
crowns, rich purple cloaks to decorate the wearer of the 
laurel crown, preceding their vic^8tewazd."t 

Cesare Aretusi, a son, perhaps, of Pellegrino Munari,:^ was 
distinguished as a colouirist in the Venetian taste^ but in point 
of invention weak and dull ; while Gio. Batista Fiorini, on 
the 6ther hand, was full of fine conceptions but worthless in 
his colouring. Friendship, that introduces community in the 
possessions of fiiends, here achieved what is narrated in the 
Greek anthology of two poor rogues, one of whom was blind 
and stout, and carried on his shoulders a shaip-eyed cripplci 
who thus provided himself with a friend's pair of feet, while 
he afforded him the advantage of as many ^es. So it fared 



* In fee origiaal, the term Mcd for tfasiceottwi merthmti it haml^aL 
t Ib the Italian, ctSkd pr<mat»aro, % See toL ii« p, 3&1. 



eauABLB ABxrvm. 51 

with onr two artists, wiio sqMmtoly could adoomplish yeiy 
little ; though in vnitmg their powers tkej produoed paintings 
o£ consideiable merit. Ivi^ht Gmidadi£okf^^iheY9teyeTj 
propeiij rsrely divided from each oilier ; and I beueye^ that 
m every paindngwe find aittiibnted to Aretnai, we ought 
^ftrtherto seek for some companion of his labonis. Ofsuoh 
is a Nalivitjr of the Virgin at & Afra in Brescia, pa«s- 
mder his name, and painted in a revy powerful style. 
this pictaie, however, Averoldi is of oj^nien that 
It was in part tike w o t kn MUMhipof Bagnatore, in part of other 
punters, or, perhaps, only painter : in ether words, that of 
liis nseM friend iLretnsL Nevertheless in the branch of 
portrait, ON»re poasssssd merit abote sharing it with others, 
and in tins d^adty he was employed by diferentioinees, and 
he also enececned in eopyii^ the worksof exoelleiit nmsters 
better than any other ef his age. He conhi aSBiaae the style 
of almost every painter, and even pass off his imitations for 
the originals, in hisimitation of Gorreggio, he was more paiv 
tienlarly sneoesrfiil, and leeeired a eonuaisrion to ezecate a 
painting fraup, the celebrated Ni^ii, by that master, for the 
chnrch ef S. Qio. di Parma, where it still remains. MengSi 
who B&w H, declaaEed that were the original at Dresden by 
any accident los^ it might be weU sa{^ed by so fine a dapli* 
cate. It was this pertomance that obtained him the honour 
of resloinig the painting, formerly ftDsented by Oorfcggio for 
Ae same ehnroh, of whidi mention was made in the school of 
Parma, and to which we here refer the Nader4 Here too we 
should add, that such was die success of itmi pietore, '^ from 
Its aeenrate imitation of the taste displayed in the original, of 
its conoeptiion, and of its liarm<my, as to lead thoM unac* 
qnainted with the fact to suppose it to be the work of AU^i." 
Such are the words of Rnta m his ^^Chuda.** 

Little attention seems to haTe been ^ven to inferior branches 
of the art dnring this epoch, if, indeed, we except that of por-< 
trait, whose leading artists must not again be introduced here, 
haying treated of their merits in the proper place. Nor 
probably were there then wanting painters in oil, who 
sererally ptodnced ornamental pieces ci landscape and ani- 
mals, besides Crsmonini and Baglione, whose alnlity in this 
fine we shall shortly notice, in the cla«B of ornamental fireseo- 

E 2 



52 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH II« 

painters; though none, as far as I can learn, acquired cele- 
britj. In one instance only I meet with handsome eulogiums 
on a miniature-painter, occasionally mentioned throughout 
this work. He was called Gio. Neri, also Gio. degli Ucelli, 
from his peculiar talent in delineating all kinds of hirds from 
the life. With these, and with fish of yarious species, with 
quadrupeds and other animals, he filled seveu folio volumesy 
which are cited hy Masini in the studio of Ulisse AldovrandL 
Throughout the whole of this epoch we find no mention in 
Malvasia of any ornamental or perapective painters, except, 
perhaps, some fignrist, who paid little attention to decorations. 
There is reason, however, to suppose that the celebrated Se- 
bastiano Serlio, while yet a youth, painted perspectives. The 
Cav. Tiraboschi, in the seventh volume of his history, renuurks 
that ** there is no account of SerHo's occupation during the 
early part of his life.'' But the ^^ Guida" of Pesaro, p. 83, 
alludes to him at the close of 1511, and subsequently in 
1514, as residing in that city in quality of an artist ; and in 
what branch can we more probably suppose him to have 
been engaged than in perspective? For this, indeed, was 
the tirocinium of other able architects, where previous to 
being intrusted with the anxious duties of their pro- 
fession, they were enabled, with more fiicility, to sustain 
themselves, until their reputation permitted them to assume 
the character of architects, and abandon the pursuit of paint- 
ing. Indisputably he could not have been an architect at 
Pesaro, otherwise there would never have been written on a 
parchment of 1514, remaining in the archives of the Servi : 
Sebastiano qu. Bartholanum de Serlis de Banania pietare 
hahitatore Pisauri. And it is about 1534 that we hiftve aa 
account of his being at Venice, no longer handling the pencil, 
but the square. Masini, who had written his ^^ Bologna Per* 
lustrata" only a short period before the " Felsina Pittrice," 
commends an Agostino dalle Prospettive, who had reached 
such a degree of perfection in that art, as even to deceive ani* 
mals and men with his illusive staircases and similar works, 
executed at Bologna. It is doubtful whether be did not 
belong to another school, and may have been omitted by Mal- 
vasia as a foreigner. I suspected him to be a Milanese in my 
second volume fp. 473), ajid pupil to the great Soardi^ not 



CBSARB BAQLIONS. 53 

inferioi; to his maeiter. Next to him, and to Laureti, Gio. 
Hatista Cremonini of Cento was employed iu such commis- 
sions more than any other artist. He had received rather 
superior instructions in the rules of perspectiye, and respect- 
able practice in the line of statues, figures, and histories, with 
^vehatever went to give splendour and effect to a fEi^ade, a 
tlieatre, or a hall ; more particularly he succeeded in delineat- 
ing animals, however ferocious and wild. There was scarcely 
a house of any account in all Bologna, which, if nothing more, 
could not boast some specimen of his chiaroscuro, some friece 
for ornament, chimney-piece, or vestibule, decorated by Cre- 
monini ; to say nothing of his numerous works in ^sco which 
filled the churches. He was also employed for the adjacent 
cities, and in different courts of Lombardy kept open 
school, and instructed Gueroino, Savonanzi, Fialetti, who 
flourished in Venice as before stated. He had for his 
companion Bartolommeo Ramenghi, cousin of Gio. Batista, 
vnth. whom also lived Scipione Ramenghi, son of Gio. Ba- 
tista himself, and both eminent ornamental painters during 
that period. 

Cremonini had a rival in one Cesare Baglione, an artist in 
the same sphere, and of the same eager and expeditious cha- 
racter in the art Ho was, moreover, a better painter of 
landscape, and even surpassed all others, including the most 
ancient, in the method of drawing his foliage. In his in- 
ventions too, both of a serious and comic kind, he displayed 
greater novelty and variety than Cremonini. He thus became 
a favourite at Parma, where in the ducal palace he left some 
of bis best works, all in harmony with the places which he 
painted ; in the larder illusive eatables of every kind, and 
cooks employed in dressing them ; in the bakehouse utensils 
-for the bakers, and incidents relating thereto ; in the wash- 
kouses women were seen busied in their different duties, and 
all in dismay at some untoward or comic accidents ; works 
abounding in spirit and reality sufficient to procure him repu- 
tation in his line, had he shewn less eagerness in the execution. 
This praise will not apply, however, to his decorative taste, 
which excited the ridicule of the Caracci, who were in the 
Jiabit of laughing at the fftntastio ornaments of his capitals, 
and those arabesq^ues, most resembling, they dedaied, the 



54 BOLOONBSB BCBOOL.—* EPOCH II. 

stages of bttrreb ; as well as that castom of filling his compo- 
sitimtf wifch useless orDaments, without rule or discretion, 
which his own pupils afterwards proceeded to introduce, espe^ 
anally 8pada and Dentone. Several others were insia*ucted 
by him in the art, as Storali and Pisanelli, and some of less 
notOi who painted weU in pen^pectiTe, without aspiring to the 
reputation of fignrists. 

Thus we have taken a brief surrey of the state of painting 
in Bologna from the time of Bagnacayallo to the Caraoci, who 
already rising into repute about 1585, in some measure com- 
peted with the elder artists, and in some measure by their 
example^ and the spirit of emulation, tended to improye them, 
of whidii more in the foQowing epoch. Meanwhile, let us 
turn our attention to what wa« passing during this period in 
Bomagna* 

Bayenna prides herself on ^e name of Jacopone, a pupil of 
Baffadio, who, by his paintings at S. Yitale, introduced into 
that dity the principles of the modem style, and of whom we 
shall shoortly state our opinion, not without some degree of 
noTelty. Another of RaJfaello's disciples, if what is averred 
of him be coneet, fiourished at Ravenna about 1550, called 
Don Pietro da Bagnaia, a canon of the Lateran. In the 
church of his order he painted the altar-piece of fik Sebastian ; 
in the refectory, the scriptural history of the Loaves and 
Fishes, besides leaving in anothw place a history-iHece of the 
Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, abounding in figures equal to the 
preceding. To these, enumerated by Orlandi, may be added 
the picture of PadB% with the Yirgia between St John the 
Baptist and St. Augustine^ exscnted for the church of S. Gio- 
vanni di Yerdara ; in the sacristy of which is a Holy Family 
by him^ imbued with all the graces of Raffaello in every feature 
suad action, but sadly wanting in strei^th and haxmony of 
colouring. There is another Holy Family at the Lateran Friars 
in Asti, on a larger scale, designed and composed with equal 
grace, but with similaar feebleness of tints, even more lifeless ; 
and to both pieces is iqppended an inscription, entreating the 
beholder to piay for the soul of the paiiitar. I am not aware 
whether this worthy ecclesiastic was in Ravenna in 15479 ftt 
the period of Yasari's visit thither, but the latter makes no 
mentkm of his name. 



LV€A LONOHI. 55 

Yet hementi^med, amimg the exeeHeBt artiBts who still flon* 
xislied there, LueA Longhi, whose ability in the esBentiala of 
the art is highly pfaiaed. He regrets, however, that he should 
alTvays have resided in his natiTe phiice, whidi had he left for 
ob|«cts of impzoremeni, he might have beeome a very distin- 
^ifihed artist He was a good portnit-painter, and produced 
a great number of pietmes for Bavenna. Some, too, he sent 
elsewhere, and they are met with at Son Benedetto in Ferrara^ 
in the Ahbej at Maatua, in that of Pra^ia near Padna, at 
*& Francesco in Rimini, with the date of 1580, in Pesaro^ and 
other pkbcefiL Thsj are chiefly oranposed in the ancient mauier, 
but on ocHupamg some of the eadier with thoee that follow, a 
more modem air is pwoeptible, a oiroiimstance attzibated by 
Vasari to his own conversations with the artist Longhi'a 
style, however, was opposed to that of Yasari, being very 
correct and highly finished; his conceptions sweet, varied, and 
gracefbl ; with a powerful union of colonza, more nearly 
resembling Innocenso da Imola^ if I mistake not, than any 
other artist of the times^ though inferior to him in point 
of grandeur and beauty. Lnca's most perfect pictures ihat I 
have met with in Bavenna are those of S. YitaKe, of S. Agata^ 
of S. Domemeo, all with a r^ms^ntation of the Yirgin be- 
tween two or more saints, and with srane graceful cherubs, 
playing above* There are others more lafaouired, which please 
ns less, and demonstrate tiiat to succeed in grand compositions, 
it is previously necessaiy to hav^ studied the great schools. 
Luca had a daughter, named Barbara, yet a child at die period 
when Yasari published his work, but who had begun to paint 
^' with a tolentble degree of grace and manner." From the 
hand of this lady there is only a single specimen remaining in 
public. Eespecting a son of Luca, named Francesco, the his« 
torian is wholly silent, being, doubtless, at the time he wrote^ 
still younger than his sister, but who became an artist in 
maturer years. In 1576 he [orodttced a picture for the church 
of the Carmine, and there are accounts of him even down to 
1610. He chiefly pursued the steps of his fether, though he 
is more common in his countenances, and more feeble in point 
of colouring, which he copied rather from Yasari. 

Francesco Scannelli mentions a pupil of Raffaello at Ceseno, 
omitted by all other historians, named Scipione Sacco. He 



56 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.--*£POCH II. 

painted a picture of S. Gfegory for the cathedral of Cesenai 
iiji a grand style,* and the Death of St. Peter the Martyr for 
the church of S. Domenico. Doabtless he vas of Raffaello's 
school, and not remembered out of JRomagna. 

While the family of the Longhi was employed at Ravenna^ 
that of the Minzocchi, which was sumamed San Bernardo, 
was distinguishing itself at Forli. Francesco, called also the 
elder di S. Benuurdo, studied the works of Palmigiani in his 
natiye place; and there remain pictures conducted in his 
youth, but feeble in point of design, such as his Crucifixion 
at the Padri Osservanti. But under Genga, according to 
Yasari, and, as some writers add, under Pordenone, he 
changed his manner, assuming a more correct style, graceful, 
animated, and of an expression which looks like nature her- 
self in these his subsequent productions. Among the works 
he executed with most care are two lateral pictures at the 
cathedral of Loreto^ in a chapel of 8. Francesco di Paola. 
These consist of a Sacrifice of Melchisedeo, and the miracle 
of the Manna, in which the prophets and the principal 
characters boast all the dignity and nobleness of drapeiy 
becoming the school of Pordenone. The crowd, howeyer, is 
represented in the most popular features and attitudes, suffi- 
cient almost to excite the envy of Teniers, and the most 
natural artists of the Flemish school. His delineations in 
these pictures, of numerous and various animals, are expressed 
to the life, with baskets and different utensils like reality, 
though the attempt to excite our mirth in treating serious 
subjects has a bad effect. Scannelli extols a specimen of his 
works in fresco at -S. Maria della Grata in Forli, representing 
the Deity on the ceiling, surrounded by a number of angels ; 
figures full of spirit, majestic, varied, and painted with a 
power and skill of foreshortening, which entitles him to 
greater celebrity than he enjoys. He left a variety of pro- 
ductions, likewise, at S. Domenico, at the cathednd, and at 
private houses in his native place, where such is his reputation, 
that on the chapels being taken down, his least-celebrated 
frescos were carefidly cut out, and replaced elsewhere. Among 
his sons and pupils were Pietro Paolo, mentioned also by 

* On this picture if inscribed, Ctftaiof, 1545.— Or«//t, 3f«mort«, MSS. 



FRANCESCO BX MODIGLI4NA* 5? 

Yasari, and Sebasiiano, both artists of the same natoral stjle, 
not very select, with little relief^ and mediocrity of invention. 
To Pietro Paolo bel<Hig eeyeial figures at the Padri Frances- 
cani at Forli, of feeble execution ; and to Sebestiano a picture 
at S. Agostino, composed in 1593 in the ancient taste, and of 
a style like his other works^ inferior to the character of his age. 

Subsequent to the elder Minzocchi, Forli produced two 
other artists deserving commemoration ; namely, Li vio Agresti, 
conspicuous in the histories of Yasari and Baglione, as a 
daring designer, a copious composer, and universal in point of 
manner ; thd ot^er, Francesco di Modigliana, an artist of more 
limited genius, but still deserving to be known. Of Livio, I 
spoke in the third epoch of the Boman school, to which, as 
pupil to Ferine, and resident in Rome, where he was employed 
at the Castello, in the Yatican, at & Spirito, and elsewheie^ 
he doubtless belongs. His native place, however, seems to 
have culled the fauest fruit of his labours, Rome possessing 
nothing nearly so Baffaellesque as are his scriptural histories 
in. the public palace at Forli. Nor ought we to pass over that 
finely-decorated chapel in the cathedral, where he represented 
the Last Supper, with some majestic figures of the prophets 
upon the ceiling ; a work that fi>r depth and intricacy of 
perspective yields in nothing to Mincocchi. I shall not stop 
to inquire, with Malvasia, whether having gone to Rome in a 
moment of diegust and in haste, instead of there advancing 
himself, he wholly failed ; but of this I am convinced, that 
his history in the Cappella Paolina is by no means his master- 
piece. 

Francesco di Modigliana is said to have been pupil to 
Pontormo, in whose school he almosts fills the same rank as 
Bronzino in that of Florence ; not remarkably powerful, nor 
always consistent with himseli^ but very graceful and beautiful, 
and deserving a place in our pictoric lexicons, where his 
name is wanting. His works at Urbino consist of those which 
are pointed out under the name of Francesco da Forli ; a 
picture of Christ taken down from the Cross, in oil, at 
<6. Croce ; and some angels in fresco at S. Lucia ; productions 
much commended, and resembling in style his best at the 
Osservanti in Forli, and at the Rosario in Rimini. Here, 
perhaps, he most distinguished himself; in his picture of 



^8 BOLOONESB SCHOOL.-HBPOCH II. 

Adam dbdren firom Eden, his Delnge^ the Tower of Babel, 
with ttudlar histoiies alieady treated by Raffaello at Borne, 
and bj Agresti in Foil], from imitating whom, if I mistake 
not, he graatlj improved and adyaneed himself. Dying sad- 
deidj, be left his woric imperfect^ afterwards oontinned bjr 
Gia lAnrentuu, called Arrigoni, who painted the Death of 
Abel at the same place. 

Aft» Bartolommeo da ^mim, who iaelined more towards 
the modi»n than the ancient stjle, I find no other artist of 
celebrity in that oity besides Arrigoni. Even his n»ne has 
not been recorded b j Oriandi, mat by his continnator. He 
diligratly employed himself in his natiTe plaoe, and two of 
his pictures rqpresentittg mar^jrrdoms^ met wiUi surprising 
success ; one of St» John the Baptist^ at the Augustine friars, 
and ai^thra of 'the Saints Jotei and Faul, at the diuroh 
bearing their name; Yet they do not display that beau idetU^ 
so attuMstire at that period in the productions even of the 
inferior disciples of the Boman school ; but they convey the 
impresfidcm of grand compositions^ a vivacily of action, a 
boldness of handy a splendour in the retiniieof horse and arms, 
and military casigns, caloolated to compete with the chief 
part of the painters employed at Borne in the service of 
Gregory and of Sixtus. 

Faenza^ too^ at the opening of this epoch, boasted her 
Jacopone, or Jacomone^ of wh<»n we treated among the assist- 
ants of Bafia^o, and among the masters of Taddeo Znccaro. 
Yasari makes brief mention and smaller aeeouBt of th|s artist ; 
recording only one of his productions, the Tribune of S. Yitale 
at Bavenna, and which has ceased to exist. In the ei^ola of 
the church, however, subsequently repainted by anoth^ hand, 
there were visiUe, in the time of Falni, author (^ ^ Bavenna 
Bicercata" (researches in that city), several figuzes of saints 
richly apparelled, bearing this inscription : ^ Opus Jacebi Ber- 
tucci et Julii Tondutii Faventinorunu Pari vote f. 1513."* 
At {»resent I no longer doubt but that under this Jacopo was 

^ Sig. Abbate Zannoniy a librarian in Faenza, aiiiated by Sig. ZanK, a 
distdngnished professor of design in that Lyceom, has made some clever 
remarks upon duit schooL They observe tiiat this date of Fabri mnst be 
erroneous, it not being possiUe for Jacopone to have comraeneed painting 
ia 1513, and macb kss Tondnsd, papU to GUnlio Romsdo, proteUy, in 



jAcaBe»m di fajdiza. 5t 

eoaeealed Ihe name of Jacopone di Faensa, though accoTding 
to Oilandi they were two seyeral painters^ and thoa^ it has 
Bever oeouxred to BaLdinuoei and Bottaii, and other writers of 
picioric histoij, to nnite them into one. My conjeetnre is 
founded npon a picture which I saw in the d&nrch of the 
Dominicaa nans in Faenaa, zepiesenting the Birth of the 
Virgin, with the name of Jaoopo Bertncd of Faena, and 
dated 1532. It ia a work which afieststhe eyebyitsresem- 
bhwoe to the style of Baffaello, thon^ his harmonious grada- 
tions hare not been well obsenred, and the colouring inclines 
more to the strong than to the beautilul. The women busied 
about the eouoh of St. Anne are beaatifol, giaoefnl, and ani- 
mated figures, and there are some auima1% and in partkular a 
fowl, whioh a Bassano himself would not hare been sonr to 
hare painted. Now what other Jacopo of Faen» could in 
the year 1532 have painted in this style, with more diow of 
xeason and probability than Jacopone da Faena, whose family 
would here appear to be discorded ? 

The same city possesses a yariety of other pieces by this 
Beituoci, and in the soffitto of S. Giovanni, Tarious histories, 
both of the Old and New Testament, were pointed out to me 

Mantoa : I mpect that ths order of the iMfc two figvnt ihoald be in- 
Terted, so u to read 1531* 

Thej inform me that I was misled in sapposins the picture d the 
Dominican nnns to be from the band of Jacopone, its great height pre- 
venting me from distinguishing the name. It belongs to his nephew and 
pafnl, Gissi Betista, aiuL thus feacmbles lus style, thongh coloured with 
stronger tin^ in the taste of Titian, whom he is known to have gfeatly 
consulted in after-years. Other pictures of Jacopone might be oMp that 
still exist, but injured by time and by retouches of other destroyers. Yet, 
they eooftiniie, all are surpassed by a figure that was placed at the Celestini, 
and is new in the general collection. It rep r esen ts St. John p<miting ont 
to the eodesiastic who ordered the pietnre, tiie Virgin crowned, between 
Saints Celestino and Benedetto ; a grand piece wonderfully preserved, 
formed upon the composition of Baffaello, and coloi^ed after Titian. On 
the ri|^ side is written, '* F. Jo. Bapt. F^ura Brasins hoc opus ob devo- 
tionem fieri ioasit anno Domini 1565" (the most assured epoch of his 
life) ; and on the left hand, '* Et semper Jacobins Bertusius F. (for 
Faventinus) inricto tandem Momo fadebat." Who this Momo was, 
against whose desire (since we most read intfito) he completed the picture, 
I know not ; whether a painter, or perhaps a friar, whom Jacopone's 
diUitoriness had offended, and who wished to substitute another artist, in 
which good oflioe he did not succeed. 



W BOLOGNESE 8CH00L.-^BP0CH II. 

as his. There too are several of inferior character attributed 
to another Bertucci, his son, an artist who in his heads repeats 
the same idea, even to satiety. Still his merit ought not, I 
think, to be estimated from a single work, but rather from 
some pictures cited by Crespi.* One of these is the Behead* 
ing of St. John the Baptist, animated and high-toned in its 
colours, beautiful in point of design and character, and worthy 
of decorating the Ercolani collection at Bologna. Upon it is 
inscribed '^Bertucius pinxit, 1580." The other is at the Ce* 
lestini of Faenza, a singular work, as Crespi denominates it, 
from which he appears to have learnt the proper name of this 
younger Bertucci, whom he calls Giambatista. Baldinucci 
treats of Jacopone at the commencement of his fifth volume, 
and on the credit of Count Laderchi, he enumerates his dif- 
ferent paintings which then remained at Faenza. Of his 
surname he mentions nothing ; nothing of his altar-piece of 
the Nativity ; nothing of S. Vitale ; nothing of the son, or the 
other artist of Faenza lately alluded to. He adds, that works 
of Jacopone were to be seen up to the year 1570 ; but I believe 
these last to have belonged to the son, inasmuch as the father, 
at the period when Vasari wrote, was already deceased. Other 
pictures by this artist are mentioned, painted in glowing and 
attractive colours, and in particular the Baptizing of Christ, 
preserved in the public collection, valuable from its giving 
the epoch of 1610, which must have been towards the close of 
his days. 

By Glulio Tonduzzi there is pointed out at Ravenna the 
Stoning of St Stephen, on the large altar of a church conse- 
crated to that saint, a beautiful picture, but not indisputably 
proved to be his. I conjecture it to be a copy of the St. Ste- 
phen that decorates the church of Faenza, in which the whole 
style of Giulio Romano is apparent ; so much so, that it has 
been attributed to him, a mistake arising from resemblance of 
names ; but Tonduzzi is known to have been Giulio's pupil. 
I omit other productions of this excellent artist, though I 
OQght to notice, that in the soffitto of S. Giovanni, he also 
painted several sacred histories, in competition with all the 
first artists who then fiourished at Faenza, on which account 

* Lettere Pittoriche, vol. vii. p. 66. 



MARC ANTONIO ROCCHETTX, 61 

tliat very cultiyated city has preserved the whole of these 
paintings, although much deh^oed by age, in the Lyceum col- 
lection, belonging to the commune, mentioned in other phices. 
I also find one M. Antonio da Faenza, commended by Civalli 
for a very exceUent picture, possessing fine relief^ at the church 
of the Conrentuali of Monte Lupone, in the Marca, dated 
1525. Contemporary with these must have been Figurino da 
Faenza, enumerated by Vasari among the best disciples of 
Oinlio Romano, though I meet with no mention of him else- 
where. It is conjectured, howerer, with good reason, that 
Figurino was only a surname given to Marc Antonio Roe- 
chetti, a paiirter of great reputation at Faenza, who in youth 
took great delight in minute drawing, producing, among other 
pieces, little histories of St Sebastian, for the ornament of 
that church, now destroyed, when they came into possession 
of various individuals who treasure them up in the present 
day. In maturer years he enlarged his manner, attaching 
himself to the imitation of Baroccio, which he did with a sim- 
plicity of composition and sweetness of tints, that made him 
conspicuous in different churches which he adorned, as we may 
gather from the picture of the titular saint at S. Rocco, with 
the year 1604, the latest period which we find mentioned on his 
productions. In the Communal colleotion, also, there is seen 
a picture of the Virgin, known in Faenza under the name of 
the Madonna of the Angels, with a St Francis, a holy bishop, 
and two portraits below. It bears the inscription, M, Anio* 
niu» Bachettus Faveniinus pingehat^ 1594. It was requisite 
to mention this picture, which I find extolled above all other 
specimens that have remained. The name of Niccolo Paga* 
nelli, before unknown to us, is also met with in the Oretti 
correspondence, contained in a letter of Zanoni, which we cite 
in treating of Benedetto Marini. He is supposed to have 
been a good pupil of the Roman school, and some attribute 
to him the fine picture of S. Martino, in the cathedral of 
Faenza, the supposed work of Luca Longhi. His genuine 
pictures are recognised by the initials N. -f- P. 

Subsequent to the period of Jacopone, who never acquired 
fortune, Marco Marchetti greatly distinguished himself. So at 
least he is named by Baglione, or Marco da Faenza, according 
to Yasari, who observes that he was '^particularly expe- 



#€ BOX.OGHBBB aCHOOL.*«-£POCH II. 

rieitced in regard to frescos ; bold, decided, torible ; and espe^ 
ctall J in the pnctice and manner of drawing grotesques, not 
having any rival then eqnal to him." "Not perhaps has any 
artist since appeared who equals him in th^ respect, and in 
happily adapting to grotesques little histories, full of spirit 
and elegance, and with figures which form a school for design* 
8ttch is the Slaughter of the Innocents, in the Vatican. He 
succeeded Bahbatini in the works of Gregory XIIL and en- 
tered the service of Cosmo I., for whom he decorated the 
Palazeo Yecchio at FliMrence. He painted little in his own 
country, though a few pieces in oil are still pointed out^ and 
an arch in a public way, with festoons of flowers, monsters^ 
and caprioci, resembling the work of an ancient artist. The 
whole reminds us of mythology and erudition, while at subse- 
quent periods it becomes customary in this kind of painting 
to dare eveiy eztravagaooe and exseess. Perhaps his most 
finished piece adorns the Oommunal collection, representkig 
the Feast of Christ in the house of the Pharisee. His death 
occurred in 1588. Contemporary witii him flourished Oio. 
Batista Armenini, also of Faenxa, an able artist, and author 
of the ^ True Precepts of Painting,"* published at Bavenna 
in 1587) a work tibat reappeared in tiie ensuiqg eentnxy at 
Yenice. In &ct Armeniai was a better the<Mist than a prae- 
titioner ; nor has he any production in his native place, except 
a large picture of the Assumption, on which he inseribed Jo* 
Bapt, Armenini primiiiafy meaning that it was amcmg the 
first, or perhaps the veiy fint, altar*pieoe which he e^^r 
painted. Perottl, the author of certain JFarrofiiniyi' which 
are still preserved in the library of the seminary at Faenxai 
there observes, that Armenini was a pupil of Perin del Vaga* 
Nor is there a gfeat interval between him and Cristoforo Lba- 
eonello, an artist of Faenza,- first discovered to us in the l^tec 
of Crespi, just before dted. He is celebrated iot his picture 
in the Casa Ercolani, in which the Virgin appears crowned 
with a glory, SLtUfoded by Saints Francis and Chiara, and two 
more ; a work dismaying great freedom cl hand, beauty of 
colouring, fine airs of the heads, and altogether in the compo- 
siti<m of Baroeci. 

• " Veri Precetd delU Rttura.** ^ 
*)" A mixture of all styles and svibjects* 



NICCOLO EAPPAKELLI. 63 

We must not take our leave of the Cinquecentisti* without 
first noticing a cavalier of Faenza, who flourished till the year 
1 620, in which he died at the age of 83. His name was 
Niccolo Pappanelli, and such was his enthusiasm for the art, 
that he attended all the most distinguished masters then in 
Togue at Eome. On his return to his native place, he pro- 
duced, along with some pieces of mediocrity, a few of an ex- 
quisite character, such as his picture of S. Martino at the 
cathedral, so well executed in point of design, force of colour- 
ing, and expression, as to be truly admirable. He^ too, at- 
tempted to foUow in the track of Barocci. 

Other artists of Romagna, belonging to this period, are 
treated of in the schools where they chiefly flourished, such as 
Ingoli of Bavenna at Venice, Zaccolini of Cesena at Rome, 
and Ardente, a native of Faenza, in Piedmont. 

* Artigtt of Hie fifteendi century. 



64 



BOLOGNESE SCHOOL. 

EPOCH III. 



The Caraccii tiieir Scholars, and their Successors, untU the time of 

Cignani. 

To write the history of the Caracci and their followers would 
in fact be almost the 43ame as to write the pictoric history of 
all Italy during the last two centuries. In our preceding 
books we have taken a survey of almost every school ; and 
everywhere, early or late, we have met with either the Ca- 
racci or their pupils, or at least with their successors, employed 
in overthrowing the ancient maxims, and introducing new, 
nntil we reach the period when there was no artist who, in 
some respect or other, might not be said to belong to their 
school. Now, as it is grateful to the traveller, after long 
following the course of some royal river, to ascend still higher 
to its source, so I trust it will, in like manner, prove delight- 
ful to my readers, to be here made acquainted with those prin- 
ciples that conferred this new style upon the world of art, and 
in a short time filled with its specimens, and took the lead of 
every individual school. "What, in my opinion, too, is still 
more surprising is, that it should owe its origin to Lodovico 
Caracci, a young artist, who appeared of a slow, inactive 
intellect in early years, and better adapted to grind colours 
than to harmonize and apply them. He was advised, both 
by Fontana, his master at Bologna, and by Tintoretto, who 
directed his studies in Venice, to adopt a new profession, as 
quite unqualified for the art of painting ; his fellow-pupils 
likewise bantering him with the epithet of the ox, in allusion 
to his extreme dulness and tardiness. Indeed, every thing 
seemed to conspire to discourage him ; he alone did not de- 
spair ; from the obstacles he had to encounter he only gathered 
courage, and inducements to rouse, not to alarm himself. 



LODOVIOO CARACCI. 55 

For this, his dilatory character, did not spring from confined 
genins, but from deep, penetration ; he shunned the ideal of the 
art as a rock on which so many of his contemporaries had suf- 
fered shipwreck ; he pursued nature everywhere ; he exacted 
of himself a reason for every line he drew ; and considered it 
the duty of a young artist to aim only at doing well, until 
at length it grows into a habit, and such habit assists him in 
expediting his work. 

Besolute, then, in his purpose, after having studied the 
best native artists in Bologna, he proceeded to do the same 
under Titian and Tintoret at Venice. Thence he passed to 
Florence, and improved his taste from the pictures of Andrea, 
and the instructions of Passignano. At that period, the 
school of the Florentines had attained to that crisis, described 
in treating of its fourth epoch. Nothing could be more advan- 
tageous to young Lodovico than to observe there the compe-< 
tition between the partisans of the old and the new style ; not 
oould there be better means of ascertaining the causes of the 
dedine, and of the revival of the art Such a scene was 
assuredly of the greatest use to him, though hitherto not much 
noticed, in attempting the reform of painting, and carrying it 
to a higher degree of perfection. The most eminent Floren- 
tines, with the view of improving the languid colouring of 
their masters, turned to the mod^ of Correggio and his fol- 
lowers ; and their example, I am of opinion, induced Lodovico 
to leave Florence for Parma, where, observes his historian, 
he wholly devoted himself to that maibter and to Parmigianino. 
On his return to Bologna, although well received and esteemed 
as a good artist, he soon became aware that a single indivi« 
dual, so reserved and cautious as he was, could ill compete 
v^th an entire school ; unless, following the example of Cigoli 
at Florence, he were to form a party among the rising pupils 
at Bologna. 

In the first instance, he sought support in his own rela- 
tives. His brother Paolo cultivated the art, but was deficient 
both in judgment and in ability, and calculated only to exe- 
cute wi& mediocrity the designs of others. On him ne placed 
no reKanoe, but a good deal on two of his cousins. He had a 
paternal uncle named Antonio, by profession a tailor, who 
educated his two sons, Agostino and Annibal, at home. 

TOL. lU. F 



M BOLOONBSE flCaOOLy-HBPOOH III. 

Sncb was their genius for design, that Lodovico was aeooff- 
tomed to say in bis old age, tiuit be kad oever had, daring his 
whole profesdional career, a angle pnpil to equal tiiem. The 
first devoted his attention to the goldsmith's art^-always the 
school of the best engiareis; the second was at onee the pn]^ 
and assistant of his father in his calling. Thoagh brother^ 
their dispositions were so opposite, as to render dieir society 
insufferable to each other, and they were Utile less than ene* 
mies. Accomplished in letten^ Agostino always sooght the 
company of learned men ; there was no scnmioe ojn which he 
could not speak ; at once a philoaopher, a geometnoiaB, and a 
poet ; of refined msmiers, ready wit, and aTerae to the pursuits 
of the crowd. Annibal, on the eontraxy, neglected letters, 
beyond the mere power of reading and writing, while a natu- 
ral blnntnees of manner inclined him to tacitumt;^ and when 
compelled to speak, it was moldy in a satirical^ ooatemptu* 
ous, or dispnting tone^ 

On deroting the msclTes, at the aoggestioii of Lodovico, to 
the pictoric art, they still fimnd themselTes opposed to each 
other in genios, as ihay ware in manBex& Agostino was 
timid, and extxemriy select, backward in veadve^ difficult to 
please himself, and was never aware of a diffienlty that he did 
not encounter, and attempt to vaaqiiish it. Annibal, in com* 
mon with numbers of artificcn, was an ezpeditioiis worknum, 
intolerant of doubts and delays eagerly seeking every remedy 
lor the intricacies of the art, tiying the most easy methods, 
and to peilbnn nmeh in little tima Had thejr iaaeed ftllen 
into other hands, Agostino woold have beei»ne a new Samae* 
chini, Annibal a new Bssserotti; and painting woold have 
owed no improvemmt to their efforts. But their eonsin's fine 
judgment kd him, in their educaftiea, to imitate Isocratee^ ^o^ 
instmcting Ephoms and Theoponq^ni^ was accustomed to say, 
that he was compelled to apply spurs to the one, and a rein to 
the other. With simihur views 1^ oonsigned Agostino to Fon- 
tana, as an easy and rapid master, and retained Anniha.] in his 
own studio, where worki were carried to higha perfection. 
By snch means too he kept them apart, until riper age should 
by degrees remove the enmity submsting between them, and 
convert it into a bond of amity, when devoted to the SMoe 
profession, they might unite their capital, and mutually assist 



ms^^^T^^^ 



AGOSTHrO AND AJmSBAL CABAOOL 67 

eaxih oil[^. In a U/w jmn he sueeeeded in i^coiioilkig 
them, and in 1580, lie pk^ed tkem at Panna and at Yenioe^ 
<3if trixkA an aoeount has been ^ren under those scliook. 
Dnring tlixs period Agesti&o C(4leeted materials lor his varied 
learning, toA enlar^ Ida design; and as before learing 
Bologna lie had nude gnat yeg re s i in eagtaying nnder 
Domenieo libaldi, he ceiituitied in Yoiace to ptactise it nnder 
Cori with sndi sueeesa, as to exdti hie master's jeaiouflrf ^ whe 
drove him, bnt in vain, £rein his stadio ; for Agoetino was 
already esteemed the tSgoo Antonie of Us time. Annihdl^ 
devoted to a single aim, both at Panna and Venice contiaited 
to paint, availing hanself of the works and eonversation of 
illnstrions me% isith wheoi at that period the Venetian school 
abounded. It was tiien, er shortly sabse^aent, that he exe- 
cuted his beantifnl copies of Corresgio, Titian, and Paul Vero- 
nese ; in whose taste he also eonmcted some small pictures. 
Several specimem of these I saw in possesMon of the Marchese 
Dnrazzo at Genoa^ displaying opposite, but very graceful 
styles. 

Returning accomf^ished artists mto their native ^aoe, they 
stmgi^ed long and neUy with their fortnosesi Their first 
nndertakimir eonidsted of tlie exploits of Jaeon^ in a Mese of 
the Gasa Favi ; these^ th0<^4i eondvcted with the assista&oe 
of Lodovico, were vitiipexaM with exQesaive soem by the old 
pointerfl^ as defident botiii in elegaoce and cDvieetness. To 
this eensnre, the credit el these master^ who had flourished at 
Rome, who were extolled by the poiBts^adoaied with diplomafl^ 
and regarded by the deeUmng age as i^iats of the art» seemed 
to give weigh! Their di8eipk« echoed their words^ and the 
crowd rqMiS^ed them ; and sneh mannitis pfoeeeding from a 
pnbHc, gmed with as mttdk rohilHlity in coiitveiBati<m as would 
suffice mr puposee of deelaimrtioB er contrevev^ elsewhere, 
wounded the fedings <^ the Cataoei^ ovMrwnelmed and 
pressed them. I was informed by the accomplished CSav. 
Mecold Fav% that Lodovice's ehaage of fortune, aloi^ wUh 
ifakt of his cousins, ecouived <m an oecasiea, and at a period 
little £fifining from the abere; which issopported by a tradi- 
tion to the same ei^et liie two courins had executed the 
friexe in the same hall where Gesi adevned another, in opposi- 
ii«i to it, with histories of .Saeas, whoch we have already 

F 2 



68 BOLOONESB SCHOOL.— EPOCH HI. 

mentioned (p. 49). The work, conducted in the old style,, 
was certainly beautiful, but Lodoyico, in the new, painted 
another chamber with other histories, twelve in number, of 
JEneas, of which mention is made in the Guide of Bologna 
(p. 14) ; histories in no way inferior to those in the Casa Mag- 
nani. Here was the beginning of the Caracci's fortune, and 
of the £Edl of the old masters, Bologna at length preparing to 
do justice to the worth of that divine artist, and to verify in 
respect to Cesi that sentence of Hesiod, of which, to the 
best of my ability, I here offer a version from the Greek as 
follows : 

FoQe chi al piu potente fa oontrasto ! 
Che perde la Tittoria ; e sempre al fine, 
Oltra lo 8comO| di dolor si h goasto ! 

(^era, ▼. 210, 
Fool, that will dare to cross the path of one 
More powerful I and ever to the loss 
Of yictory, at last add scorn and grief. 

It was now that the Caracci, more than ever confident in their 
style, answered the voice of censure only by works full of 
vigour and nature, opposed to the works of older masters, 
feeble and void of truth. By such means that revolution of 
style which had so long been meditated, at length took place ; 
but it became necessary, iu order to accelerate it, to bring 
over the students of the art to their party, the better to insure 
the hopes of a new and improved era. This too the Caracci 
achieved, by opening an academy of painting at their house, 
which they entitled De^li Incamminatiy supplying it with 
casts, designs, and prints, in the same manner as those of their 
rivals; brides introducing a school for the drawing of the 
naked figure, and for the study of anatomy and perspective : 
in short, every thing requisite to the art ; directing the whole 
with a skill added to a kindness that coidd not fail to procure 
it abundance of pupils. In particular, the fiery temper of 
Dionisio Calvart contributed to fill it, who, being in the habit 
of striking, and even wounding his disciples, drove Guide, 
Albano, and Domeniehino, to transfer their talents to the> 
studio of the Caracci. Panico too entered it from the school 
of Fontana, and from all sides the best young artists assem* 
bled, drawing after them fresh ranks of students. Finally^. 



r^^^9^m*W' ^ JPBCKBaWPI ^Wk W >J , ILt 



ACADEMY OF THE CABACOI. 69 

the other academies were closed; every school was left to 
solitude ; every name gave way before that of the Caraoci ; 
to them the best commissions, to them the meed of praise were 
accorded. Their humbled rivals soon assumed another lan- 
guage, especially when the grand hall of Magnani was thrown 
open, presenting the wonders of the new Caracoesque art. 
It was then Cesi declared that he would become a disciple of 
the new school ; and Fontana only lamented that he was too 
grey-headed to keep pace with it, while Galvart alone, with 
his usual bravado, ventured to blame the work, being the last 
of all to recant, or at least to become silent. 

It is now time to record the pursuits and the maxims of an 
academy, which, besides educating many illustrious pupils, 
perfected the art of their masters ; and confirmed the axiom, 
that the shortest method of learning much is that of teaching. 
The three brothers were on the most perfect understanding as 
to the art of teaching, as free firom venality as from envy ; 
but the most laborious branches of the professorship were 
sustained by Agostino. He had drawn up a short treatise of 
perspective and architecture, from which he expounded to the 
sohooL He explained the nature of the bones and muscles, 
designating them by their names, in which he was assisted by 
Lansoni the anatomist, who also secretly provided the school 
with bodies for such dissections as were required. His lectures 
were sometimes founded upon histonr, at odiers upon fictions ; 
and these he illustrated, and offered for designs, which being 
exhibited at stated intervals, were examined by skilful judges, 
who decided upon their respective merits ; as we gather from 
a ticket written to Cesi, one of the arbiters. The meed of 
fame was sufficient for ihe crowned candidates, round whom 
the poets collected to celebrate their name ; with whom Agos- 
tino enthusiastically joined both with harp and voice, applaud- 
ing the progress of his scholars. These last were likewise 
instructed in true criticism, and to give due praise or blame to 
the works of others ; they were also taught to criticise their 
own works, and whoever could not give good reasons for what 
he had done, and defend his own work, must cancel it upon 
the spot. Each, however, was at liberty to pursue what path 
he pleased, orrather each entered upon that to which nature had 
best adapted him, which gave rise to so many original man- 



TO BOIiOflNSn 80BOOiL.-— OTOOB HI. 



aexs fiom Ihe aane staciio ; yet e&di etyle was to be Icmndei 
upon zeaooBy mtim^ imd indtalioiL In dl noie doubtfiil 
poiatfly MQovfM waa kad to the opiiiioA (tf Lodoyioo; tlie 
oowdos prwdsd oib^ the daiiy exeveiset of desigB, fall of 
aMdduitjy kidnelrTV aad peBsotronnoo. Ev«n the reeroationa 
(tf tlko aoadflnkiaaff bad a view to ait ; to diaw kuidsoapos 
Irom natuxo, «r ts^ aketek eaiieatiiios» were tbe evstoiiiaij 
amuMmoi^ of AdiuImI and the diaeipies of tbe 0OI1OOI, -whm 
ib&y widbad to nlax bom study.* 

Tk» mftadm of unitkig together tlie ekidy of natave a&d 
the imitation of the beet vaatoxs, alieady tonched npoBr in the 
outset of Om boek» fi)nMed tbe leal foinidatk» ef the aohool 
of Caraeci ; althoi^h &ej took eaie to modify it aeeecdnig 
to partietilar tateatfl^ aa we httte seen. Their objeot was to 
coUeet i«tp one whatorer tiwj foond moet vahuMe in other 
achoo]% and in this procew they obserred two nethocb. The 
first resmnUee thai ef the poete^ who^ in aereraL eanzoni^ 
propose diffiKBeat viodels for indtalion ; in ene, fiar inslanoe^ 
borrowing from FetEarch, in anoAer from Ckiabaera, w a th»d 
from Frogoni. Tbe aeeond mgtiiod \& like that of tiboae, wke^ 
being maateia of these thiree styles, £ann and harmonize them 
into one, like Corinthian meittl, composed of imona other 
kinds. Thna the Caraeei, in some of tbor eeopesitioas, weve 
aeenstosned to pres«it (Uiffinrent atylee m a vtsiety ef diffeveiil 
figures. So IiodoTioo, in his Preadbing of St John the Biq>- 
tist, at the ehuroh of the GextoaMii (wbaie Oiespi ia especially 
opposed to Paul Y^psneseX has esdbibited the asidianee of the 
saint in such a manner Ast a jadge deaeribed theni by these 
names : the BaSadlesqa% the Tiainnee^ne, and tiie iakator 

* It maifc be obsenred that the two yeuiger Caned Tinted Rome, 
whore tbty oootinued to iastmct tbetr papUs on the mbm phtt. Fftswri, 
in his Life of ChiidOf aays, that they were joinsd by Utemrj Miy who pro- 
posed history-pieces to them, with premiums for sach as shoold be best 
ezeeated ; and that on one occasion, DomenicMno, one of the youngest, 
bam^ piefemd above aH, Guido was seized witti the most lirely emulation 
to c«Hpae him. The historian addSa tiiat t^ aame matibad waa aoen 
adopted in the Roman academy, and that Car. Barbarini, nephew te 
Urban YIII., presided at the ejection of the first, and rewarded bun wilh 
money, and those that next followed, to the fourth member. Moreoyer 
he gave the first a oommiMion fnr a picture from the same subject as the 
daogiu What a aacret i« bara shewn for promelBg Um fine aita. 



ACLASniT OP VBB CABAOBL 71 

of Tintoretto. ^' Aombal too, wlio iMui loag admiied only 
Correggio, liaTmg finally adopted ItodoTioo's mazun, punted 
bis celebrated picture for ibe chnicfa of St. Goo^e, wbere, in 
bis figure of ibe Virgin, be iautaied Caolo ; in ibat of tbe 
Divine Infant and St. Jobn, Cbrreggio; in St. Jobn tbo 
Evangelist be exbibited Titian ; and in 4bo voiy gxaeeful form 
of St Caiberine, tbe ^eetness of Pana^ianino. Most 
generally, bowev», tbey pursued tbo seeeod patb, aad olfll 
more examples migbt be addaoed of kas appaiMU and anBte 
free aad mijEed imitationis ao noclified as to {oodnoe a whole 
of a perfectly original ebaiaeter. And tbe Infeaioua Agoa- 
tino, emulating tbe aaeieni k^idatoia, w bo ombodied aJl iikeir 
laws in a few veEses, oomposod that veiy pjoinveBque, latber 
than poetical sonnet, in praise of Niocolmo Ahati, b«t whkh 
also well oxplaiafl tkud maxim of their school, in aeleetiBg the 
peculiar merits of each diflEerent style. It baa heeai baadad 
down to ua by Malvaaia, in Ms Life of Primatioao, aad runs 
as follows :— 



Crkt tarn «n Imoa pittor bmn&e 
JX ^Bn^gao di Bmna abfaia alia BMnoy 
La mo88a coll' ombrar Veneziano, 

K H degno colorir di Lombardia ; 

Di MicbBkmgiol la terribil m, 
II yero natanl di Tinnoi, 
lU CoDMgio k» stil pioo c aonmBOy 

Bi «n Ranael la vera aunmetria; 

Del Tibaldi 11 deooro e II fondamento, 
Del dotto Prinurtiecio llnventaref 
KiBfO* di giana dsl FtraagiaBiiio t 

MaaoKa taiti fltndtt* tmto iteiito 

SipoQga selo I'opre ad imitaEe 
Che qoi lascSood il noatro I^ccolino. 

Toprait for fiune, wbo nartues high desire, 

'WfEL Rome's dengn keep eyer m his view ; 

To tbib TeneCiiB shade wad m^xm true. 
Of Lflwherdy'a whok cakmring mnvt tsinn 
Kiadk afc MichaeTi terrors, aad bis fin, 

Sme Titaan's living tmth, who nature drew ; 

AHegrf 8 pure and soverdgn graces txx> ; 
T» hesveiily Riqphaid's symmetry espfape t 
VHmUi's solad asMO, appropriate air. 



72 BOLOONB6B SCHOOL.-— EPOCH III. 

And Primaticcio's leam'd uiTeiithre thought. 
With Parmigiano's graceful sweetness fraught. 
And should all these ask too much studious ORre, 
Turn to oar Niccolino's bright display 
Of wondrouB works, the envy of his day. 

It is not easy to ascertain how &r the Caracci maj hare 
carried this project, though it must always reflect the highest 
degree of credit upon them to have executed it in a superior 
manner to all other artists. In the outset they most felt their 
deficiency in their imitation of the antique, odled by Agos- 
tino the design of Rome. He and Annibal, howerer, while 
residing there as strangers, in some measure reproduced and 
restored it to Roman artists themselves ; and Lodovico, though 
remaining at Bologna, shewed that he was by no means unac- 
quainted with it. At first, observes Mengs, they devoted 
much study to Correggio, both in their ample outline and in 
their general design, although they did not observe the same 
exact equilibrium in their concave and convex lines, but 
rather aSected the latter. There were other points which 
they did not attempt to include in such imitation, as in 
the shortening of the heads, and exhibiting them so very 
frequently with that smile so much repeated by the Par- 
migiani, by Barocci, and Yanni. They took their heads 
from Ufe, and improved upon them by general ideas of 
the beautifuL Hence Annibal's Madonnas, many of them of 
a small eize on copper, exhibit a peculiar and original beauty 
derived from his studies ; and the same may be said of Lodo- 
vico, who, in his softer heads, often gives the portnut of a 
lady named Oiacomazzi, celebrated for her beauty at that 
time. The Caracci were extremely well-grounded in a know- 
ledge of anatomy, and of the naked figure ; and it would be 
manifest injustice not to give them credit for due estimation of 
Michelangdo, whom they also imitated. One of them indeed 
is known to have said, with some acrimony towards the rival 
school, that Bonarruoti ought to have covered his bones with 
a little flesh, in the manner of their own Tibaldi. It is true 
they availed themselves less of the naked form in composition 
than the Florentines, though more largely than the other ' 
schools. In their costume, they were not so anxious to observe 



THE CARACCI. 78 

the exactness and richness of Panl Veronese, as the grandeur 
of his folds and form ; nor did any other school give more 
ample flow of drapery, or arrange it with dignity more suitable 
to the figures. 

Yet Mengs denies that they were consummate colourists, 
though they studied the Lombard and Venetian schools, an 
opinion confirmed by Lodovico's paintings in oil, which are 
fEbded and almost gone. This arose, either from the nature of 
his grounds, from too abundant use of oil, or from not allowing 
due time between, preparing his canvas and colouring it The 
same remark will not apply to his frescos, which, on a near 
yiew, exhibit a boldness of hand equal almost to Paolo's ; nor, 
in the opinion of Bellori, was there any work which, in point 
of colouring, reflected higher credit on the Caiacci, and on the 
age, than tbnr pictures in the Caaa Magnani. They boast a 
truth, force, mixture, and harmony of colours, such as to en- 
title them also in this portion of the art to the praise of being 
reformers of the age. They effectually banished those wretched 
yellows, and other weak, washy tints, introduced from parsi- 
mony, in place of the azures and different colours of higher 
price. In this Bellori accords most merit to Annibal ; de- 
claring it was owing to him that Lodovico himself renounced 
his firat method of colouring, which was formed on that of 
ProcaccinL 

In action and expression they aimed at vivacity, but without 
eyer losing tight of propriety, of which they were extremely 
observant ; and to which they were ready to sacrifice any of the 
graces of the art. In taste of invention and composition, they 
come near that of Haffaello. The Garacd were not lavish of 
their figures, conceiving twelve sufficient for any historical 
piece, except in crowds, or in battle-pieces, where they were 
still moderate, in order to give greater relief to particular 
groups. That they were competent to compose with judgment, 
learning, and variety, is fully apparent from their sacred his- 
tories represented on altars, where they avoided, as much as 
possible, the very trite representation of a Madonna between 
various saints. This truth is still more remarkably shewn in 
their profiane histories, and in none better than those of Ro- 
mulus, in the family just before mentioned. The three rela- 
tions there appear universal in the art, as perspective, land- 



74 B0L0ONB8K aCBOOL.*— EPOCH III. 

aca^ and omooMBtel paintns, nuMtna of otoij ebjhy and 
conoentratiog in one point of vietw whatever 10 most desbabte 
in anj siagle work. The tinea art»ta aeem to disappear in 
one ; and the same is obserred also in seyeral galleries and 
chiurohea of BoLi^gmiL ThejfbHowodthe Bane maTrnnw, and in 
the ttme atndio designed in vnkrn witii one aaotiier, oonforring 
and taking measoieB howbeattoeoD^leteeveijiroik inhand. 
In AeTOial instances it stitt nmaioB mattar of dotibt whether 
pictiuQs an^ to he atttibnted to Annibal or to lodorico ; and 
the three aeriptnraL hktonea of the Svnpieri, in widdi the 
three relations wished to display tibeir respeetiTe powers, do 
not exhibit a diveiatty iHikh might essentially characterize 
their respecttTO antiuuB. Seme indeed there are who ma^ 
deteet in LodoTieo a moro geneiai imitation of Titian than is 
observaUe in the oonsins, Agestino inolhunigmore to the taste 
of Tintocetto^ Annibal to that of OcMrreggio. It has sometimes 
been ranarked that the %iireB of the irst of the three aie 
light in fon%thoee of the third, rebnst ; while those of Agos- 
tiiio hold a middle rank. At Bolegsa I fbnnd Lodovico 
enjoying most repnte for a oertoxn eieyataon and grandeur ; 
A^stino for his inraitiTa powers ; Anmlial for grace. Every 
one moat jndge^ howeTer, aooesdiBg to his own riews. It is 
mow my duty to ooneider these separately. 

Lodovico, doubtless, rises into the sublime in many of his 
works at Bologna. His pictore of the ^ Frobatica," so excel- 
lent both in point of aichitectmre and tiie design of tike figures ; 
that of S. Girobmo, who, snqpending his pen, turns towards 
heaven with a Iok^ and geetaie so tridy impressiTB and £gni- 
jkd; his Limbo of holy iEitheis, whi^ as if to renew his 
ddig^ in ilv he repeated in the eathednd of Flaoenza, and 
•ketebed alee under a CmeifizioB at Fbrrara : these have ever 
beett regarded in that aAool as models of the snUime. Ne- 
inwthelMS, if we examine tibe *^ Assamptaon^" at the Teresiani, 
the "Ptendise," at the Baxnalnti, or the <« S. George," in 
whiok is represented that adtedraUe virgin, who is seen seized 
with terror in the aet of light, it wffli be dBlowed that Annibol 
himself oonld not have exhibited more grace in his drawing 
of yonng maidens or of boys. More excelling, therefore, 
than greet, Lodovioo may be said to be transcencSint in ever^ 
charaoter ; and it would even seem that he had aimed at this 



I4>BOV10Q. TS 

boaat in the two froeeos that hare padahed, with wUch ke 
dfi€oraied» at S. DftBayenioos the duipei of tha Laidbeztiai in 
one he esduhtted the hcfy fimnder^ widi S. FwDci^ in a masi* 
ner rerj easr and nUanng to iha eye^ witb few l^kts and as 
few shades,, bot beta powetfal, awl with- few folds in ike dea* 
jfery; the conntenaacea foB of pir9ly; iaaomiMk ihat the 
whole perfonnance^ in the worda of Malyaaiay ^aoae to a 
pitch of gmndens not to be exedkd." In tiie ether pieee he 
represented ^' Charlij^" in ai akjla eqaally soft, gnaefnl, and 
polished^ and which waa siibaei|nenilj, fays tiie historitf^ 
esteemed ^ ib» laodel ami iha rule of laodem pailiiiag." He 
proceeds to relate, tiiat Albani, Qaid% axid Domenichino^all 
derived their sweetness fcoaa thia aooros^ in tibe sane waj» 
most probaJbtyv ^^i Gavadoni took his first style from iha 
S. Doxnenico ; and from his Paul at the GonTontnali Qneroina 
acquired hia grand power of chiaroaoure. In short, if we nay 
dye oredii to history, Lodovico in hia own sdiool lanka like 
Homer among the Gieeks, /one imffemiorum, Individnal 
artists in him have reco^gnised what constitnted the ehaiacter 
of their own knowled^pe, becanse in oTory bzancb of painting 
he was truly profouni* 

The mast^ly dignity of his character appears to most 
adyanta^ in the cbister of & Miohele in Boseo, wliere^ 
assisted by his pupils^ he represented the actioaa ol 8t« Bene- 
dict and St. Ceeifia in thirty-seyen sepaiate histories. By 
his hand ia the Conflagration of Mount Caaono^ aad soma 
other p(«tions ; the zemalning parts are by Guido, W Tiarini, 
by Massari, by Cayedoni, by Spada, by Qadbiari, fy Brino^ 
and other young artists. These paintings haye been engxa^ed^ 
and ace worthy of the refomers of that age. On beholding 
what we may term Idbis gallery by diffisient haada, we shouhl 
be aknoat inclined to bestow upon the school of Lodcnrico thin 
trite eulogy; that from it, aa from the Trojan horse, thm 
issued omy princes. What does him still more honour is, 

* SeeCrequ^»«iiaksU(^th«twopictmmaiyM»<^^ 
(p. 32), one repreienting the Sconr^^ing of Christ, the othw his Crown of 
Thorra, irhiare tiie moit beautiM art of disposing the light to produce 
tlM desired efliset fe reiawlcable ; with an exquisite effisct of perspediTe, 
and a degree of inyention not to be surpassed in representing the suffering 
of our Redeemer. 



79 BOLOGNESB SCHOOL.— EPOCH HI. 

that his relatives themselves, down to the least and last, 
uniformly venerated him as a preceptor, insomuch that 
Annibal, on the completion of the Famese gallery, invited 
him to Rome, as the adviser, arhiter, and umpire of 
that work. He remained there less than two weeks, and 
then returning to his heloved Bologna, he survived Agostino 
seventeen years, and Annibal ten. Being separated from the 
two cousins, he employed himself at an advanced age in a 
manner less studied, but still exemplary and masterly. Nor 
ought a few slight inaccuracies of design to detract m>m the 
praise due to him, inaccuracies which he fell into about this 
period, as in the drawing of the hand of the Redeemer, in the 
act of calling St. Matthew to follow him, or in the foot of the 
Madonna of the Annunciation painted at S. Pietro, a hxHt 
which he saw too late, and it may be added, for which he 
died of affliction. Other less well-founded criticisms advanced 
against him by a traveller have been fully rebutted and con- 
futed by the Uan. Crespi.* 

Agostino, occupied for the most part in engraving, painted 
but Httle, this employment supplying him at once with the 
means of subsistence, and of sMning in the class of artists. 
Doubtless painting here sustained a loss, deprived of a genius 
equally calculated as his relations to promote the art. His 
powers of invention surpassed those of the other Caracci, and 
many rank him foremost in point of design. It is certain that 
in his engraving he corrected and improved upon the outlines 
of his originals. On his return from Venice he applied him-« 
self more effectually to colouring, and succeeded in that of a 
horse, so far as to deceive the Uving animal, a triumph so 
much celebrated in Apelles. He once competed with his 
brother Annibal for an altar-piece intended for the church of the 
Carthusians. His design was preferred ; and it was then that 
in his Communion of S. Girolamo he produced one of the most 
celebrated pictures of which Bologna can boast. Nothing 
can be imagined finer than the expression of devotion in the 
aged saint, the piety of the priest at the communion, the looks 
of the spectators, who support the dying, who catch his last 
accents, committing them instantly to writing, lest they escape ; 

* Lettere Fittoriche, torn. yii. lettera 4. 



AGOSTINO. 77 

oountenanoes finely yaried and animated, each breathing and 
speaking, as it were, peculiar mind. On its first exhibition, 
the pupils thronged around the picture to make their studies, 
insomuch that Annibal, urged by jealousy, assumed more of 
his brother's taste, becoming more select and slow, contriving 
further to addict his brother to engraving ; a plan in which 
he succeeded. He returned, as a painter, to Rome ; and the 
fine representation of Poetry, so much admired in the Famese 
gallery, was, in great part, owing to his talent ; and the same 
may be said of the &bles of Cephalus and Galatea, exquisitely 
graceful productions, which seem dictated by a poet, and exe- 
cuted by a Greek artist Hence it was rumoured that in the 
Famesian paintings the engraver had surpassed the painter ; at 
which Annibal, no longer able to subdue his envy, removed 
his brother from the undertaking under a variety of false- 
pretences ; nor was any humility on the part of Agostino, any 
advice of his elders, or any mediation of the great, sufficient 
to appease him. Quitting Rome, Agostino entered into the 
service of the duke of Parma, for whom he painted Celestial 
Love, Terrestrial Love, andYenalLoveyto adorn one of the halls, 
a very beautiful work, which he terminated only just before his 
death. A single figure remained wanting, and this the duke 
would never consent to have supplied by any other hand. At the 
point of death he was seized with lively remorse, on aocoimt 
of his many licentious engravings and prints, and even wept 
bitterly. At that period he designed a picture of the Last 
Judgment, which, however, he was unable to complete. Jn 
the account of his funeral, and in the oration recited on that 
occasion by Lucio Faberio, mention is made of a head of Jesus 
Christ, in the character of the universal judge, painted at that 
time, though unfinished, upon a black ground. Such a head 
is pointed out in the Albani palace at Rome, and duplicatecr 
exist elsewhere. In the features we see exhibited all that is 
at once most majestic and most terrible within the limits of 
the human imagination. 

Annibal was greatly celebrated in Lombardy in every pecu- 
liar taste which he chose to pursue. In his earliest works 
Mengs declares that he tvguoea the appearance, but not the 
depth and reality of Correggio's style ; but it is an appearance 
80 extremely phiusible, that it compels us to pronounce hfaa 



78 B0L0GNE8E 80H00Ii.«»EP0CH IH. 

«»• o£ ike iBOtt iMtfect imitaioni of tlMit eonsoiniKuiie Busier. 
Hifl Takn^dewn from the 0^08% ttfctlMcliueli of ike Capuc- 
omi in P»Rii% ottj ciwMenge tine meat dutiiigniBlLed foUowen 
<»f tke PajuMB BohooL His pietme of S. Boieco is still more 
oeftebcsted, ovmpnmg tlM peifeetioM of different artiets^ a 
peee eagiaved in aeqaaforte by Ghudo BenL It was exe- 
ented f or Benio, tkenuoe transfaned to Modena, andfrom the 
kit place to Dicaden. He represented the BBwt^ standing 
near a portiee om a baseaoenti and ^specsiag Ids wealth to 
poor mendicants; a oomposHion not so veiy noh in figures aa 
in knowiedgeof the art A thnmg of paiqien^ as different in 
point of iafindtj as in age and sex, is admiiaUj varied, boik 
nt the grouping and tibe gestures. One is seen receiying with 
gcatitade, anoUiar inq»tienily expecting, a third counting his 
akM with delight; ereiy ol^ject is misery and humiliation^ 
and yet0?«iy tbingseens to display the abundance and dignity 
of tiiaaBrtiat. But ptoeeeduig to Kome in the year 1600, he 
-CBtered en anetliHr career; ^^he checked his nre^" observes 
Menga^ *^ he iaipre?^ the eztavagance of his fonus, imitated 
BaffiMUe uni the andents^ letauuttg at the aanie time a portion 
of the atjle of Cors^ggio te sapped dignity" (torn. ii. p. 19). 
Albane makes nse of nearly the same words in the letter given 
hj Bellori (pw 44X ftddii^ thai A.nnihal» in the opinion of 
eompflfcent judges^ ^ &v saipassed his cousin, &om a knowledge 
ef the wnksef Baflbello^ in addition to that of the most beau- 
Itfal ancient atatnes.'* He was there employed in various 
ehurches, tlKMigh his crawning ettort^ and neuiy the whole 
fmdation ef the arty as restoeed by his means, are to be 
asaght lor in the Fanese pakco The subjects were selected 
byMonai|^ A^poehi; and together with the allegories may be 
lead in ArilorK In a smaU chambtf he gave rei^esentations 
of tin Yirtnes^ sadk as his Ckoia^ffereHUif Hsreule^ nu^ 
taitmmff th$ Woridy Ulyue» the JMetatar ; in the gallery 
varieos fiiUes ef Tktueus Love, such as those of Arion and 
Prometheus ; with others of Yenal Love^ among which a won- 
derfkd figure ef a Baeehanal is one of the most conspicuous. 
The woric is admirably distributed and varied with ovals^ 
coiaioes^ and with a variety of ornamental figures, sometimes 
in stucco^ at ethers in chiaroscuro, where the effect of his assi* 
daous studies of the Famesian Hercules is very i^parent, 



as well ms the tano of the BdiTidere, wkioli ke aMiinitely 
designed, without even having the model hefere him. Tlie 
whole of the otirar parts hareathe Attiodegance oomfaiaed with 
Itaffaelle8qiiegxaoe»aiMl iaaitatioiisnot only of his own Tihaldi 
bnt of Bonaxnioti himsdf, no less than all the sprightly and 
the powerfnl added to the ait by the Yenelians and I^niihard& 
This was the eariiest prodnction, wheie^ as in Fndora'e boz, 
all the geniuses of Ihe Italian sehools vnited their several gifts; 
and in its fit place I deseiibed the astonishment created by 
it at Rome, with the revolntioa it ooeasioaed in the whole 
art. 

On aooonnt of this work he is ranked by MMigs aezt sAer 
the three leading mastera in the loarth d^giee^ and even 
esteemed superaninent in regard to the form of his Tirile 
figures. PoiisBin asserts^ Ihat after Aafihello there were no 
better eoBipositioiis than theae, and he pvefem the deoomtiTe 
heads and f^oies already mentioned, with the ether naked 
forms, in irhich the artist was said to ha^e surpeased himself 
even to his fables so beaatifnlly painted. To him Bag^one 
refers the method of colovring mm natnre^ whidi was nearly 
lost, as well as the tme ait of landaoape-paiating, afterwar<ls 
imitated by the Fkmidi. To these might likewise be added 
the nse of Garicatnres, whidi no one beHer than he knew how 
to copy from natnre^ and to i aw e ase yndi ideal power. In 
the Roman galleries many of Annifaal's pictures are to be met 
with, eonda^fced in this new eMe ; and theie is one in the 
Laneellotd palace^ small, and pamted m oollOy* rivalling, I had 
almost said, the best pieeea of Erooiaari. It is a Paa teaching 
Apollo to ]^y upon the pipe; fignree at once designed, 
cdonied, and dispoaed with Ihe hand of a gieat master. They 
are so findy ezpressiye, tint we see in the coontenanoe of the 
youth, humili^, and apprdienaon of committing an error ; 
and in that of the old man, tanung another way, pecaliar 
attention to the sonnd, his pleasure in posseaedng such a pupil, 
and his anxiety to conceal from him faii real opinion, lest he 
might happen to grow Tain.f 

No other pieces so exquislely finidied are found by his hand 

* In oolonrs, of wbich yolk of egg, or a kind of glae, is the yehide. 
t See the ** Diaaertazione ra la Pittnra," by tbt Canon Lazzarini, in 
the Catalogue of FSctnreB at Pcaaro, p. 118* 



80 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH UI. 

at Bologna, where there prevaiLs the same strong party, com-- 
.xnenced in the time of the Caraoci, and which prefers Lodo- 
-vico to Annibal. When we reflect that Annibal, in addition 
to the patrimony left by his school, conferred upon it the 
riches which the genius of the Greeks, throughout many ages 
and many places had collected to adorn their, style ; when we 
reflect on the progress which, on observing his new style at 
Rome, was made by Domenichino, Guide, Albano, Lanfranco, 
with the new light which it afforded to Algardi, according to 
the supposition of Passeri, in respect to sculpture, and the 
improvement which by his means took place in the very pleas* 
ing and attractive painting of Flanders and of Holland, we 
fed inclined to coincide with the general sentiment entertained 
beyond the limits of Bologna, that Annibal was the most 
eminent artii^ of his family. At the same time we may 
allow, that Agostino was the greater genius, and Lodovieo, to 
whom we are indebted for both, the greater teacher of these 
three. As such, too, the learned Ab. Magnani, librarian and 
lecturer upon eloquence to the institution, asngns to him the 
office of teacher, in an able oration upon the flue arts, printed 
at Parma by Bodoni, along with others by the same author. 

The three Caracd may be almost said to deflne the bound-* 
aries of the golden age of painting in Italy. They are her 
last sovereign masters, unless we are willing to admit a few 
of their select pupils, who extended that period during the 
space of some years. Excellent masters, doubtless, flourished 
subsequently ; but alter their decease, the powers of such 
artists appearing less elevate and less solid, we begin to hear 
complaints respecting the decline of the art. Nor were there 
wanting those who contended for a secondanr age of silver^ 
dating from Guide down to the time of Giordano, as well on 
account of the minor merit of the artists, as for the prices, so- 
much greater than formerly, which Guide introduced into the 
art Ilie Caracci themselves' had been only scantily remune- 
rated. Count Maivasia admits this feet, not omitting to point 
out the small dweUing, and to describe the narrow drcnm- 
stances in which Lodovieo died, while his two relatives left 
the world still more impoverished than himself. The Caracoi, 
moreover, did not, like other painters, leave legitimate sons to 
perpetuate their school ; they never married, and were ao- 



FRANCESCO. 81 

customed to ohaerve that the art was sole partner of their 
thoughts. And this beloved mistress they adored and served 
with a love so passionate, as to abandon almost all worldly 
care for themselves. Even while sitting at their meals they 
had the implemeidts of their art before them ; and wherever 
they observed an action or gesture adapted to adorn it, they 
took instant note of it. And to this their free estate, more 
than to any other cause, were they indebted for their noble 
progress and improvement. Had they '' taken to themselves 
a wife," how easily would their agreeable friendship and 
attachment, from which each of the three derived light and 
knowledge from the rest, have been broken in upon by tattling 
and trifles beneath their caxe. Most probably, too, it might 
have occasioned too great rapidity of hand, at the expense of 
study ; such at least having been the result with regard to 
many, who, to indulge a woman's taste, or to provide for the 
wants of a fcunily, have addicted themselves, to carelessness 
and despatch. At the period, then, of the decease of the two 
cousins, and the advanced age of Lodovico, there remained of 
the family only two youths, one^ named Francesco, at Bologna, 
the other, Antonio, in Rome. 

Francesco was % younger brother of Agostino and Annibal. 
Confiding in his connections and in his own talent, excellent 
in point of design, and reasonably good in colouring, he 
ventured to oppose a school of his own to that of Lodovico, his 
master, inscribing upon the door : '' This is the true school of 
the Caracci." He enjoyed no reputation at Bologna, but was 
rather held in dislike, on account of his opposition to and 
detraction of Lodovico, to whom he owed what little he 
executed at that place, namely, an altar-piece, with various 
saints, at S. Maria Maggiore, the whole of which had been 
retouched by his kind and able cousin. Having gone to 
Rome, he was first received with applause, but becoming 
better known he was soon despised ; and, without leaving a 
single specimen of his pencil, he died there in his twenty- 
seventh year, in the hospital. Antonio Caracci, a natural son 
of Agostino, and pupil to Annibal, was of a totally difierent 
disposition. Prudent, afiectionate, and grateful to his rela- 
tives, he received Annibal's last sighs at Rome, bestowed upon 
him a splendid funeral in the same church of the Rotonda, 

Toil. in. o 



S2 BOLOONESE 60BO0L.-— EPOCH III. 

where Baftiello's imasiia had been ezhilwted, and deposited 
his aedies afc the side e£ thai great artist fie sonriyed, a 
TalotodiDarian, during some yeais, and died -at the age of 
thirty-fire, in Bome, irheve he lefit eome works in the ponti- 
fical palace, and at S. Bartoknnmeo. Thof are xardj met 
with in oahinets, though I taw one in Genoa, a Yeromca^ in 
possession of the Brignoie lorail j* BelLxri had written hie 
£ie, which, althongh now lost, leads to the 4sni908itiiin that he 
possessed great merit, inasDnMlh as that writer confined him- 
self to the eonmiemofation of only first-rate artists. Baldas- 
saze Aloisi, oaUed Ckilanino, a iriwHman and achokr el the 
Caracoi, yielded to &w of his feQow-fiqiils in Mb oosaposi- 
tioas. ifis ptetnie of Ihe Yisitation, at the dmrdi of the 
Garitil in Bologna, so maoh extolled hj llahasi% to say 
nothing of Tavions other pietares, ^xpoated at Boatne, and 
jbyonrably recorded bj Baglione, afibrds anqple prooifis of it. 
His f ortona, howerer, was not etpial to his nraarit ; so that iie 
whoUj dereled hinsBelf to portiaitnie, and aa we have etatediy 
in the Boman sdiool, he uiete for some period boasted the 
chief swaj in the bnmch of portraits^ whic^ weae mnifiBmly 
characterised by great power and strong ielie£» 

Other Bok>gne8e arti^B, ednoated in the same aceadteiay^ took 
np ihetr rendeBce also at Rome, or in its state; nor were th^ 
few in number, sinee, as was observed In the kmxA. epock of 
that sdiool, they were leoeiTed there with distingni&Aied 
fvronr. We idiall commence with the least edefarated. Lat- 
tanzio MMaazdi, called by Baglione Lattaniio Bolognas, had 
yisited Bome piBTioos to Annibal, and in the po^cate of 
fi^Ktns y., oondocted several works lor the Yatican, which 
augured well ol his genins, had he not died there very yonng; 
as well as one Gianpaolo Bonconti, at an age aHaSk more imma-^ 
tare^ having vainly fdlowed his master to Eoaw, iHbere he had 
only time to make a few designs, bnt conoeived in the best 
taste. Innooensio Tacconi was kinsman, accordiBg to some^ 
and assuredly enjoyed the confidence of AnnibaL From him 
he received designs and retonches, tending to make him appear 
a more connderable artist than he really was. To judge horn, 
some of bis histories of St. Andrew, painted for S. Maria del 
Popfdo, and S. Angido, in the fish-market, he may be said to 
have rivalled his b^ f^ow-pupils. Bnt abasing his maaUa^a 



OlO. LVI6I VALBMO. 88 

goodness, and alienatiiig his legafd from Agostino^ from 
Albano, amd from Ouido, by iBfi9i6i«eseiit«tion8, he recerrod 
tlie usiud lecompeiBM of sliuiderefs. Annibal withdreir bis 
flnpport, deprirMl of wbiob be gndoAlly became noie and 
mote inngmficant Anton Maria Padko eaify left Borne, and, 
entering tbe setrioe of Mario Famese, rerided upon bis 
estates, being emplojed in pain<ang at Castro, at Latera^ and 
at Famese, in wbose eatbe^bral be i^ooed bis piistsre of tbe 
mass, to wbicb Amnbal also pat bn band, eren eondnoting 
some of the figsies. Baldasaafre Crooe is an srtist enametaied 
by Oilandi among ^ pupils of Amiifcol ; by Matrasia, among 
tbe imitators of Ghudo. Baglione demribes bim as snperioi* 
in age to aH floree of i^e Oaraoci, iHtrodoeing Urn into Rome 
as early as Hie limes of Oti^oiy. Towards leeonoiling tbe 
aoconnts of tbese writers, it migbt be observed, tiiat eontinn* 
ing to reside at Rome, be may ba/re taken adtantage, as be 
advanced in age, of tbe ezsmpltes afforded by bis nebte fellow- 
citizens. His style, from wbat we gatber of it in iihe pnblie 
palace of Titerbo, and a cupola of uie Gesik, tui weH as frvm 
bis luge bistories of S. Susanna, and otber places in Rome, is 
easy, natural, and entitling Mm to tbe nttne of a good 
mechanist and painter of freKos, but not so easily to tbat of a 
foHower of the Oairacci. Gio. Luigi Talesio entered, 1ftK>ugb 
late, into the same flebool, and cbiefly attaebed bimself to 
engraving and to miniature. Proiceeding to Rome, be was 
tbere employed hv^ tbe Lodovisj under I9ie pontificate of Ore- 
gory X V ., and ontained great bonours. We find bim com- 
mended in the iirorks of Marini and otber poets, tbougb less 
£>r die art^ in wbiob be onlymoderately excelled, tban for bis 
asnduity and bis fortune. He was one of tbose wits, wbo, in 
tbe want of sound merit, know bow to substitute easier 
methods to advance t]iemselves ; seasonably to regale sucb as 
can assist &em, to affect joy mnidst utter humiliation, to 
accommodate themselves to men's tempers, to flatter, to 
insinuate, and to canvass interest, until they attain their 
object. By means like these he maintained his equipage in 
Rome, where Annibal, during many years, obtained no other 
stipend for his honourable toils, than a bare roof for his head, 
daily pittance for himself and bis servant, with annual pay- 

o 2 



84 B0L0ONE8E 8CH00Ii.— EPOCH III. 

ment of a hnndred and twenty crowns.* In the few pieoesk 
executed by YaLesio, at Bologna, auch as his Nunziata of the 
Mendicants, we peroeiye a dry composition -of small relief, yet 
exact according to the method of the miniaturists. He 
appears to haye somewhat improved at Rome, where he left a^ 
few works in hesco and in oil, exhibiting his whole power^ 
perhaps, in a figure of Religion, in the cloister of the Minerva*. 
To these artists of the Caracci school it will be sufficient only 
to have alluded. They were indeed no more than gregarious, 
followers of those elevated standards of their age. 

The five, however, who next follow, deserve a nearer view,, 
and more accurate acquaintance with their merits. These,, 
remaining indeed at Rome, became leaders of new ranks,, 
which from them assumed their name and device ; and hence 
we have alternately been compelled to record the disciples of 
Albano, of Guide, and so of the rest. This repetition, how- 
ever, in other j^aces, will now permit us to treat of them in a 
more cursory view. 

Domenico Zampieri, otherwise Domenichino, is at this day 
universally esteemed the most distinguished pupil of the? 
Caracci ; and has even been preferred by Count Algarotti to 
the Caracci themselves. What is still more, Poussin ranked 
him directly next to Rafiieiiello ; and in the introduction to the 
life of Camassei, almost the same opinion is given by Passeri. 
During the early part of his career his genius appeared slow, 
because it was profound and accurate ; and Passeri attributeek 
his grand progress more to his amazing study than to his 
genius. From his acting as a continual censor of his own 
productions, he became among his fellow-pupils the most exact 
and expreadve designer, his colours most true to nature, and 
of the best impcuto^ the most universal master in the theory 
of his art^ the sole painter amongst them all in whom Mengs 
found nothing to desire, except a somewhat larger proportion 
of elegance. That he might devote his whole being to the art, 
he shunned all society, or if he occasionally sought it in the 
public theatres and markets, it was in order better to observe 
the play of nature's passions in the features of the people ;-~ 

* See Malyana, yoI. i. p. 574. 



DOMEN xcmiTO* 85 

those of joy, anger, grie^ terror, and erery affection of the 
mind, and to commit it living to his tablets; and thus; 
exclaims Bellori, it was, he sacoeeded in delineating the sonl, 
in colouring life, and rousing those emotions in our breasts at 
which his works all aim; .as if he waved the same wand 
which belonged to the poetical enchanters, Tasso and Ariostq. 
After several years' severe study at Bologna, he went to 
Parma to examine the beautifhl works of the Lombards ; and 
thence to Borne, where he completed his erudite, taste under 
Annibal, who selected him as one of his assistants. 

His style of painting is almost theatrical, and he in general 
lays the scene amidst some splendid exhibition of aichitectuxe,'*' 
which serves to confer upon his compositions a new and ele- 
vated character in the manner of Paul Yeronese. There he 
introduces his actors, selected from nature's finest models, and 
animated by the noblest impulses of the art The. virtuous 
have an expression so sweet, so sinoete, and so affectionate, as 
to inspire die love of what is good. And in the like manner 
do the vicious, with their guilty features^ create in us as deep 
aversion to thdr vice. We must despair to find paintings 
exhibiting richer or more varied ornaments, accessaries more 
beautifully adapted, or more majestic draperies. The figures 
are finely dispoised both in pboe and action, condudng to the 
general effect ; while a light pervades the tdiole whidb seems 
to rejoice the spirit; growing brighter and brighter in the 
aspect of the best countenances, whence they first attract the 
eye and heart of the beholder. The most delightful mode of 
view is to take in the whole scene, and observe how well eacK 
personage represents his intended part. In general there is 
no want of an interpreter to declare what the actors think and 
speak ; they bear it stamped upon their features and attitudes ; 
and though gifted with audible words, they could not tell their 
tale to the ear, more plainly than they iq>eak it to the eye. 
Sorely, of this, we have proof In the Scourging of St. Andrew^ 
at S. Gregorio, at Rome, executed in competition with Guide, 
and placed opposite to his St. Andrew, in the act of being led. 

* He was likewise verv eminent in this bianoh, being named by 
Gregory XT. as architect for the Apostolic Falaoe. 



86 BOLOGNBaS SOMOIi.*— CPOCH in. 

to the gibbet It is oomaonl j nported that an aged w<miuui^ 
aooompuied hr m little boy, was seen l<Mig wistfiilly engaged 
widL Yiewing Denwnidiiiwx pietave, i^ewing it part bj paart 
to the boj9 Mid next tmniiig te the hiflloiybyCkudo, et^ gare 
it aeniaozjghHiee^aaMlpMBedeB. Some aesert, thai Amuhel, 
being aoqiiauitad mA the &et, toA oeeanos frem the w- 
omnatonoe to gii« hie paefcaenae to ihe fesmer pieo^ B is 
mooeofiar added) that im panitmg ese <^ the exeeotioiien, he 
BH^milj thxev hiniflaltiatea paanoo^ oaiBfthretttoiung irords 
and actions, and that Jbuaibal snrpnriBg him at ^ai moment ^ 
endxaoad Um, erriaiiiiay with jojr, ^T^dli^^ rajBomeni- 
ohiiMV thou ait taaahlng' me V^ Bo wm^ and at- the same time 
so of^nnd it appeased to^him, ika,^ Ae artial^ fike the ofator, 
fikoald feel widun hkna^ all that he-w vepreaeating tiy otiieis. 
YettUa paatnaeofthaSKMugtsg ia laso wagr to be corn- 
paced witk the OommimioB ef Sk Arome^ er toihe Marijrdom 
of & Agnaa^ aad otiMir ireriba^ eoadaeted is Ian xiper jears. 
Ilhe fint of ihaae is geBtralfy allowed to be the finest picture 
Borne eaa boast aext t»titoTkraBS^pix«tlonof Baft^o ; while 
the aaoond waa aatiraated bj his Tiral Chudo at ten times the 
maaife of Tftafftielio's own ]necea* In these <^nreh paintings 
one gvaai attraeties eoneasts in the giory of tiie angels,, ex- 
quisitely baantiM is frntnie, fbfi of Hrelj action, and so in- 
teodneed aa to parfom tile most giamons offices in the ^eoe; 
the evewung of nM B Ptywi^ the bearing paints^ ^e scattenng <it 
noma, wmmmg the mai^ dance^ and waking sweet mebmes. 
In tibeattitad^ we often trace the imitation of Corr^gio ; jet 
the fDimaava diflftveBt^ and fer atte most part hare a flatness 
of the Bose^ which distingoishes them, and ^tcs iSxem an air 
of oomelineas* Mneh, howerer, as Demenichino deGghted in 
cal-painting, he is m<Mre soft and harmonioiis in his frescos; 
aomo of wUoh are to be seen, bemdes those in Naples, at Fano, 
but the greatest part or them were destroyed by fii». They 
oonaist of soriptaral histories in a chapel of the cathedral ; of 
mythological mcidents in villa Biacciano, at Frascati ; the acts 
of S, Nilo, at €hx>tta Fenata ; and various saered subjects 



* Tha CaT« 9iicdDi vary jintly condenms this opinion in bit " EiainA 
Critico del Webb,'' p. 49. 



87 

intozspeised tlaoBgh difiront diniielieiat Borne. In the oor* 
bels of the capolas at K Cailo a' Oatinari, and at 8. Andna 
della Yalky he painted at the fonner the fenr Yiitraa^ at die 
latter the feur Srai^ielieie, skill v^gazded aa modelB after in- 
nnmezable aimikr prodnetienfl. At & Aadiea a]ao are seen 
TarioBs hifltoriea of that saiat in the tribune^ bendea those of 
St. CeciHiai at SL Luigi ; others at & fiilTestro in the Qniiinal) 
of David and othev sor^tnial aabjeftSy which in point of 
oompodtionandtafitaof oestumaa» hy asme esteemed supe- 
rior to the lest. 

It seems almost incredihle, that wwks like these> whieh mm 
engage the admintion of pnifiDBioa theonsives^ sh<Hild ones^ 
as I hay« nanated» have been decried to sneh a dssiee, thai 
the aathos was k>aff destitnte of all eoauniflrioafl^ and even on 
the point of tnauMcriag his gnmns to the art of scripture. 
This waa in part owin^ to the art of his Bval% who lepresenled 
his very eTPellenees as defiaeU^ andinpait to srane little fiidts 
of his own. DonwniohiBO was less dirtingniriied for iaventbn 
than for any oth^r faatanch of his profiBssion. Of this, his pio- 
tnze of the &Maiy at Bekigna affwis an instance, which neitiiar 
1^ that ptfiod nor since has been folly naderstood by the 
public ; and it is known not to have pteaasd even his own 
friends, whieh led the author to.iegget its prodactiofc Diffident 
thenoeforward of hia powen in £Lb depaitmont^ he often bor* 
rowed the ideas of others; imitated Agosthio in his St 
Jerome, the S. Booeo, of Anmbal, in his afan8givittg> of St. 
Cecilia ; and even other less eminent artiste ; observing^ that 
in every picture he found something good, as PUny aadt, that 
from every book we may cull some useful information. These 
imitations afforded occasion for his rivals to charge him with 
poverty of invention^ procuring an engxaving of Agostino's 
St Jerome» of which they eiin^ated eopies^ dw i onn c lng Do^- 
meaioo Zampieri as a plagiarist Lanfranco, the chief agent 
ki these intrigues, exfaibtted on the contrary only his own 
designs, invariably novd, and made a display of his own cde^ 
rity and promptness of hand, as eontmsted with his livaTs 
want of resolution and despatch.. Had Domanchino enjoyed 
the same advantages of party as the Caracci in Bologna, 
which he well deserved, be would soon hsye triumphed over 
his adversaries^ by proving the distinctioii between imitation 



88 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.— -EPOCH III. 

and servility,* and that if his works were longer in being 
brought to perfection than his riyaJ's, their reputation would 
be proportionally durable. The public is an equitable judge ; 
but a good cause is not sufficient without the advantage of 
many voices to sanction it. Domenichino, timid, retired, and 
master of few pupils, was destitute of a party equal to his 
cause. He was constrained to yield to the crowd that 
trampled . him, thus verifying the observation of Monsig. 
Agucchi, that his worth would never be rightly appreciated 
during his lifetime. The spirit of party passing away, impar- 
tial posterity has rendered him justice ; nor is there a royal 
gallery but confesses an ambition for his specimens. His 
figure pieces are in the highest esteem, and fetch enormous 
prices. He is rarely to be met with except in capital cities ; 
his David is a first rate object of inquiry to all strangers visit- 
ing the college of Fano, who have the least pretensions to 
ta^te ; the figure of the king, as large as life, being of itself 
sufficient to render an artist's name immortal. 
. There is a small but inestimable picture of St. Francis, 
that belonged to the late Count Jacopo Zambeocari, at Bo- 
logna. The saintis seen in the act of prayer, and by the ani- 
mated and flushed expression of the eyes, it appears as if his 
heart had just been dissolved in tears. Two pictures, likewise 
beautifully. composed, I have seen at Genoa; the Death of 
Adonis bewailed by Venus, in the Durazzo gaUety just before 
mentioned, and the S. Rocco in the Brignole Sale, offering up 
prayers for the cessation of the league. The attitude of the 
holy man ; the eagemeas of those who seek him ; the tragic ex- 

* See the defence set up by Cretpi, both for Domenichino and Massari, 
anotber imitator of Agoitmo's picture. It is inserted in the Certosa di 
Bologna, described at p. 26. He has also been commended by BeUori 
for hu slowness of hand, who brinn forward some of his maxims, such 
as that " no single line is worthy of a real painter which is not dictated 
by the genius bdbre it is traced by the band ; that exceUence consists in 
the full and proper completion of works ;" and he used to reproach 
those pupils who designed in sketch, and coloured by dashes of the pencil 
(p. 213). We meet with a third apology in Passeri (p. 4), for some 
figures borrowed from the Famese Gulery, and imitated by Domenichino 
in the histories of St. Jerome in the portico of S. Onofrio. At p. 9, 
too, he deifoids him in regard to the style of his folds, in which by some 
he was thought too scanty, and too hara in their disposition. 



FRAKCB8G0 ALBAKI. 89 

iiibition of the dying and the dead around him ; a funeral pro- 
cession going hj; an infemt seen on the bosom of its dead 
mother, vainly seeking its wonted nutriment ; all shake the 
soul of the spectator as if he were beholding the real scene. 
Among his pictures from profane histoiy ihe most celebrated 
is his Chase of Diana, in the Borgfaesi Palace, filled with 
spirited forms of nymphs, and firely incidents. In the same 
collection are some of his landscapes, as well ae in that of Flo- 
rence ; and some of his portraits in others. Here too he is 
excdlent, but they are the least difficult branches to acquire. 
Respecting his other works, and the most eminent of his pupils, 
enough has been stated in the Roman and Neapolitan schools. 
He educated for his natiye place Gia Batista Ruggieri ; and 
to his numerous other misfortunes was added the pain of find- 
ing him ungrateful,' after having rendered him eminent in his 
art. This pupil united with Gessi in quality of assistant ; and 
as we shall show, also took his denomination firom him. Pas- 
seri dwells on this disappointment of Domenichino incidentally 
in his life of Algardi (p. 198). 

Next to Zampieri comes his intimate friend Francesco 
Albani, *'*' who, uming at the same object," observes Malvasia, 
^' and adopting the same means, pursued the like glorious 
career." They agree in a general taste for select design, 
solidity, pathetic power, and fikewise in their tints, except in 
Albani's fleshes being ruddier, and not unfirequently faded, from 
his method of laying on the grounds. In point of original 
invention he is superior to Domenichino, and perhaps to any 
other of the school ; and in his representation of female forms, 
according to Mengs, he has no equal. By some he is deno- 
minated the Anacreon of painting. Like that poet, with his 
fihort odes, so Albani, from his sinall paintings, acquired great 
reputation ; and as the one sings Yenus and the Loves, and 
maids and boys, so does the artist hold up to the eye the same 
delicate and graceful subjects. Nature, indeed, formed, the 
perusal of the poets inclined, and fortune encouraged his genius 
for this kind of painting ; and possessing a consort and twelve 
children, all of surprising beauty, he was at the same time 
blest with the finest models for the pursuit of his studies. He 
had a villa most delightfully situated, which farther presented 
him with a variety of objects, enabling him to represent the 



9Q BOLOOmSK flCaDttk— <90CH III. 

b«Mitif4[il rami viewH m> iaaaMar to kis eje. FasBeri gnatlj 
exUdsMs tBl«B^.iiLtiiiftlnBMid^ rgiMglriiiy, ihtA irheie othew^ 
being daaiiQua o£ nitixi^ jSgrasBto tihe laodfroaipe^ or its Tarious 
objects ie «oe waaAm, laoafe freqienilj alter tiieir nattind 
eoloiir» be iiivwiabljpraMKyee tike green e£ biatrees^ tiie deap- 
aaaaof bie^wate^ and tba aaienk^of t^air, imdflr the most 
lovely aepaDt ; and CMitimd ta uaite tiiem wiA tbe most 
enobaating* power of banunjw 

Upon sneb groiuid% for tbe naaaipait^ be plaeeeand dispoeea 
bis oompoflitionfl^ aUhoo^be may oeoaaieiia&j introdiiee- spe- 
eimens of bifl acebiteetiiie» in wbidb be iaeqnaUj expert. His 
piotoxes am eflen met Tntii in ooilectioaay or to speak mote 
eorrectlj, tbegr xe^ippear, inaamnob as betik be bimself made 
zepetitionay and pmidised Us popila in tbem, giving tiiem bis. 
own tonebeo. He esbftits hw baeobanals^ vrm&ag fignsee 
tbttb bad already been so admiraU^ traated bif Anxubal in 
many of bis littfe pistoMay from wbiob, if I mistake not^ Al- 
baao dvew the first ideaeof bia atjlio; adapting it to bis own 
talent, which was not so elevated as that of AmnbaL Bae 
most fKronrite tbemea are tbor sbeping Yenn% Diana in her 
bath» Daoae; on. her oancb^ Qalaftaa in tin se% Bnropa on tbe 
boll) a pieoe whieh ia aJao seen on &bH^ scale in tbe Colonna 
and Bolqgnetti eidlections at Bome, and in that of the Conti 
Mosoa at PesKBo* How beaatiftiny do those fignies of tite 
Loves ihsow their veil overtiie viiginy in oider to protect her 
feomtbe sun's n|^%whiki otiban axe seen diawing forward ^ 
boll with bands of flowem, or goading bim in the side with 
their daiis» At times bft iirtiodnoes tbem in tfaedance, wear* 
ing garlands, and pfactising with their bows at a heart sos^ 

Sanded in the^ air for a target. Oeoasiowally be concesils some 
octcine^ or ingeniovs allegoiy, nnder tiie tmL of painting ; as 
in those four oval pietnres (tf the Elements in the Borgbesi 
palace, which be repeated for tbe royal galleiy at Tnrin. 
There too are Cnpids aaen employed in tempering Tnlcan's 
darts; spreading their flnares for buds upon tbd wing ; fishing 
andawimming in the sea; calling and wreathing flowete, as 
if intended to represent the system of the ancients, who referred 
every work of natnte to Genii, and with Qenii accordingly |»eo- 
pledthe world. To sacredsobjects Albano devoted less attention, 
bntdid not vaiy bis taatfr The entire action ofsncb pieces was 



FJMJSCJSSCia A&BiLll& 91 

made to depend aa theniiiistKy o£gmoe&lQkerllbe,maniaIl•- 
]Ler sunilaj: to tliat whiek ww 0i:£aeqiie]itl7 adopted by P; 
Tomielliui lue mariBie oaxuoBettes^ wkese^ in er^cj hittoij <rf 
ibe Yirgia and HoIt Child^ ht iatiodima a thzoBg^ of them 
as a saoied taiiu AjBotkerTexy &TOimto nepetatioii of idea 
is that of reiffiesentijig the Infimii Chriet^ witii. Idb eje tttzaed 
towards Heaven upon the aagdiS^ aame in the aot of binigiiig 
thonifi^ eome the aamrgi^ seoa the (stosm^ or odioar eyn^bois of 
his futuze passxoib Theace is a pietoro ol Hu&kuidin Fleimuse, 
to whieK I alluded in the Jk^crijXtioin. ef the dnnL gf^ary, 
and it is also fioiuid soBMwhat Tailed in twc^ fisa jMeces ; one 
at the Donenieaoi izLFodi* the other in Bekgno^ aiFSippisL 
Theae^ and other vockaof Aihaai»intenpBaB9ed tfaong^hent <ti£- 
iBBmt cities, aa in MaJieli6% in Onmoi in Bimini, beeidee his 
fresco paintingB in Bobgaa» at & MMieie in Boeoo> atS. Ja- 
eopo, cf the Spaniacda at San% with the design of Anaibal ; 
^hese sttfficientl J exhibit his siqpeiiQP taint for huge paintingB^ 
althongh he appUed hiuflelf with gxeattr aest and vigour to 
those onasmidler scab* 

Albani opened an asademy &r sevend tsoes at Borne, and 
at BologiQ% invaciaUy a eenpetitor o£ Onido, both in his 
magisterial and his profonBenal eepacit^iu* Henoeaorose tiioee 
stnctnres npon his stjie which Oaido's cU0cq>bft affected to 
despise as loose and efepfWTiata» wanting dufanoa in the virile 
fxma, whUe those of tha beys wcore all of tlw same propertimiy 
and his heads of the Hely Family and of saints had always 
one idea* Sindfay! aomsatioiuii advanced Iskewiee agwast 
Pietio Pemgi&o^ aaa not mjlwilaAed to depssas so great an 
artist's Bierit» so nmeh ae the esteem of Aanibal^ his own 
writiQg% and his fopils serve to raise him hi ear regard. 
It is matter of hiatorieal fMst ' that Annibal^ seised with 
admiration of some of his mail pictares, and saaumg otfaezs a 
bacchante^ seen a4 a fonatam poaring oat wane, purchased it, 
and dedared that he had not even pwd for the drops of water 
so exqwiatdy ooloiued by tibe wine. Of his writings dtere 
remain only a bw imgraents, jseserved by Malvaaa, not 

* This maldup is questioned in many places by MalYBaia» and denied 
1»y Oriandi, ^flio in the artiole Franeeseo Albano, designates him as the 
sworn friend of GkiiilD Rent, m close onion with whom h« prosecuted 
their delightM art; bat this can only apply to their early years. 



02 BOLOONESE SCHOOIi.— »BPOCH III. 

indeed redaoed to method, a tsak that ought to deyblre on 
some other pen, but highly yalnable from the infonoation and 
maxims which thej contain. Among his pupils, Saochi and 
Cignani are in themselves sufficient to reflect credit upon their 
master, the first of whom sustained the art at Rome, the other 
at Bologna, and to whose efforts it was owing that its reputa- 
tion so long continued in both these schools. There, moreorer, 
we recounted the names of Speranza, and Mola, of Lugano, his 
noble disciples ; and to these, besides Cignani, to whom we 
refer elsewhere, we can add a considerable number. CKo. Batista 
Mola, a Frenchman, long continued with Albano, and accord- 
ing to Boschini, resided with the other Mola at Venice, where 
thej copied a yast work of Paul Veronese for Cardinal BichL 
He displayed surprising skill in drawing mral scenes and 
trees, and being preferred by many in this branch to his 
master, he often added landscape to his master's figures, and 
occasionally adapted figures to his own landscape, yery beau- 
tiful, in Albani's style, but without his softness. In the excel* 
lent collection of the Marchesi Rinuodni, at Florence, is a 
picture of the Repose in Egypt, by the same hand. Two 
other foreign pupils also did him credit; Antonio Catalani, 
called II Romano, and Girohuno Bonini, also from his natiye 
place, entitled I'Anconitano, who, in imitating Albani, was 
equalled by few, and who enjoyed his perfect confidence and 
friendship. Settling at Bologna, they there employed them- 
selves with reputation in some elegant works, and left several 
histories in fresco in the public palace. In this last branch, 
Pierantonio Torri also distinguished himself^ called, in Guari- 
enti's lexicon, Antonio, dropping Pietro on the authority of the 
^^ Passagiere Disingannato ;" and Torrigli, in the Guide of 
Venice, where he painted the architectural parts in the church 
of S. Giuseppe for the figures of Ricchi. Filippo Menzani is 
known only as the attached disciple and faithful copyist of his 
master. Gio. Batista Cklli, and Bartolommeo Morelli, Hie 
former called from his birth-place, Bibiena, the latter Pianoro, 
were similarly employed in taking copies from him ; though 
the second applied to it with extreme reluctance, on account of 
Albani being ^' too highly finished, diligent and laborious, for 
the task of copying." iBoth these artists are commended by 
the continuator of Malyajsia. Bibiena, though he died early. 



OtriDO BENI. 93 

conducted works that might he asciihed to Alhoiii, in particular 
tiie Ascension at the Certosa, and his St. Andrew at the 
Serri in Bologna. Pianoro succeeded admirably well in his 
frescos, more especially in the chapel of Casa Pepoli at 
S. Bartolommeo di Porta, decorated by him throughout in such 
exquisite taste, that, were histonr silent, it womd be said to 
hare been designed and coloured by Albaiii's own hand. 

By some, Guide Beni is esteemed the great genius of the 
school ; nor did any other single artist exdte so much jealouay 
in the Garacd. Lodovico was unable to diifguise it; and 
£rom a pupil he made him his rival, and in order to humble 
him, bestowed his £ftyour on Gueroino, an artist in quite 
another taste. Annibal too, after some years, on seeing him 
at Rome, blamed Albani for inviting lum tldther; and, in 
order to depress him, he put Domenichino in opposition to him. 
Even from the age of twenty, when he left the school of 
Galvart, the Caracd discovered in him a rare genius for the 
art, so elevated and ambitious of distinction, that he aspired to 
something great and novel, from the outset of his career. 
Some of his early efforts are to be seen in the Bonfigliuoli 
palace, and in other choice collections, diq»laying a variety of 
manner. He devoted much study to Albert Durer, he imi- 
tated the. Caracci, studied the forms of Cesi, and, like Passe- 
rotti, aimed at giving strong relief and accuracy to the draw- 
ing of the muscles. In some instances he followed Caravaggio, 
and in the aforesaid pakuse is a figure of a sibyl, rery beaut^ul 
in point of features, but greatly overlaid witn depth of shade. 
The style he adopted arose particularly from an observation on 
that of Caravaggio one day incidentally made by Annibal 
Caracci, that to this manner there might be opposed one wholly 
contrary ; in place of a confined and declining light, to exhibit 
one more full and vivid ; to substitute the tender for the bold, 
to oppose clear outlines to his indistinct ones, and to introduce 
for his lifw and common figures those of a more select and 
beautiful kind. 

These words made a much deeper impression on the mind of 
Guide than Annibal was aware of; nor was it long before he 
wholly applied himself to the style thus indicated to him. 
Sweetness was his great object ; he sought it equally in design, 
in the touch of his pencil, and in colouring ; from that time be 



■V^P^^iV 



94 BOLOONESE 8CH0OIi.-HE:P0CH III. 

begian to viake «se of "mkaim io«d, & ^olosr avoided Iby Lodo- 
vieo, and st Ihe same timo pediotod the dunifaalftj of his 
tintO) sack as l^ey hs^l^avved. fik fettvw pmpite wem 
indignant at fais presomiag to depart hma. tlw Oanoci'a 
mediod, asid istenuii^ to tke fiaeUe i mdw adod aoMBier of tha 
past centniy. Nor £d lie |awicKid to bo iadiihwtit to ikiwt 
remarks mdadviee. Ho s^ ptenrrvd tkit atosagtlnef st jk^ 
to mneii ained at l»y las odiool, -wli^ ke ooftenod it with 
moie than its asaal delkaej ; wid kgr di^gmes prooeedkig ia 
the sanedisoofion^heyinafew ^ineafi^adtauied to the degree ai 
deliiHMjr he had proposed. For wis reason I havB observed iinl 
in Bologna, nore 4liaa etenrhere, his first is <distiBgiiidied from 
his seooiad manner, and it isioade a faostiun. which of the tvro ia 
preferable* Near do all tigroe widi Mahw% who pcoDouaced 
his f onner 1^ loort pkanbig, Ms Uttir maouier ^ 

la ih»so TariatiottS, h^wevvr, ho never lost sight of that 
«xqvisito aase whidi m mnch attiaots m ia. hk WH>rk& Ha 
was more paitiodarly attentive to Hie oonaot fona of hsautj, 
aspoinalfy in his jwitkhil heads. Here, in the opoioa of 
Hongs, he sorpasBod all others, and, aocordi^g to Passm's 
^acpressam, ho di«fw faoes of PanHkiBe. In these Roma 
abonadsasorearioUy than Bologna itself! !Fhe Eortane in the 
o^pitol ; €ke JLaiora^ beloBgi»g to the Bai|>igyo8i ; the Helen 
to ihe Spada ^ the Hevedias to the OoEBiai; tiio Magdalen to 
ibo Badberini, with other sohjeots in {>osse8Bkisi of fioveral 
priaoes, axe regarded as tiie wondors of Qasdo'a ait. This 
power of beanty was, hat the words of Albano, his asost bitter 
and oonstant rival, the gift of mtnze ; though iAm whole was 
tibe result of his own intense stady of aatond beanly, and of 
Baiaello, aad of the aacieat Bfcataes, medals, and oameos. 
He deofaured that iike Medicean Yenos and the Niobe weie his 
most favomrite aaodels; and it » seldom we do not reoogniao 
in his paiatinga either Niobe herself or oae of her ^shildxen, 
though diversified in a variety of manner with saoh exqmsito 
skill, as in no way to appear borrowed. In the same way did 
Oaido derive advantage from Raf&elb, Oone^io, Parmi- 
gianino, and from his beloved Paul Yeroaese ; &om all of 
whom he selected inaameiable beaotiea, bat with such happy 
fireedom of hand as to &uii» the eavy of Ihe Cacaoei. And, 
in tmtfa, this artist aimed less at oq^yiog beaatifcd oonnte* 



nanees, I^iba at fonnisg for hiioself a certatn geneni and 
abstraoi idea oi hea,viiy^ as we knew w» doBe hy die Oxeeksy 
and ^iB lie modulated and anisiated in hw own st^e. I £nd 
meniieD^ tbat being nitenogatod hy one of fais pnpk, m what 
part fif keavmi^ m «oft«e minid eadsted these wondrous fea- 
t«i«B wkk^ be eiily dMw, lie pooited to the oasts of die 
antiqiie heads just allnded to, adding, ^' Yoa, too, may gatiier 
from SBflli exampAeB heantaes similar to those in my pictsiea, 
if yoiar «feill be e4|aa2 to the task." I £nd, morcover^ that he 
to<^ for model of tme of his Magdalens, the «ztoenMly vulgar 
head d a eolenr-grinder ; but sndw Gnido's kand «very 
defeet disappeared, each part beoame gnoefid, the whole a 
miiaole. Thus toe in hit naked igues he sednoed them, 
whatever they weve, to a peifeot fbim, mmse espeoia&y in the 
hands and fec^i, in ^ioh he is siagdar, and the same in Ibb 
draperies, whieh he often drew firam the prints ef Albert 
Doier, ennebing l^em, freed from their dryness, with tiiose 
flowing folds or tiiat gnmdeiff of du^position best adapted to 
the subject. To pooNaaits themaehnM^ while he pnasarred the 
forms Bad age of &e eriginels, he gains a certain air of novelty 
and grace, aaoh as we see in diat ^ Sixtas Y^ piaeed in the 
Gaiti palaee at Osimoi, or in iJMt wondnfal one of Cardinal 
^pada, in posBesnon of aome of his dewoewdants at Borne. 
TLem k no one action, poatioB, or eaq weB B Jo n mt all ingurions 
to laa fiffntes; the pasdons of griei^ terror, sordw, are all 
eombmed with the ezpreasio&efbeai^; ke tons them every 
way as ke ikte, he danges them inte eroy attEtnde, always 
eonally pleanng, and «Vfay otM eqnaXty entitled te the eulogy 
01 diepAaying in every aotion, and in «!V«y atep, ike beanQr 
whicih secretly animates and accompanieB it* 

Whatmost snrprisesasisiheTarMAywfaiah he infuses mto 
Ikis beaoty, tesolting no less from his lidmees of imagination 
than from kis stni&ee. Stffl continmi^ to design in tke 
academy up to the dose of his oareer, he practised kis inven- 
tion kow best to vaxy kis idea of the keaatifiil, so as to free 
it from all mottotovf and satiety. He was fond of depicting 
hie ooontenances widi upraised k)oks, and lused to say that he 
had a hundred different modes of thus representing them. 

* Ilkm qudquiA «gat, qaoqiio Testigia Tertat, 
CompoDit furtim, subsequitarqne decor. — Tibul. 



96 BOLOGNESE 0OHOOL.«»]BPOCH in. 

He displayed equal yaiietjr in his draperies, though inyambly 
preferring to draw the folds ample, easy, natural, and with 
clear meaning, as to their origin, progress, and disposition. 
Nor did he throw less diyenity into the ornaments of his 
youthful heads, disposing the tresses, whether loose^ bound, or 
left in artful confusion, always different, and sometimes cas^g 
oyer them a veil, fillet, or turban, so as to produce some fresh 
display of grace. Nor were his heads of old men inferior in 
this respect, displaying eren the inequality of the skin, the 
flow of the beard, with the hair turned as we see on erery 
side, and animating the features with a few bold, deddeid 
touches, and few lights, so as to give great effect at a distance, 
altogether with a surprising degree of nature ; specimens of 
which are seen at the Pitti palace, the Barberina and Albanar 
galleries ; and yet among the least rare of this artist's produc* 
tions. He bestowed similar attention to yarying his fleshes ; 
in delicate subjects he made them of the purest white, adding, 
moreoyer, certain liyid and azure, mixed among middle tints, 
open to a charge, at least by some, of mannerism.* 

The preceding commendations, howeyer, will not extend to- 
the whole of Gtiido's works. His inequality is well known, 
but not owing to any maxim of his art. It arose from his 
loye of play, a idling which obscured his many moral quali- 
ties. His profits were great ; but he was kept continually in 
a state of indigence by his losses, which he endeayoured ta 
repair by the too negligent practice of his art. Hence we 
trace occasional errors in perspectiye, and deficiency of inyen- 
tion, a defect so much insisted upon by the implacable Albaiii. 
Hence, too, his incorrectness of design, the disproportion of hi& 
figures, and his works put to sale before their completion. 
Yet these are not excluded from royal cabinets, and that of 
Turin possesses one of Marsyas, a finely-finished figure, befora 
which is seen standing little more than the sketch of an. 
Apollo. To form, then, a fedr estimate of Guide, we musfe 
turn to other efforts which raised him to high reputation. 
Among his most excellent pieces I am of opinion that his 
Crucifixion of St. Peter, at Rome, is a specimen of his boldeat 

* The harmony and union of colour of this artUt would seem to excuse 
some trifling licenses, respecting which see Lazzarini upon the PaintiogB 
of PesarOf p. 29. 



OVIDO'S ACADEMY. 97 

flianner ; the Miracle of the Manna at Rarenna^ the Concep- 
tion at Forli, the Slaughter of the Innocents at Bologna ; and 
there too his celebrated picture of Saints Peter and Paul in 
the Casa Sampieri. Specimens of his more tender manner 
maj be found in the St. Michael at Rome, the Purification at 
Modena, the Job at Bologna, St. Thomas the Apostle at 
Pesaro, the Assumption at Genoa, one of Guide's most 
studied pieces, and placed directly opposite the St. Ignatius 
of Rubens. 

Guide taught at Rome, and gave his pupils, as we hare 
stated, to that city. He educated still more for his native 
place, where he opened a school, frequented by more than two 
hundred pupils, as we are informed by Crespi. Nor are we 
by this number to measure the dignity of his character as a 
master. He was an aocom{)lished head of his school, who, in 
eyery place, introduced into the art a more sweet and engaging 
manner, entitled in the times of Malyasia the modem manner. 
Even his rivals took adrantage of it, the £EMst being indisputa- 
ble that Domeniohino, Albano, and Lan£ranco, along with 
their best disdples, derived that degree of delicacy, in which 
they sometimes surpass the Caracd, from none but Guide. He 
would not permit the scholars in his studio to copy in the first 
instance from his own works, but exercised them in those of 
Xiodovico, and the most eminent deceased masters. It is con- 
jectured also by Crespi, that he grounded his scholars in the 
principles of the art of imitation, and all the first requisites, 
without reference to the minutice, whidi are easily acquired in 
the course of practice. Guide particularly prided himself on 
Giacomo Semenza, and Francesco Gessi, whom he thought 
equal to any masters at that time in Bologna. He employed 
them in that chapel of the cathedral at Ravenna, a peHect 
miracle of beauty, and gave them commissions from the court 
of Mantua and Savoy, assisting them also, both at Rome and 
his native place ; in return for all which he was repaid by Se- 
menza with gratitude, but by Gessi with bitter persecutions. 
He was followed by both in point of style, and specimens are 
to be seen in some choice collections. 

Semenza emulated Guide in both his manners, and displayed 
more correctness, erudition, and strength. His pictures at 

VOL. III. H 



96 B0L0GNX8E fiM7H00Ii.*— J^OCH III. 

Araceli and other places niffioientij difltinguiBh him from tiie 
immense crowd of fresco-painters at Bcmie. There too are 
many of his altar-pieces, none more beautiful, perha|MS, than 
the S. Sebastian, at S. Michele in Bologna. Gessi surpassed 
him in spirit, invention, and rapidity, for which last quality 
even GKiido envied him. This enabled him too, from the first, 
to vary his works in point of manner, until he hit upon the 
right one» as in his veiy beautiful St Frauds at the Nunziat% 
little inferior to Guide, as well as in several others conducted 
in his earlier and best davi. To these he was indebted for his 
name of a second Gnido ; but subsequ^itly he abused his 
tal^its, as is the ease with those who are held in slight esteem 
for perfotming mudi and rapidly. Thus Bologna abounds 
with his piotures, in which, with the exception of their fine 
character and much deUoaey, there is nothing to commend ; 
hi^ pietnies are eold, his oolouiing is slight ; the shape and 
featuxesare often too large, and not seldom inconect. Heis 
known to httve invanably affected the second manner of Guide, 
and henea he is alwms more feeble, diy, and less harmoniouB 
than his msBter* By these distinotions are the differences 
between Balesinea and pnrchaserB nsoally decided, as to whether 
such a piece be a poor Chiido or a GessL 

Yet Gessi had a nnmerons school at Bologna, on Guide's 
retiring,, and foimed aohofauB of some reputation, such as Gia- 
como OasteQini, l^ianoeeeo Ocoreggio, and Giulio Trogli, who, 
devoting himsdf to penqpective, mt^BT Mitelli, and publishing 
a work entitled ^ Buadcsai deUa ProspettivB," went ever after- 
wards by the name of ihd Paradaz* Eroole Buggieri was a 
&ithful follower of GessTs afyJb, insomuch as at fiirat oght to 
be mistaken for his master. He was called Ercolino del €}ess^ 
and his brother Batistino del Gessi, an artist of rare talent, 
eommended by Ba^one, and much esteemed by Cortona, in 
whose arms ne fareuKthed his last Batistino was £rst a pupil 
of Domenichino, as before mentioned ; and might more pro- 
perly be named dello Zampieri than del Gessi, from his edu- 
oation and his style. He accompanied Gessi to Naples, and 
49ubsequently became his rival, and surpassed him at S. Bar- 
bazaano in Bologna. Finally he fixed his residence at Borne, 
where remain some of his paintings in fresco, in the cloister of 



1^ Mmorra, m ihe Oeodi piiaoe, aad elBewherOy wlucli dieir 
in liim t^ p«mifie of a Tnry distiiigaidied jjrttfit ; but he 4id 
not enrri^^ his tliirty->6ecaiid jexr. 

To €Kiide Rem beloags Eroole de Maria, or da S. Oionumi, 
called Sre<^io di G«ido. Be pltant ttm his geniufi to that of 
Ms raaster, iihst what the latter had half con^pleted a pictYue, 
his pvpiL fiiade a copy and oenibatitnted it fixr the origina], and 
€riiido<3Qxii3iHied ik» woik, UBsaspidomi of the cbeat^ae if it had 
heen his own. He wilUagly emj^Dred him, therelbitt, in muliar- 
plying his own designs, twoof which oopies a» jet aeen inpabHe, 
extr^ndj l)esatifiErl, IJiengk not diiE^lajing the same fnedcnn 
as o^fh^HB wi]i<^ he eonducted «n ^^riTate eommisflion, at a moze 
adyaoeed age. In liiese ikene appean a deeieion and io w of 
pencH winch imposed upon the best judges, a ialeat that pzo- 
enred liim adsBiation at Eeme, wi& an honour reeeiyed by so 
other copyist, bang created a carayer by Urban Till. ; fast 
this artietateo £ed in 4jbe iismet <€tf bos age. 

Anoiiier good copyist and master of Guide's etyle appealed 
in "CKo. Andrea j^raon. -On bis nuufter^s death he completed 
the great pictnre of St. I^runo, left nnfiaished at the Certosmi, 
with oHhersihronghoTit ihe mij in the same state. Wbetiier 
owing-to Ottido's retorndhes, or want of ^&eedo]&,Sifani's earliest 
works bear muclh Tesemblance io that mastei^s seoond mannet^ 
more particularly his Omcifixien im the dtnrch of S. Maiinii, 
wbich seems Hke a repetition of the S. Lerenxo in Lnoina, or 
that in :^e Modenese gallery, in whose leatmes deadi itself 
appears beanfaAd. In progress e( time Sirani is anpposedto 
faaye idmed at the stronger style of Onido in &s early 
career, and condacted in sadh 'taste are his pictnxes of the 
Snpper of the Fbarisee, at -the Oertosa, tlie Noptiais of the 
Tirgin,at Bt Giorgio, inBologna, fmd'fihe TwelyeCrucifixionB, 
in Uie cathedral of Piaoenzia, an extremely beavtifdl paint- 
ing, ascribed by seme to Elisabetta Skani, a daughter and 
pnpil of Gio. Andrea. 

TJtnB lady adhered fsa^xMy to Guide's second manner, to 
wbich she added powerful relief and effect She is nearly the 
sole individual of the &mity, whose name occurs in collections 
out of Bologna. Anna and Barbara, her two sisters, also 
artists, as well as their father himself, yield precedence to her 
iBingle name. How surprising i^t a young woman, who sur« 

h2 



100 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH III. 

Tired not her twenty-sixth year, should have produced the 
numher of paintings enumerated b j Malyasia, still more that 
she should exeoute them with so much care and elegance ; bat 
most of all, that she could conduct them on a grand scale and 
in histories, with none of that timidity so apparent in Fon- 
tana, and in other artists of her sex. Such is her picture of 
Christ at the Rirer Jordan, painted for the Certosa; her 
St. Antony, at S. Leonardo, and many other altar-pieces i& 
different cities. In the subjects which she most frequently 
painted by commission, she still improyed on herself^ as we 
perceive in her Magdalens and figures of the Virgin and 
infant Christ, of which some of the most finished specimens 
are in the Zampieri, Zambeccari, and Caprara palaces, as well 
as in the Corsini and Bolognetti collections at Rome. There 
are also some small paintings of histories on copper, extremely 
Talnable, from her hand, as that of Lot, in possession of Count 
Malrezzi, or the St. Bastian, attended by S. Irene, in the 
Altieri palace; the former at Bologna, the latter at Rome. 
I have also discovered some portraits, no unfrequent commis- 
sions which she received from a number of sovereigns and 
innumerable distinguished personages throughout Europe. Of 
this class I saw a singularly beautiful specimen at Milan, being 
her own likeness crowned by a young cherub. It is in the 
possession of Counsellor Pagave. Elisabetta died by poison, 
administered by one of her own maids, and was bewailed in. 
her native place with marks of public sorrow. She waa 
interred in the same vault which contained thrashes of Guide 
Reni. Besides her two sisters, who imitated her in the art, 
were many other ladies ; Veronica Franchi, Vincenzia Fabri, 
Lucrezia Scarfaglia, Ginevra Cantofoli; of which last, as 
well as of Barbara Sirani, there remain some fine pictures^ 
even in some churches of Bologna.* 

Among the Bolognese pupils oi Guide, Domenico Marioi 
Canuti obtained great celebrity. He was employed by the. 
Padri Olivetani (an o^er the most distinguished for its patron- 
age of first-rate artists), in several monasteries, more particu-- 
larly at Rome, Padua, and Bologna, whose library and churcK 
he decorated with numerous paintings. One of these,, tha 

* See Crespi, p. 74. 



CANUTI. 101 

Taking down fron the Cross by torchlight, is greatly admirody 
seyeral copies of which are met with, in general called the 
Night of Canuti ; also a St. Michael, painted in part within 
the arch, and in part on the exterior, is considered a rare 
triumph of the power of perspective. His entire work in 
that library wfus afterwards described and printed by the 
Manoleasi. He left immense works also in two halls of the 
Pepoli palace, in the Colonna gallery at Rome, in the ducal 
pahtce at Mantua, and elsewhere, bemg esteemed one of the 
best fresco-painters of his time. His fertility and yivacity 
pleiuse more than his colouring, while his individual figures 
are, perhaps, more attractive than the general efiect of the 
picture. He was excellent too in oil, and succeeded admirably 
in copying Gnido, whose Magdalen of the Barberini was 
taken so exactly, that it appears the best among all the copies 
seen at S. Michele in Bosco. Canuti opened school at 
Bologna ; but his pupils, during his tour to Rome, attached 
themselves chiefly to Pasinelli, in whose school, or in that of 
Cignani, th^ will be found included during the last epoch. 

Other of Uuido's scholars are indicated by Malvasia, among 
whom he lughly extols Michele Sobleo, or Desubleo, from 
Flanders, though resident at Bologna. But he left little in 
pnblic there, and that is a mixture of Guercino and of Guide. 
Several churches at Venice were decorated by his hand, and 
the altar-piece at the Carmelite friars, representing also various 
saints of that order, is among his most celebrated works. 
From the same country was Enrico Fiammingo, whom we 
must not confonnd with Arrigo FiammiDgo, an artist made 
known to us by Baglione. Both fixed their abode in Italy, 
and the follower of Guide, formerly pupil to Bibera, painted 
some pictures at S. Barbaziano in Bologna, that may compete 
with those of Gessi, were it not for the fleshes being of a 
darker tinge. A few pictures by another foreigner are pre- 
served at the Capuccini and elsewhere; his name, Pietro 
Lauri, or rather De Laurier, a Frenchmau, whose crayons 
were frequently retouched by Guide, and whose oil-pictures 
also shew traces of the same hand. Respecting another, 
whose name only remains, it will be sufficient to mention an 
altar-piece of the Magdalen, placed in the oratory of S. Carlo, 
at Yolterra^ relating to which is a letter of Guide to the Cav. 



102 BOLOONESE SCHOOL,— EPOCH HI. 

Francefloo Incoatn, statiiig that he had leioaelied Hs, pag fag - 
lady in the bead ; but ikat, wHh the aid of Oiado'flr deei^^ 
it was painted by tiw Signer CamiUo. He is aaid to bave 
been a member of tbat noble feunilj, of wbom memorials hapm 
been preserved by his booseu 

Returning to tbe Bolognese artzsts^ Gtio. Maria Tamburini 
will be found to bold a bigb tank, tiie auAcMr of many firesco 
bistories in tbe portico^ of tl|e CcmTeatuali^ and ef tbe Nnn-^ 
ziata at tbe Yita, a yefy graeeM paiBti&g draim from bis 
master's i^etcb. Tet be was surpasKd by Gio. Batista 
Bolognini, by whose band tbeie is a S. VbiMo at S. Qi&. m 
Monte, altogether ia tbo style of Gtddo. Tbn artist bad a 
nephew and pupil in <$iaeomo BologniBi^ wbo' pmrted, boge 
pictures and capricei, and is mentioned by Zanotti aad Gbespt. 
Bartolommeo Maresot)^ is hardly d us mvin g' notice ; afe 
S. Martino be appears only as a hasty imitator^ or ralher a 
corrupter ei the Guido manner. Mentioned, too^ by Tarfoua 
writers, is a Sebastiano Brunetti, a Oiulnoio Dfnanffi, a 
Lorenzo Loli, and in particokr a Pietro Gaffimari, on whom 
bis mastoids preelection conferred also the name cf Pietro del 
Sig. Guido. Bis earliest pieces^ retoudhed by Bern, are held 
in high esteem, and others which he produced for the court, 
and in various churches at ChiastaDa, are vahiable: He wa» 
an artist of the noblest promise, but cut off prenaturely, not 
without suspicion of poison. 

Many foreigners who acquired the art from Guido, particu- 
larly at Bologna, were dispersed throughout various schools^ 
according to the places where they resided ; such were Bou- 
langer, Cervi, I)anedi, Ferrari, Ricchi, and sereral more. 
Two artists who chiefly dwelt In BolOgna and Romagna in 
high esteem, I have reserved for this place, named Ca^nacci 
and Cantarini. Guido Cagnacci, referred by Oriandl to 
Castel Durante, though the Arcangelesi more properly claim 
him for their fellow-citizen, was a rare exception to Italian 
artists, iu having sought his fortunes in Germany, where he 
Vfras highly deserving of the success he met with at the court 
of Leopold I. What he has left in Italy, such as his St. Mat-^ 
thew and St. Teresa, in two churches of Rimini, or tbe 
Beheading of St. John, in the Ercolani palace at Bologna^ 
shew him to have been a diligent and correct, as well as a- 



8I1I0NB CAITTABIRI. 108 

lefined axiaei, in hia master's latest style. MalTuia was of 
opinion tkat be eaxried the oolenr of his fleshes, now laiher 
CeMked, somewhat too hi^ ; to others it appeared that he drew 
the extsemitieB too small in proportion to his figures ; while 
some kaya remaidked a cspiieions degree of freedom, shewn in 
flometimeB represaiating his angels at a more adyanoed age than 
was oii8toa»r)r* Ali, howeyei^ mnst acknowledge Gnidesqne 
beantieB appamA m eyezy piotoie^added to % certain origmal 
air of noUMtgr in hk heaas» and fine effect of his ohiarosooro. 
Hispdetnieslor the most part were pointed for the ornament 
of fiBibine^ mA as am seen in the daoal gallery at Modena, 
and is. piifate houses^ These is his Lucretia in the Caaa Iso^ 
lani^ aad his magniioent Dayid, which is esteemed one of the 
BobleBi pieoesy in pesoonnion of the pnnees Coionna; two 
pietaoes ahmdantW lepeated^ both in the Botognese and 
Bomaa sehoslsy and e£ which, indeed, I haye seen meze copies 
than enren of the nshhrated Xhrnd by Ghndo BenL 

Simone Ointarim dft PessEO beeame an exaet designer nnder 
Panddfi^ gteatly inq^ioyed in the schofd of daudio Bidolfi, 
and by insessani atody of the^CaJEaea engrayings. Far co- 
knriBg be stadied the moot eminent Yencdau artiste, and, 
move llum aU^ the works of BaioeoL la ciiie c^ his Holy 
FamilisB bosbawA great lesemblanoe te this bst artist, a pic- 
inse pfoseryed in CW Olivieri, along- with seyeral others^ and 
•ome portiaiis, of difierent taste, but by the same hand. This 
was caused by the arriyal of the grand pictures by Goido^ of 
St Thomas at PesaiosaBd the Nnnsiata, and the St.reter,in the 
adjacent city of Fane^ after wbiob he ae wholly deyoted him- 
aeif to the new style, as to induce him to emolatei, and, if pos- 
sible, to attempt to surpass, that sjrtast In the same chapel 
where Onido placed hk pictoie isi St Peter reoaying the Keys, 
Simone displayed his miracle of tibe Saint at the Porta Spe* 
eiosa, where he so nearly resembled^ as to appear Gnido him- 
aelf ; and evea in Malyana's time, fioreigners were unable to 
detect any ^tifimnee of hand. It is certein he possessed 
nmch ef that artist's more power&d nsuiaer, whidL is shewn in 
his principal ^oture ; the heads yery beautiful and yaried, the 
composition natural ; fine play c^ ligkt and shade, except that 
the chief figure of his history k too mnch inyolyed in the lat* 
ier. The better to approach his prototype, Simone proceeded 



104 BOLOONSBB 8CH00I..-*BP0CH HI. 

to Bologna, and became Gnido's disciple, affecting at first mndi 
humility and deference, while he ardnUj concealed the extent 
of his own skill. Then gradnallj deyeloping it, he soon rose 
in high esteem, no less with his master than the whole city, 
aided as he was by his singular talent for engraving. Shortly 
he grew so vain of his own ability, as to presume to censure 
not only artists of mediocrity, but Domenichino, Albano, and 
even Guido. To the copies made by the pupils from their 
master's pieces, he gave bold retouches, and occasionally cor- 
rected some inaccuracy in their model, until at length he began 
to criticise Guido openly, and to proroke his resentment. 
Owing to such arrogance, and to negligence in executing his 
commissions, he fell in public esteem, left Bologna for some 
time, and remamed like a refugee at Rome. Here he studied 
from Raffaello, and from the antique, then returned and taught 
at Bologna, whence he passed into the duke of Mantua's ser- 
vice. Still to whatever country he transferred his talents, he 
was accompanied by the same malignant dispoeition ; a great 
boaster, and a despiser of all other artists, not even sparing 
Ginlio and Ra&ello, insomucl/ that the works could not be so 
greatly esteemed as the man was detested. Incurring also the 
duke's displeasure, and not succeeding in his portrait, his pride 
was so far mortified as to throw him ill, and passing to Verona, 
he there died, aged 36, in 1648, not without suspicion of having 
been poisoned, no very rare occurrence with defftmers like 
him. 

Baldinucci, supported by most of the dilettanti, extols him 
as another Guido ; and assuredly he approaches nearer to him 
than to any oth^r, and with a decision which belonged to few 
imitators. His ideas are not so noble, but in the opinion of 
many they were even more graceful. He is less learned, but 
more accurate ; and may be pronounced the only artist who 
in the hands and feet very assiduously studied the manner of 
Lodovico. He was extremely diligent in modelling for his 
own use, and one of his heads in particular is commended, from 
which he drew those of his old men, which are extremely 
beautiful. From the models, too, he derived his folds, though 
he never attained to the same majestic and broad sweep as 
Guido and Tiarini, a truth which he as candidly admitted. In 
point of colouring he is varied and natural. His greatest 



SIMONS CANTABINI. 105 

fitndj was bestowed upon his fleshes, in which, though fxiendl j 
to the use of white lead, he was content with moderate white, 
avoiding what he called the cosmetios of Domenichino and the 
shades of the Garacd. In his outlines and shadows, dismiss- 
ing the use of the laooa and terra d'ombra,* he introduced ultra- 
marine and terra yerde, so much commended by Guide. He ani- 
mated his fleshes with certain lighto from place to place, never 
contrasting them with vivid colours, except in as far as he fre- 
quently studied to give them from depth of shadow, that relief 
which serves to redouble their beauty. If there was nothing 
decidedly bold in his painting, yet he covered the whole with 
an ashy tone, such as Guide applied in his St Thomas, and 
which became so perfectly familiar to Cantarini as to acquire 
for him from Albani the surname ofpittar cenerino. Spite 
of this opinion, however, he is considered by Malvasia as the 
most graceful eolauriit, and he adds, the mat correct dai^fner 
of his age. His most beautifrd pictures that I have seen, in 
which his heads of saints are always conspicuous for beauty 
and expression, are the St Antony, at the Franciscans oa 
Cagli ; the St James, in the church of that name in Rimini ; 
the Magdalen, at the Filippini of Pesaro ; and in the same 
city, his St Dominick, at the Predicatori ; in whose convent 
are also two Evangelists, half-size figures, animated to the 
life. There is also a S. Romualdo, in possession of the noble 
Paolucei, a figure that seems to start from the canvas, and at 
the Casa Mosca, besides various other works, is a portrait of a 
young nun that rivete every beholder. Many of his Holy 
Families also are to be seen in Bologna, in Fesaro, and at 
Rome ; nor are his heads of St John very rare, any more 
than his half-figures, or heads of apostles, a specimen of which 
IB to be seen in the Pitti palace. 

Simone Cantarini educated a few of his fellow-citizens to 
the art One of these was Gio. Maria Luffbli, many of whose 
paintings, which display the school, are to be met with in his 
native place, particularly at S. Giuseppe and at S. Antonio 
Abate. Gio. Venanzi (or Francesco) had been already in- 
structed by Guide, when he entered the school of Cantarini, 
though lie resembles neither of these masters so nearly as he 

* Laoca, a dark red ; terra d'ombra, umber. 



1^6 BOLOQKHB 8C{HO0L-««P0CH m. 

does the Gennari. When we ai^peot tlie two beantifel hzsto- 
lies of 8L Antony, in the chsich of thai name, we migfat 
prononnoe him thdr disnpls. An aneieBt Mfik of Pesin?o, 
edited along with iha piotniee el the dtj^* jdaoes him at Hie 
court of Panns, most pwehaMy to the pazpoeeof deconitittg 
the palaoa^ there beu^ notiiing'from hie hand in the lurches. 
In the flame MS^ menbiflii im madeel Demenieo Penusini, as 
bom at Peaaro^ and the pnpii el Pan^lfi. In Oiiandb's 
Ijexicen and etiber hooka tfaeie » itoqiient mention made of 
one Cay. GioYanniy and be ia giren evi ae Belonging to 
Anoona^ and a dieciple el Simoaa The Ponawiee €reide^ in 
which the very diligent Caa. y<i.Marfpi hadjmfmkMj took part^ 
infDnna Oft that theae artietB werefaeotiien^ bothbem atPeraxo, 
and that they tramfeired tfamr eerneee te* Ammm, thdr 
adopted coBatiy (p. 65>)^ Vtmt th9 dBettanti cf Aneona I 
eoaUt gather tidings el enly ena Ptenniitt; and I donbt 
whether Ine being named Deaneaieo byito aatimr of the MS. 
may not haye ariaen Hoon mifltak% as he proeeeds to refate 
mattera chiefly a{ipeitaining to GbTanni. Howvrer iMa be^ 
theise ia a pietare of S. TeRMa by Pemmsni at tibe OEomelite 
friars in Aneona^ beanng Beaaa tnees ol BaroemoV mamier. 
That of the Beheading of St J«hn, at the hoq>itiil, is ex- 
tremely heantif nl ; and hese he appears rather a disdide of 
the Bolognese. He asems to have dii^kyed a simihir cha- 
meter elsewhere; it being known timt tide artist^ after form- 
ing a style partic^atii^ ol those of tiie OlEuaeei, of 6nid6, 
and of Pesarese^ took to a wandering life^ and pamted in 
yarioos theatres and ehsnAes^ if net with mnch stndy, with 
tolerable eorreotness^ a kiKVwledge ol petepeetrve, in which he 

* See p. 75. Tliis MS. is said to hars been dnrwn up previons to 
1680. 1 beliefe it miist be sonewbcre riiaiit 1670, yeason beng tfaerein 
described as still young. Noticei of l^e artists of Besaio and Uibiao, 
collected by Giuseppe Montani, a good landscape-painterrwhaflonrished 
some time at Tenioe, are now lost. (Of hhn, see Malvasia, vol. ii. p. 
447.) I have recently read a letter from Sig. Annibale Ollrieri to the 
Frinoe Eroolam, in wlueh, conpotiBg the age of Tenanzi, he is nnabte to 
make bim ont a pupil of Cantarini; horn wUch it would appear that he 
was ignorant of the date of Venanzi's birth, which was about 1628. I 
admit, bowerer, that he could not have been long instructed by him, nor 
by Guido, and am more than ever confirmed in my conjecture that he 
was pu|nl to Genaari. 



nAMMXRO VDBML lOT 



WM esoelknty and wiih a cevtam lualitj, gmtei, and spint^ 
whick dd%ht iliei eje. His paaitnigs are dispeFsed tbfongh 
inaaam plaees in the PiemioB, ereD as fur as AmoK on tbe 
aonfiiieBy wlwre aae a number of werks by bur hand. Tbere 
aie aottft at Bome and at Bologna^ wbeie be pamtecE in tbe 
dbkter oi ibe Serrt » binette,* very fiurl j exeented witbm 
tweiB^hmx bens ; at 1Mb, wbefe be was made a GsraBer ; 
and in Mibu^ wfaene be di»d» At Bonie are Beme specimens, 
tee, £NBn. tbe band of bi» son and popS^ Paolo, entitled in tbe 
albreMid M& agoed and decoded pakiter. 

An andoobted sdbokr el Sbsene ivae FbnnmiDio Tone, 
called daffB Anemdkf wbo eame fims tbe stn^ of Catedone 
and Guide. Bam ebiel taleat ceaosled in an easjr and perlbct 
imiitatiaB «f ewy style, wbieb biei^gbt bm as bigb a price 
for bift c^ea a^ivae gma for tbe cngioideef eminent artists^ 
semeftkaeffeaai idstcu Tbengb not leanked m tbe tbeorj of 
tbe art, By bia yiaolieaii abiHfy be aeqoiied ilie manner of 
Gantaani,. JinmiinTng^ bo>i»ever, 1^ aeby cokmr, and often 
tiirniiig'to thaiaiitelioa of Gradsi He waa conrt-paniter at 
Modsaa; aid at B<^ogna in partienbff are presi^red botlk 
senptand and prnfine bislones^ disf^yin^ rery jdeasing^ 
f^ginwasbageasPoiiflsnifOresI^ saraeso^. Somelsaw 
IB posMsaoo of Monrig; Beniglfo^, olSiers in tbe eoUectraii 
of tbe Mb i afjan Mugnani ; and some stS more firm^ and in 
the besi st^ ef c^tOfOfing', in tbe Ratta palaoe. Tet Tee 
lanriy meet wilb timn nninjnred by tbe nse of Tock oH, wbicb 
be carried to OEeese ; and bis dnoeb paintzngs, sncb as a 
Depoflitkn frem tbe Cress at B. CKorgio, as tbey bare been 
least attended to, baTe suffered tbe most. On tbe deatb of 
^UBMHie^ as bie first pi^S, be snceeeded to bis magisterial 
offioe, and promoted tbe progress of tbe scbobcrs wbom be 
left. C^iroboBO Roan soeoeeded better in engnmng tban in 
painting. Lorenzo Facnnelli Became an excellent master, but 
of a diffn'ent style, as we sball see in anotber epocb. Tbe 
most eninent amei^ Torre's disciples was Oinlio Cesare 
Milana, latber admired in Ibe oburcbes of Bologna, and ex- 
tolled in many adjacent states. Bat it is now time to turn 

* Lonettay. an architeetnral term ; meaniiig that lemicirciilar space, or 
any ofhec portion of a drde, placed in the walls between the diffesent 
supports of ceilings. — W. R. 



108 BOLOONBfiE SCHOOL.— BPOOH lU. 

onr attention from Gnido and his disciples to Gneroino, which 
will afford the same pleasure, I trust, to my readers, as the 
dilettanti enjoy, in beholding two styles, so strikingly opposed, 
immediately contrasted. In a similar manner, to adduce an 
instance taken from the Spada Gallery, it yields delight to 
turn onr eye from Guide's Rape of Helen to the Funeral Pyre 
of Dido, painted by Guereino, and placed directly opposite. 

Gio. Francesco Barbieri, snmamed Guereino da Cento, 

would, to speak with predsion, be better ranked among the 

artists of Ferrara, to which city Cento is subject; but we 

must observe the almost nniyersil custom of including him 

among the Caracci's disciples. This has arisen either from a 

tradition that his genius at an early age receiyed jome bias 

towards design from the Caraooi, inuoh but ill accords with 

the epoch of his age, or from the cixoumstance of his having 

iaken one of Lodovico's pictures for a model, which is slight 

•ground enough for attaching him to the sohooL Moreoyer, 

he never frequented the Caiacci's academy ; but, after staying 

a short time with Cremonini, his fcdlow-oountiyman, at 

Bologna, he returned to Cento, and there resided with Bene* 

detto Gennari the elder, first as his pupil, next his colleague, 

and lastly his kinsman. Some^ too, would contend that one 

among Uie masters of Gio. Francesco was Gio. Batista 

Gennari, who in 1606 painted for S. Biagio, in BohgsuL, a 

Madonna among various saints, in a sfyle resembling Procac- 

cini. And mdeed the Paradise, at & Spirito in (^nto, and 

an altar-piece at the Capuccini, with other early works by 

Guereino, partake of the old style. Subsequently he studied, 

along with Benedetto, to find by experiment whai constituted 

grand effect in the ait, in which taste I cannot distinguish, 

with the generality of dilettanti and writers, two manners 

only ; he having openly professed three, as we learn from Sig. 

Bighetti, in his Description of the paintings of Cento. 

Of these the first is the least known, consisting of abun- 
dance of strong shades, with sufficiently animated ughts, less 
studied in the features and in the extremities, wifii fieshes 
inclining to the yellow ; in the rest less attractive in point of 
colouring ; a manner distantly resembling that of Caravaggio, 
in which kind are to be found several specimens both at 
<]lento and in S. Gkiglielmo a' Ministri degl' Infermi at 



OITERCINO DA CBIVTO. 109 

Bologna. From this lie passed to lus second manner, which 
is by far the most pleasing and valnable. He continned to 
improve it during several years, with the aid of other schools ; 
in this interval often visiting Bologna, redding for some time 
at Yenioe, and remaining many years at Rome along with 
the most eminent followers of Caracci, and entering into terms 
of friendship with Oaravaggio. His taste is mainly founded 
on the style of this last master ; displa3ring strong contrast of 
light and shadow ; both exceedingly bold, yet mingled with 
much sweetness and harmony, and with powerfol art of reliei^ 
a branch so greatly admired by professors.* Hence some 
foreigners have bestowed on him the title of the magician of 
Italian painting; for in him were renewed those celebiated 
illusions of antiquity, such as that of the boy who stretched 
forth his hand to snatch the painted fruit. Tfrom Caravaggio 
too he borrowed the custom of obscuring his outlines, and 
availed himself of it for despatch. He also imitated his half- 
sized figures upon one ground, and for the most part composed 
his historical pictures in this method. Yet he studied to 
become more correct iu point of design, and more select than 
Caravaggio; not that he ever attained peculiar elegance or 
peculiar dignity of features, though most frequently he drew 
his heads, like a sound observer of nature, with graceful turns, 
easy natural attitudes, and a colouring, which if not the most 
delicate, is at least the most sound and most juicy. Often in 
comparing the figures of Guide with Guercino's, one would 
say that the former had been fed with roses, as observed by 
one of the ancients, and the latter with flesh. How far he 
excelled as a colourist in his draperies, formed in the taste of 
the best Venetians, in his landscape, and in his accessories, 
will sufficiently appear on beholding his S. Petronilla in the 
Quirinal, or lus picture of Christ risen from the Dead, at 
Cento,t or in St. Helen, at the Mendicants in Venice ; excel- 

* ** To me it seems that painting ought to be oonsideTed excellent, th& 
more it inclines towards relief.'' — ^Bonarmoti, Letter to Yarchi, inserted 
among the Lettere Fittoriche, vol. L p. 7. 

t There is a description of this painting contained in a letter of Alga- 
rotti» addressed to the learned Zanotti, dated Sept. 1760, in ^hiek, 
though in other works he obsenres Guerdno to have excelled more in 
colouring than in design, yet respecting this specimen he declares, " that 
Pesarese himself would here have detected little or nothing to which to 



IM BOLoam flcwcKWu etoc h iii. 

lent flpeobBoiB of hss second manaer. To the maae belong in 
gcneetl aii thai lie kft «t Rome) ev^ea Jiie giealer works, sneh 
as the S. Gio. Chisogoiio in the tmtaWataie of that elundi, or 
tbe Aarora, adoming tlie ^yia LodaTisL Yet ke snrfftaBeed 
eT^en tbrae, to ilie sorfsise of all, in &e eofolaol the dome of 
Piaeenm csthedznl ; and m ihe saaM 4sitj he appears te haiYe 
eoinpeted with PordeBoae, and in point of Tigonr ef sbyie to 
have gone hejfoad, faxm. 

Some jears having eiapsed, after his retnm &om Borne to 
Ceato, he begasn to emdate Chiido, pevoeiviag tint his sweei;- 
nem of matmer «fcteiaed saeh distoignished applaoBe. By 
degrees lie softened down that power <cf hand jnufcnotioed, and 
painted more <^en aad Tividiy. He added .aomewhst more 
a;ttzaetion and variety to his beads, aad a eeitam stadj of 
expiPeamm^ almost indescr^balble^ whk^ is svfpnHB&g in soane 
of his pietafes of this period. Some hare assigBed sach a 
diange of manner to the time of Chaodo's deoease, when Gnev- 
cino, peroeivisig that he covld take the lead at Bokgna, left 
Oento, m order to fix Ms residenoe in 4^i»t great dty. Bnt 
•several pietsves which he had coadicted in ins Hiird maimer, 
previoim to field's dealii, frnHy eonfofce snch an opasion. On 
th^ contmrir, it was rumoared Hud; Omdo remarked iMa 
dilenge, whidk he ooMtroed into eommendatkn of Imasself, 
deohuiBg ikslt h» had avoided Gnercino*s sl^e as mach. as 
possible, whilst the latter ^ptoadked as nearly as be eomld to 
Gmdo's. In tftis tasfee, Hioagh, partaking of the pzeoeding, is 
the Oiretemcinon ^of Jesas, plaoed in l^e ehmrch of Gesd. e 
Maria, in which the stady of arohiteeture and drapery Ties 
with 4^at of tbe iigares ; and it is diffien^ to decide whetiliar 
these vkoet please hj their form, or by their expression. We 
might add the Nuptials of the Yiigin, at S. Puteraaaaio h, 
F&uoy the S. Palazia in Ancon% the Nimziata at Forii, the 

object. The foldB, aipeciany theee of a ctoth wispped soniid the bodj of 
Christ, are adminble. Theibrce and aweetneflB of fak tintB are eqaal to 
the bold relief of the picture, and the pandon nith vhich it is ocmdacted. 
. . I juamr bdield two £gatm better aet oiF in one pictnre, sor did ever 
Gneramo'fi dase light and ihade so wdl mite periiaps im-effiBct as haret 
whilst the ^ans ore portiayed within an apartment, in wlusk that kind 
of light wjuch affinrds snch strong seiiBf to objects, is cepresentedwith an 
degree of tmth.'' 



FUIiOENZIO HONDINI. Ill 

Prodigal Son in the royal palace at Turin, a history-peoe of 
entire figores, whicli is met with in half-figures in many 
galleries. Howerer attractiTe this last manner may he 
found, skilled judges would hare wished Guerdno not 
to have swerred from the vigour ci the seoond, to which 
his genius was moulded, and in which he shone unriTBlled 
and unique. 

The frequency of his commisalons contributed, perhaps, to 
put him upon a more easy method, no less than lus own incre- 
dible genius for execution and despatch. He produced a 
hundred and six ahar-pieoes^ and a hundred and forty-foui 
large pictures for princes and other persons of distinction, 
without indnding numbens of others painted for private per- 
eons, Madonnas, portraits, haJf-length figures, and landscape^ 
in which the rapidilj of execution is highly original. Hence 
he is by no means noe in collectioas. The noble Zolli family 
at Rimi&o po asesBcs about twenty of his pieces, Count Leochi 
«t Bresoia also a gieat number; all perfect and polished 
according to hb manner. Among these is a portrait of a 
friar of the Osserranti, his &th0r oonlessor, quite a miracle 
of art. 

Gueidno's ackiool greatly flourished at Cento, in Bologna 
not so much, owing to his own choice of having his two 
nephews the Gennari, and a few other intimate friends with 
him, whidi led him to exclude strangers in some degree from 
his studio. Few Bolognese artists, therefore, belong to this 
master ; such as CKulio CoxalH, whom Orlandi, a oontempo* 
lary writer, ^ves as pupil to Gnereino at Bologna, and of 
Ciuro at Mihui, and who, Greqpi adds^ was much employed at 
Parma, at Fiaoensa, and at Mantua. He was a better per* 
trait-painteE^ if I mistake not^ than a composer. Fulgenzio 
Mondini was an artist of more merit; he painted two fresco 
histories in the church of S. Petronio at Bdogna, relating to 
the Padnan saint He died young at Florence, where, after 
having painted sdme time for the court, he was employed by 
the Muched Capponi to decorate llieir villa of Colonnata, 
and his memoiy has been honoured with a long eulogy by 
Malvasia. The latter dedazes that he knew lione gifted with 
qualities that promised so much in that age, and conjectures 



list BOLOQNESB SCHOOL.—- EPOCH III. 

that had he sarriyed he would hare become the first freseo- 
painter of his age. 

The two young Oennari were sons of Qio. Francesco's sister^ 
and of Ercole, son of Benedetto G^nnari. Respecting Ercole, 
it is stated tl^t no more exact copyist of the works of Guer- 
cino was to be met witb. His sons, Benedetto and Cesare, 
likewise distinguished themselyes in copying the original com- 
positions of their nncle and the numerous repetitions of Guer- 
cino*s Sibyls, of his pictures of St. John, of his Herodiads, and 
similar pieces, are ascribed more particularly to them. They 
may all be recognised, howeyer, by a more feeble tone in 
their tints ; and I once saw in the Ercolani palace a Beth- 
sheba of Guerdno, along with a copy by one of the Gennari. 
The former appeared as if newly painted at the time, the latter 
as if many years preyiously, such was its inferiority in strength 
of hand. The two brothers were employed in Uento, in Bo- 
logna, and in other cities of Italy ; whUe Benedetto, the ablest 
of them, was engaged also in England, as court-painter under 
two reigns. Both would seem to haye inherited the style 
along with the fortune of Gio. Francesco, and, I may also add, 
his studies ; because in the manner of sectaries, tJiey made 
repeated copies of the heads of his old men, women, and boys, 
which he himself was in the habit of repeating on his canyas 
too frequently. There is a S. Leopardo by Benedetto in the 
cathedral at Osimo, and a S. Zaooaria at the Filippini in Forli, 
which might haye been mistaken for the uncle's, had the nephew 
displayed somewhat more strength and power of relief. In 
the same way Cesare, in a Mary Magdalen of the Pazzi, at 
S. Martino in Bologna, and in other pieces, has succeeded in 
giying the features better than the spirit of Barbieri. It 
ought to be obseryed that Cesare preseryed his first manner to 
the close of his life, and that he was assiduous in teaching at 
Bologna, where his school was frequented also by foreigners, 
among whom Simon Gionima distinguished himself as a fol- 
lower of Guercino, and was well receiyed at Vienna. Bene- 
detto subsequently formed for himself a style in England, both 
more polished and careful, and exemplified it more pa^eu- 
larly in his portraits, which he conducted there for Charles II. 
aod the ro^^ family. On the expulsion of that family he 



FRANCESCO ICAOU. Il3 

letumed (o Italy, almost transformed into a Dutch or Flemish 

Etinter, snch was the truth with which he imitated velvets^ 
wns, lace, gems, and other ornaments in gold, indeed all that 
can enrich a portrait, besides drawing it extremely like, and 
artfully freed from any blemishes in the original. By means 
of this taste, new in Italy, Benedetto obtained much applause 
and much employment in portrait, both from princes and indi- 
riduals. We may here add a Baartoldldmeo Crennari, brother 
to Ercole, who resembles Guercino less than any of the three 
preceding, though extremely natural and spirited. He has a 
picture of St Thomas at the Rosario di Cento, in the act of 
putting his hand to our Sayiour's side, and the admiration both 
6f him and the other apostles is rery finely expressed. The 
pupU, and probably the relation of Guercino, was one Lorenzo 
Gennari di Rimini, at which place is one of his pictures at the 
Gapucdni, Tczy fairly executed. 

Francesco Nagli, sumamed, from his country, Centino, was 
much employed at the Angeli and in other churches at Ri- 
mini. He was an excellent imitator of Barbieri, in point of 
colouring and chiaroscuro ; in the rest somewhat dry in design, 
cold in las attitudes, and no way novel in his ideas. To the 
fame district belonged Stefeuio Ficatelli, a painter of good 
inTention, who decorated seyeral churches of Ferrara ; but more 
especially an excellent copyist of Guercino, not inferior in this 
respect to Francesco Bassi, of Bologna, so highly commended 
by Crespi. Among Guercino's copyists, Gtio. Francesco Mutii, 
or Mucci, of Cento, son of a sister of Guercino, distinguished 
also as an engrarer, held a high rank. Ste&no Provenzali, 
likewise from Cento, and a pupil of Barbieri, applied his 
talents to battle-pieces, much extolled by Crespi, from whose 
MSS. I hare borrowed sereral of my notices of the Centese 
artists. 

Two of these, followers of Guercino, are mentioned by Mal- 
Tasia. Th^ are Cristoforo Serra, a futhfbl and excellent 
imitator of Gio. Francesco, and preceptor of Cristoforo Saro- 
lini, who has a fine picture of the saint at S. Colombia in Ri* 
mini ; and Cesare Pronti, an Augustine, bom at Rimini, if we 
give credit'to the author of its city guide, and called da Ba- 
pennd, on account of his long residence at that place. Both 
the apbore cities exhibit Eis altar-pieces, much extolled, 

TOL. in. I 



114 BOLOONBSB flCHOOLd— 4«>CH III. 

and some chiazotcsri hapfiily enough ^qpooed ; in {ittrtieiilMr 
those hist<Mries of St. Jennne punted in the Oonfimfcejiiilj «f 
his name at Rimini, with abvndant giaee and spiiit In Pe~ 
aaro, also, he exhibited in the diurchof his ofder a St. Thomas 
da Yillanoya, with beantifnl Bprnamfom of ai!idateotii0e,and in 
a mof e original taste than the two G^ennari. The life of thu 
Me eodesiartic has been written by Pasooli, whs knew hira, 
insomuch that we may give him cndit w3mi he declases tha^ 
he was bom at the Cattoliea^ of the lamil j ef the Bacioftehi, 
afterwards assnmaig the name of Pvsati, ^ maiden jaaiae el 
his mother. He gives other aneedoles tif him ;iand what is 
more interesting is the aoeoaat o£ his fint passien l» the arti 
on contemplating, when a bo j^ a eoUaotiai cf &ie factnces in 
a sh^at the hkr of Siniga^ia. fie gsflsd u^ftm. ithem daring 
several hems, nnndndfial of his meak^ and his paisats, wha 
were in search of him through the ekje, and whs on £aduig 
him could with diflealiry tear him firam the spot. They were 
unable, however, te destxoT ihe isced detorounatiioii <of his soul 
te become apainter ; the impmsRJen was indelihle, 4«id he set 
out for Bologna. There he fiifit entered the mAbqI af £ar- 
bieri; and afi«rwards, as we httve akeady xemacked, the 
cloister. BeiB^iecting di^Bsrent sehelora af dnersinay fiuoh as 
weza Pneti, Ohesri, and Triva, it is aaaeoesBaiy hfise tonpeat 
what has already been stated in seraeal gather sohoola. 

GKo. Laafraooo, one of those disti^gmshed-dise^las of the 
Canaoi who followed Annibal te Bene, was ham at.Panaa. 
He was eariy employed by the ContiSeetti in Piaeenai whese^ 
for mere pastime, drawing some figaves in ehanooal ujpon a 
wall, his rare genius shone lorth, and was assigned te the cul* 
tivation of Agostino CbsbocL Frequent mention of him is 
made in the oourse of this work. At Parma the reader ^ads 
him a pupil to Agostino, and on his death under the care of 
Lodovico, after whidi he pursued his studies under Axmibal at 
Bome. Both there and in Naples we have seen him cele- 
brated as a professor and preceptor in both schools. The eha* 
raoter of his genius was sought, conceitedly perhaps, but stiU 
with truth, by BeUoori, in his name ; and d<Hibtless it would 
be difficult to find an artist more bold and strikii^, alike in 
conception and in execution. He had formed a peculiar man- 
ner, which both in design and expzession partakes of the 



OXO. LANFBANGO. 115 

Oaraoei'B, while die compoeition is diawn from Coireggio. li 
is a maimer at once easy, and elevated by the dignity of the 
coantenaaces and aetions, by the ample and well-disposed 
masses of light and shade, by the nobleness of Ihe diapeiy 
and its imposing folds, broad foid wholly novel in the art. For 
this preoise reason its grandeur is withoat that last finish which 
adds to the worth of other artists, bnt wonld in him diminish 
it. In such a style he was enabled to be less «xact without 
•dii^leadng ih^ possessing so msaij admirable qualities, rare 
conceptions, colours wonderfully hf^onixed, if not animated ; 
"vefry beautiM foreshortening ; contrasts of parts and figures, 
which have eerved as models, as is observed by Mengs, for 
the tastefol style of the modems. 

He adopted this style in a number of pidnnes for private 
ornament, boiii fer the dukes Famasi, in whose palace at 
Room he first began to paint, and for ol&er noblemen. Hk 
P(d3^hemus, oondmcted for 1^ Oasa Borghese in that city, is 
highly «ctolled, as wefi as his soriptuxal histories at S. Calisto. 
There aie many pictures also from his hand ; his St. Andrea 
Arelfino at Rome, enriched with splendid arohitectnie, boasts 
flingular merit ; his Dead C^st at FoMgno, with the Father, 
« figure, whidh though in human form, nevertheless impresses 
US with grand ideas of the Divine Being ; the Trannt of our 
Xady, in Maoerata; the S. Boeoo, and the S. Oormdo, in 
Piacenza; perlmps the most finu^ed among Lasnfranco's pro- 
ductions, and deservedly the most oelebrated. Bnt he exhibited 
ikaa etyfe still more fully in oupolaB and other scenes on a 
grand Bcalle, aoeordingto Corrqg^o's example. When young, 
he executed « flmall coloured model of iho cupola of the cathe- 
dral at Parma, emtdating his whole style, in particular that 
g^raoe of motion, <^ all by &r the most difficult He imitated 
it too at S. Andrea delhi Talle at Bome^ and in his. picture 
aivailed hinneif of tftie example ajQTorded by Michelangelo in 
architecture, when unable to execute a more beautiful cupola 
tlian BnmellesclDr«, and desirous of differing from it, he worked 
from a new design, and succeeded to adimration. This pro- 
duction forms an ^och in tiie art, inasmuch ^^ as he was the 
#iBt," says Passen, ^^to kradiate the opening of a celestial 
glory wi& a splendour of light, of which there was formerly 

seen ne example.'' ^ Lanfiranco's cupola remains a 

I 2 



116 B0L0GNB8E SOHOOIi.— EPOCH in. 

flolitiurjr fii|)ecimen in the vay of glories ; because, in respect to 
its celestial idea, in the opinion of the most dispassionate 
judges, he has attained the highest d^ree, as well in the har- 
mony of the whole, its chief object, as in the distribution of 
the colours, in the parts, and in force of chiaroscuro," &c. Nor 
was this, on which he spent four years, the sole example he left 
of a fecundity of idea and raie eleyation of mind, of which we 
meet with no account in any other artist, even among the 
ancient painters. Add to this the cupolas at the Cks^ and 
at the Tesoro of 8. Gennaro at Naples, where he succeeded 
Domenichino, irith various tribunes and chapels in Rome and 
Naples, adorned with equal majesty, and which hare given to 
Lower Italy the most genuine examples in this kind of which 
the art can boast. From him it was that the machinists ac- 
quired the power of gratifying the eye at larger distances^ 
painting only in part, and in part leaving the work, as he was 
accustomed to express it, for the air to paint. In the two 
schools above mentioned we have embraced his best disciples : 
to the Bolognese he gave no pupils^ as far as I learn, any 
more than to Bomagna and its dependencies ; if we except Gio. 
Francesco Mengucci, of Pesaro, who assisted him in the cupola 
of Si Andrea ; a painter, I believe, for collections, who has 
been much extolled by Malvasia. 

Next to the five heads of schools hitherto recorded, ought 
to be mentioned Sisto Badalocchi ; and the more as he was 
Annibal's disciple, and long resided with him at Rome. He 
was fellow-citizen, and a futhful companion too of Lanfranco, 
whose style he approached very nearly. Sisto designed ad- 
mirably, being preferred by Annibal in this branch to any of 
his fellow-pupils, and even, with singular modesty, to himself. 
Ample testimony of his ability is proclaimed in the engravings 
of Raffiiello's loggie^ executed in conjunction with Lanfrancoy 
and dedicated to Annibal ; besides the six prints of Correggio's 
grand cupola, a work which, to the public regret, was left in- 
complete. He was also selected by his master to decorate the 
ohapel of S. Diego, where he directed him to paint from one 
of his cartoons a history of that saint. In point of invention 
he was not equal to the leaders of his school ; so that, em- 
ployed in filling up the secondary parts, he assisted Guide and 
Domenichino at S. Gregorio ; and attended Albani at the 



▲LB68ANDK0 TIABINI. 117 

Yerospi palace ; altbongh his pictnre of Galatea left there is 
worthy of the hand of a great master. He appears to advan- 
tage in competition, and mostly excels, as we may gather from 
the church of St Sebastian at Rome, where he painted along 
with Tacconi ; and at Reggio, where he rivalled some of the 
less distinguished artists of Bologna. Besides his other works, 
that city has to boast the rich cupola of S. Giovanni, on which 
Sisto conducted a small, but very beautiful copy of that in the 
cathedral at Parma. Other of his specimens are to be met 
with in the Modenese state, particularly in the ducal palace 
at Gualtieri, where he represented in one chamber the Trials of 
Hercules. Of his pictures at Parma the most celebrated is that 
of St Francis, at the Cappuccini ; a painting, both in point of 
figures and landscape, composed in the best taste of the Caracci. 
For the rest, we may add what has been said of Lanfranco, that 
he most frequently executed much less than he knew. 

So £ir we have treated of the followers of the Caracci em- 
ployed at Rome ; and these in general, judging from their 
style, shewed more deference to A^nibal than any other of the 
&mily. Many others remained at Bologna, who either never 
-visited Rome or produced nothing there worthy of consideration. 
These were chiefly attached to Lodovico, in whose studio they 
had been educated, with the exception of Alessandro Tiarini, 
who sprung from another school, though he beneflted by his 
^vice and example, as much as if Lodovico had really been 
his master. But he was pupil to Fontana, subsequently of 
Cesi, and finally also of Passignano at Florence. He had fled 
*thiiher from his native place on account of a quarrel ; and 
after a lapse of seven years, through the intervention of Lodo- 
vico, he was enabled to return to Bologna, leaving at Florence 
4Uid some places in the state a few paintings in his first easy 
style, resembling Passignano's. In such style he conducted 
liis S. Barbara, at S. Petronio, a work which fidled to please 
the Bolognese public. To give it greater attractions, he next 
proceeded to copy from, and to consult Lodovico, not in order 
to attain his manner, but with the view of improving his own. 
This task was short to a man of genius, well grounded in the 
theory of his art, and perhaps more philosophical than any 
other artist of Bologna. He soon became a difierent painter, 
;and in his novel taste of composing, of distributing his lights^ 



118 BOLOONXSB SOBOOIm'— OPOCH III. 

and expraniiig the passioiis» ke ahone like a diieif^e of the 
Caraod. Nevertheless he pieserred a ehaiaeter distinet from 
the rest, grounded npon his natually aereie and melancholy 
disposition. All in him is serions and modotate ; the air of 
his figures, his attitudes, his drapery, yaried with £0*^ hut 
noble folds, sadh as to excite the adnuiation of Gkido himself. 
He avoids, moreover, very gay and animated ocdoaan^ chiefly 
contenting himself with light violets or yelk)w% and tawny 
colours, tempered with a little red ; hot so admirably hud on 
and harmonized, as to produce the finest fseihag of repose to 
enchant the eye. His auhjeete, too, are well adapted to his 
taste, as he generally selected, when he eonld, snoh aa w&ee of 
a pathetic and sorrowful oast. For tiiia leaaGOi hiaMagdalcais, 
his S. Peters^ and his Madonnas ia grie f ano of whieh, pre- 
sented to the dnke of Mantua^ dsew taan Iram his. eyea-^^tte 
held in high esteen. 

Subsequently he became expert in foieflhoxtQiiiiig, and all 
the intricacies of the art, more pafticnlariy in paint of inven- 
tion. There ia soarcely one of ma wodcs to ha nwt with, that 
does not exhibit a o^rtatn air of novelty and adpnality of 
idea. On occasion of lepieaeatisg the Tiigm in ipna^ in the 
church of SL Benedict, he dre^ hat seated togediflr with 
St. John and the Magdalen ; the one upng^ tfaa other 
kneeling, in tha act of oontereplating the Bedecmer's' Grown 
of thorns. Other indidenta of hia paasion also ace a&ded to ;, 
all are silent indeed, bat every eye and attitude is eloqneiit in 
its silence* Obtaining a OMmuiatton for an ater^pieca in 
S. Maria Maggiore, to represent St. John and St« Jesome^ he 
shunned the trite ezpresaion of drawing them in a gkcy ; but 
he ieigned an apparition, tibzough which the lu)iy dcnloiv while 
intent at hia studies, ai^^eaos to receive from tiie beatified 
evangeUst lectures in theology. Hia moat diatingnished pro- 
duction, however, is at S. Domeaico, the saint seen raising a 
man from the dead ; a picture abounding witii fil|^iBeff varied 
in point of feature^ attitude, and diess ; every Isbing highly 
select. Lodovico expressed his aatonishment at it, and declared 
that he knew of no master then to compare with Tiarini. It 
is true that, in this instance, having to oompete with Spada, 
he raised lus tone of colouring, and shmmed every conunon 
form ; two precautions which, had he introduced into evexy 



UOHEIiLO SPABtA. 119 

work, would have left him perhaps second to none of the 
Bolognese. He sorviTed nn^ his ninetieih year, and during 
a long period dwelt at Beggio^ whence he had oftoi occasbn 
to proceed to other cities of Lomhaidy, which preserve many 
of his altar-pieces, and cabinet pictures. The Modenese gal- 
lery abouods with ihem^ his St. Peter being more porticul^ly 
extolled, seen struck with remorse as he stands outside tlie 
pzaetorinm. The architecture^ the depth of night lighted up 
with torches, Christ'sjadgment bdield in the distance, aU 
conspire to raise the tragic interest of the scene* He was 
employed also by the duke of Parma, for whose garden he 
painted. Qome incidents from the Jerusalem Delivered, eon* 
ducted in fresco ; but whioh^ though much extoUed^ aie no 
longer met witL In short, Tianni was one of the most 
eminent artists next to the Garacci, at least in pcont of oom- 
positton, es^^ression of &atnres and of the paasions, peiapec- 
tive, power and durability of cobuxiji^ if not of tiie most 
exac^ ^egance^ 

LioseUo Spada was one of the leading geninea of the 
schooL Bj^tmiK bom the lowest origin, and employed by the 
Garacci aa a g^rmder of colours, by £nt of heajong thmr con- 
ferences, and observing the pvocess of their labours, he began 
to design; first under them, and next with Baglione^ he 
aoquired a knowledge of the art ; during several years study* 
ing no other models besides the Caiacei. He lived on f<^li<Mr 
terms with Dentone;,, and thua became skilful in the use of 
perspective. Incensed by a jest of Guide's, he determined to 
seek revenge by opposing his delicacy of manner with another 
more full imd strong ; for which purpose going to Borne, he 
studied both there and in Malta under Ouavaggio, and 
returned home master of a new style. It does not indeed 
lower itself to every form, like his, out still is not so devatad 
as that of the Garacci : it is studied in the naked paiHa, but 
not select ; natural in point of colouring, with good xelifif in 
the chiaroscuro, but too frequently displaying a ruddy tone in 
the shadows, giving ian ei^^iression of mannerism* One of 
liionello's most characteristic marks is a novelty and audacity, 
the result of his natural disposition, which was equally agree- 
able for its pleasantry, and hateful for ita ins(4ence. He (^n 
competed with Tiarini, always superior in point of spirit and 



120 BOLOGNBUS fiCHOOL.-»EPOCH III. 

force of ooloaring; but inferior in all the rest. Thw ftft 
S. Domenico, where he represented the saint in the act of 
burning proscribed books ; and this is the best picture on can* 
Tas which he exhibited at Bologna. At 8. Michele in Bosco 
also is seen his Miracle of St. Benedict, which the young 
artists call the Scarpellino of Lionello ; a picture so whoU j 
novel as to induce Andrea Sacchi, who was greatly struck 
with it, to copy the design. In a similar way at the Madonna 
di Reggio, where both artists painted as usiud in competition, 
as well in oils as in fresco, they appeared, as is were, to go 
beyond themselves. We often meet with specimens of Spada 
in private galleries ; boly families and scripture histories in 
half-length figures, like those of Caravaggio and Guercino ; 
his heads full of expression, but not very select. He seems 
most frequently to luive repeated the decollation of St John 
the Baptist) often met with in the Bolognese galleries, and the 
best perhaps is in that of the Malvezzi. 

He became painter to Duke Banuccio at Parma, where he 
decorated that admirable theatre, which then stood unrivalled. 
In that city, and at Modena, as well as in other places, I have 
seen some of his pictures in a taste wholly opposed to those of 
Bologna, displaying a mixture of the Caracci and of Parmi- 
gianino. His histories in the ducal gallery at Modena are 
highly beautiful ; such as the Susanna and the Elders, and the 
Prodigal Son. One of his most remarkable is the Martyrdom 
of a Saint, at S. Sepolcro in Parma, and the St Jerome, in 
the Oarmelitani, in the same city. Specimens such as these 
must Imve been among his last, at a period when he was 
residing in affluence at court, and enabled to conduct his works 
at leisure. His good fortune terminated with the life of 
Banuccio ; for with the loss of such a patron his talent, too, 
seemed to have deserted him, and he shortly followed to the 
tomb. The names of some of his scholars occur in the schools 
of Lombardy. Here too we ought to add that of Pietro' 
Desani of Bologna, who following him into Beggio, there 
established himself; a young artist of rapid hand and quick 
genius, whose works are to be met with very frequently in 
Beggio and its vicinity. 

Lorenzo Grarbieri was an artist of more learning and caution 
than Lionello, though resembling him in point of style. His 



LORBNZO OABBIEBI. 121 

aiOsieie, and almost fieiy diflpoeition, with an imagination 
sboimding in wild and mournfol ideas, impeUed him to a style 
of painting less open than that of the Caracci. To this cause 
must be added his emulation of Gxddo, whom, like Lionello, 
he wished to humble, by adopting a very powerful manner ; 
and, though he did not put himself under Cararaggio, he 
eagerly copied his pictures, including all the best at Bologna. 
Gaxbieri was one of the most successful imitators of Lodoyico ; 
less select in his heads, but grand in the forms, ezpressire in 
the attitudes, and studied in his large compositions ; insomuch 
that his paintings at S. Antonio in Milan, which are less 
loaded with shade, were attributed by Santagostini in his 
Guide to the Caracci. To this style of the Caracci he added 
the daring character of Caravaggio^ and he was skilful in 
selecting always funereal subjects most suitable to his genius ; 
:so that we meet with little else than scenes of sorrow, 
slaughter, death, and terror, from his hand. At the Bamabiti, 
'in Bologna, he painted for the chapel of S. Carlo an altar^, 
piece with two lateral pictures; it presents us with the 
liorrors of the Milanese plague, amidst which is seen the saint 
Tisiting the sick, and conducting a penitential procession. He 
painted also at the Filippini in Fano a picture of St Paul, 
near the St. Peter of Guide, in the act of raising the young 
man from the dead ; a work of such power of hand and 
expression as to excite at once terror and pity in the beholders. 
At S. Maurizio, in Mantua, he exhibited in a chapel the 
Martyrdom of S. Fdicita and her scTon children; a piece 
inferior indeed to the Miracle of St Paul in point of yigour, 
but containing such variety of images, and such deathly 
terror, as not to be surpassed in tragic interest by any thing 
from the same school. He had the choice of establishing 
liimself as court-painter at Mantua, an office he rejected, 
preferring to take a wife with a handsome dowry at Bologna. 
This step was a loss, however, to the art, as mentioned by 
Malvasia ; since from that period finding himself rich, and 
occupied with hmilj cares, he painted little, and with as little 
study, leaving his final labours by no means equal to the 
preceding. His son Carlo applied still less than his father 
to the profession, though he gave proofs in several works 
exhibited in public, that in time he would have equalled his 



in BOLoonaBB acHooi^iF-JVocH m. 



iiiher. Lotenao edneated few oiher pqnl% but he naa ii^gUf 
erteaiaed for hii piofoiind knowledge^ and for his nelihod «£ 
comnmnliafcting it» at oaoe «My aad pmoaoi- leaftuig iqKm few 
but eompreliefDaye maximfc 

Gkeomo GaTedone was from SaBBaol<v and hence kwladed 
among the aztiBte of the Modeneae ataite b j Tinbeaehiy in. 
whose work we may read the origiii^ has caraer. HiBgeaiaa 
was moie lonited^ his epixit less aDimated, than those of ihe 
preoeding; bni beiiig assisted by the Caiaod ia the right 
path, he attained to equal, and eren gieater oelebritj. Lear- 
iog the intrieacies of the art to* the more enteipriaiiig, he 
faasd. npon attitaideB ernnpajatiTely easy and devoid of fece.- 
shorteniag^ gentle expieesioBS disdnct ixora the stmger 
passions^ c<»rect design in his^ figiues, and mere pazticnkudiy 
in the hands and feet. Natoie had endned him with pumnfrt 
ness and htaStf; so that on ooeaoon of designing modefa^ or 
cc^jing pictoxesy he with rare exactness took the snfastaaee e£ 
the snl^eet^ and afiterwaids ledneed the whole by a neie easy 
method in his own peculiarly asealnte and graeefol toadiy in 
whidi he has always resuuned oiiffiaaL He was eqnalfap 
Borel in hi. hmxmVemfix^y^ finTtbta, bat ao uSS&Z 
that Onido was mdnoed to make him his pnpil, and retabiod 
l^iMfi at ?iiyFT tf> as his assistant* AnafclMiir stxikiiMr ^^J^ff ^a ^ytf^ Hi if 
was his strength of coloaring, which he ae^aued from these 
Yenetiaoa tlmttdTes, who dione the masfcen of his niastfirn> 
Here he attained to such excellenoe^ that Albani, when asked 
whether there were any pictures of Titian's at Bdngaay 
x^lied, thoe were not ; bat we may sabstitote tbe two at 
S» Pacdo by Cavedone (a Nativity ami an Epiphany) which 
look like Titian's, and ace executed with a bolder hand. One 
of his moot distinguished prodnctioos at Bologna is the S. AH^ 
at the MeadieaBti, in which Ginq>eno diaoflnresfl^ besides its 
fine deagn^aTitHuiesqae taste that excites asJonishment; and 
a Frfflwh toarist eatides it a most admirable work, sndi as 
might be fairly attrUMited to ^ Gasseci^ The mistake 
ia&ed has oeenrxed to persons of first-rate tsct, most £»• 
quently at Inn^ en contemplating the beantifiil ^bture of 
St Stephen at that ohnrch; and yet more oat of Italy, in 
regard to his pietoies of priyate ornament, in which he is 
more than msmdly attractive and perfect Judges know how 



LUGIO lUaSABI. 123 

to recognise Cayedone's hand bj his very compoidioiis 
manner of treating the liair and beaida, as well as bj tJiat 
graceful and rapid toneb, loaded with mndb lightudi jeUow, 
or burnt terra gialla. Leoglli of proportions is likewise 
considered another peculiarity, with a flow of the fbUs more 
rectilinear thiua in other artists of tiie sune sohooL Such 
ascendancy in the art was maintained by Csvedone during 
some y earS) till the death of a faTOnrite scm, wha had early 
distinguished himself in the same eaieer, miited to other heavy 
sorrows, deprired him of his powers, and he subsequently 
executed nothing of importance. A spedmen of that period 
is in possession of the fekthers of S. Martino ; aa Aseenrion 
that exdtes only our opmpassiony with similar piecea met with 
throughout Bologna^ that can boast no glimpse of grace. 
Still deteriorating, he was at length depriycd of commi^ons, 
and reduced to pennxy, which, in his old age, attended him 
to the tomb. 

Lucio Massari possessed a more joyous egm% ever glad and 
festal ; deyoted to the theatee and to the cfaaae, rather than to 
his academy and his pallet ; being usually is^tient and 
ayerse to commence his subjects, until his genius and good 
humour were propitious Eor this reason iSa wodka are few, 
but conducted in a hi^py ydm, graceful and finished, both in 
colour and in taste appearing to breathe of dieerf ulaess. His 
style most resembles Annibal'% whose works he copied to 
admiration, and after whose exan^le, while a &w mimths at 
Some, he designed the most finished and noble ifomnaats of 
Grecian sculpture. There shines also in his eonntenanoes 
the fi^irit of Passerotti, his earliest master, and more freqiiently 
the gracefulness of his near friend, Albaai, whose society he 
enjoyed both in his studio and his yilla, and ia wiurks under- 
taken in conjunction. His S. Gaetano^ at the Teatini, is 
crowned with a ^ory of exquisitely graoelol diembs, that 
seem from the hand of Albani ; and m his other pictures we 
often recognise those full countenances, those delicate fleshes, 
that sweetness, and those sportful expressions, in which re- 
velled the genius of Albani. In point of beauty, the Noli m^ 
tangerty at the Celestini, and the Nuptials of St. Catherine, at 
S. Benedetto, are among his most . esteemed pieces ; to say^ 



124 BOLOONESB 8CH00L.^EP0CH in. 

nothiBg of his histories at the Cortile of S. Michele in Bosco, 
where he left many veiy elegant specimens. 

On occasion of treating strong or tragic subjects, he did not 
shrink from the task ; and although he had a real knowledge 
of the arty he conducted them without that extreme study of 
foreshortenings and naked parts, of which others make so 
lavish a disphty. He shewed noble clearness and decision, 
fine colouring, a grand spirit, enliyening them with light and 
graceful figures, more particularly of women. Such is the 
Slaughter of the Innocents, at the Bonfigliuoli palace, and the 
Fall of Christ, at the Certosini, a most imposing production, 
from the number, variety, and expression of the figures, whose 
pictoric fire surpasses all we could mention from the hand of 
Albani. He has left some cabinet pictures, always in good 
design, and mostly possessing soft and savoury tints ; so that 
■all we would farther look for is, occasionally, a more gradual 
distribution of tints in the background of his pieces. Among 
other pupils, he instructed Sebastiano Brunetti, polished by 
6uido, a sweet and delicate artist^ but of brief career ; and 
Antonio Banda of Bologna. Mfdvaffla has observed, that 
there is little good to be said respecting him, apparently allud- 
ing to a deed of homicide committed by him at Bologna. In 
other respects, he includes him among the best pupils, first of 
GuidO) next of Massari, to whose style he became attached. 
On account of his reputation, the duke of Modena granted 
him an asylum in his state, declaring him, according to Orlandi, 
his court-painter, in 1614. Here he was much employed, 
and subsequently at Ferrara, for the most part at S. Filippo ; 
also in many places of the Pelerine, where I find his Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Cecilia, in possession of the Sign. Redetti, at 
Rovigo, the most celebrated of his productions. Finally, he 
betook himself to the cloister, a fact unnoticed by Malvasia, 
which might have induced him to speak of him in nulder terms. 

Pietro Facini entered late into the profession, at the sug- 
gestion of Annibal Caracci, who from one oi his playful 
sketches in charcoal declared how excellent a painter he would 
become, if he were to enter his school. Annibal subsequently 
regretted the discovery, not only because Facini's progress 
excited jealousy, but, because, on leaving the academy, he 



FRANCESCO BRIZIO. 125 

became his rival in edacating young artists, and eren plotted 
against his life. He has two striking characteristies, yiraoity 
in his gestures, and in the expression of his heads, saoh as to 
place nim on a footing with Tintoretto, and a truth of carna- 
tions, which induced Annihal himself to observe, that he 
seemed to have ground human flesh in his colours. With this 
exception, he has nothing superior ; feeble in point of design, 
too laige in his naked figures of adults, incorrect in the placing 
of his hands and heads. Neither had he time to perfect him- 
self, d3ring young, and before the Garacci, in 1602. There^ 
is a picture of the patron saints, at S. Francesco, in Bologna, 
with a throng of cherubs, which is indeed among his best 
works. In the Malyezd collection, and in others of the city, 
are much esteemed some of his country dances, and sports 
of boys, in the manner of Albani, but on a larger scale. He 
had a pupil in Gio. Mario Tambuiini, who afterwards attached 
himself to Gnido, f<»ming himself on his manner, as we have 
already stated. 

Franceseo Brizio, gifted with rare genius, was, up to his 
twentieth Tear, employed as a shoemaker's boy. Impelled, 
at length, by his bias for the art, he acquired a knowledge of 
design from Passerotti, and of engraving £rom Agostino 
Caraed. Lastly, he commenced painting undw Lodovico,. 
and very soon arrived at such celebrity, that by some he has 
been pronounced the most eminent disciple of the Caiacci. 
Doubtless, if we except the previous five, he was equal to any 
others, and excepting Domenichino, gifted with the most uni- 
versal genius. He was not deficient, like Guido, in per- 
spective ; nor in the branch of landscape, like Tiarini ; nor in 
splendour of architecture, like so many others. In these 
acoesBaries he surpassed all his rivals, as we gather from his 
histories, painted for S. Michele in Bosco ; at least such was 
the opinion of Andrea Sacchi. He is extremely correct in 
his figures, and perhaps approached Lodovico more closely 
than any other artist. The graceful beauty of his cherubs 
excites admiration, an excellence at that period so greatly 
studied by all the school ; and here, in the opinion of Guido,. 
ke outshone even Bagnacavallo. His chief talent lay in imi- 
tation ; owing to which, and his character for indecision, in 
addition to the number of' great artists, superior to him in. 



126 B0L06NBBB 0CHOOL.— -SPOCH III. 

mamMrSy fae was depriyed of asaiatants and oommiseioiui, and 
lednoed to ezaeate aoch as h& had soHcitod at Tery indgid* 
ficant {nieeB. One of the ■net flzteiiaT« altar-peoee in the 
cttjT is bam hk hand, vepraBenting liie Ooienation of the 
Yii^gin, at 6. FBtNoiOy'iiith a few figoiee in the feiegfoimd 
ixvljjofoxiamui wM amuiged ; heaidee odiersin ihe distance 
gnmped and dinundflhed with art;apietueof great merit eyen 
in flto en grii of eohmang. He p io da eed also' for the noble 
hsBolj AameikM Ae TaUb of Oebes, m 'one gtand painting ; 
the work ol an entieo year, whiah dispkyed all the d^yui, 
imaginatiflny jnd genios of % gnat aitlst. There aie also a 
BBmher of aBafl engBarings £pobi his hand, in whioh he cxften 
approaohaB Chndo. 

His seat Fiyppoand Danenieo degli Amhiegi, ealled Meni- 
'dnno del Biiao, wero his most «Bafii^vished ^seiples. These 
ax^urts paiwtfid amre for pgnrale mnaaieiit ten for Hiat of tihe 
^ogroheeL The kAter heoaiae odehrated f<Nr hie design ; was 
-employed chiefly in firiezes for chambers, in ardhitBotiire, and 
landanwe in fiwio, mae/HmoB in eoary aa etion wife Dentone 
and Goiooma, S Bi ii rt^a eB akme. He was alK> a ftnshed ardst 
of pietDTCB for private seoms, oooasiomdly ^zhilnting there 
eopkniBhiafcories, as an that we f«ad of in ^le Ml and weli 
dnwn ftp gaftatogne -ef Hie Big. Oanen Tiaoenfe pietnfes at 
Ghioggia. itpnaents ns with fee enlaranoe ef a ponftf into 
fee flity of B<dogna. It is set surprising that he ehonld be 
acknowledged and esteemed even in fee Tenefeud territories, 
haying been fee p reee pt ar of Furaiani, and master of ^ezan- 
tonio Genra, who painted a good deal for fee Padoan state. 

Gio. Andraa Dondneoi, called from his fofea^s p i c foanen 
Maatelletta,* inherited a genius for fee art Impatient, how* 
eveiv o>f the peecepts of fee Caiaodi, his auisiers, he negfoeted 
to groimd himself ia the art, was i»e^[oai to designing naked 
fignres, and &r 6am prodneing any matftep-piece. His method 
was short, and iriioily intent upon attnotii^ the eye by eifeet ; 
loadij^g his piotmes wife shadow in such a wayas to conceal 
fee oi^ines, and opposing to his feadowa Baaases 4if Kght eiif* 
fici^Ddly strong, tfaiis succeeding in disgnising from jmdges fee 
inaocaiaoies of his design, and giatifynig fee ranltilnde wife a 

* A mil or bucket maiDBr. 



ffiO. AVTOLBA TH>imVCCS. 127 

fBfiplaj of Kppsteot novelty. I Ioatb often imi^iaed thftt l&is 
artist had great inflneDoe wi& the aect' of the Tendbroai, whkii 
afterwasrds qwead itoeif though tlw Yenetiaii stotoy aad aknost 
«T0ry 4istriot m Lomhaapdy. He ims enabled to support his 
eredit by » mdble jsqpirit of deBign, by a tideiable imitation of 
Parmigionino, the nolo artut adbbptedto hiB diepoBition, and by 
a natmal &eility that enabled ban to oahmr a very large extent 
cf caayas in a «hort time. Among aoBk apedmens are the 
Death) and the Ammnf^tion of the Vi^n, at ihe Gxacie, and 
aome siraflar hifltoriea, not wifnqnent in Bolo^jna. Perhi^ 
has fpictniA of 6. isene, at ^ted Cyestini, ia enperiDr to any 
otfamr. When advaneed in hiSe^ hnaAing theafplaQae bestowed 
en <he 43kar, opm 0tyle, he began to practiae it, but with no 
kind of anoeeaa, not puaaeMiug abflity to appear to advaAtage 
ont of laa oira obaema mannaa. In iiia tarnvt mte he had 
painted at S. Doaenico tiro mkaelea of the aaint^ wliieh were 
eateemed Ida naatap-pieeea; bat theae he altered aooording to 
his nerw aaetfaod, and they were ^eneafortk regarded among 
hn moat hMm peEfiRmaooeB. In hk iialf-Jgnaea the same 
di^venity of mannr ia abacrvaUe ; and iJioae ezoonted in the 
fivat, aosh as hor Mirade^of Iha Manna, in flie fi^^ada palao^ 
with a^eas at Bnme, asa jua^ hcfid in ealaem. The aome 
may be aaid af hie hmdaaapea, which, in many gallmes, are 
attdbnted toihe Oaeaad ; bat i^e iaato in the xapi&y of touch, 
vBiy original and namarlnthte iaa Ma6tellett% ia anfficient to 
daatingoiab HienL Aamibal waa eo wdl j^baeed with these 
pietana for gidLeaieB, that, baring Ida eompuiy at Berne, ha 
adyised him to settle there, and confine himself to ainular 
kdxnuB ; advioe by no aeons pleaeong to Doildaflci Bat he a 
good deal Jbe^pented the stndio <Kf Xasai, and these artists 
mntnally aaasiled each oither, &eely eommumcating between 
t^amaelves what tiiey knew. Soon after he retaBmed to Bologna, 
and leamned Ma maae extonsiye works ; but met wisl^ serious 
disappeint m enta, each as to indnee him to enter as a friar, first 
amoi^ lihe CbnvnntQaLi, next with the oanens of S. Salyatore. 
fie edbicatodno pii^»ils of merit, exoept that cmeDomenicoMen* 
gnoci, of Peaaro, vearaiibled Haistolletto a good deal in his land- 
acape; an artist better known at Bologna than in his natiye 
place. 



138 BOIiOGlTESE 8OHOOI1.— EPOCH ni. 

Besides the forementioiied disdples of the Canooi academy,, 
several othera are entitled to oonsideiation ; sach as Schedone 
and more names recorded in the schools already described, 
with a few yet left to mention in those of which we haye to 
treat. Many names will also find a place among the Bo- 
lognese painters of landscape, or those of perspectiye. A few 
others, who doToted tfaemselres to figures, hare been scarcely 
allnded to by Malvasia, either because then living, or not so 
distinguished as some of the preceding ; nev^rthdess they are 
not despicable, for to hold a second or third rank, where 
Domenichino and Guide are the foremost, is a degree of honour 
not to be regretted. One of these is Francesco Cavazzone, a 
writer too on the art, of whom the Canon Grespi subsequently 
collected very ample notices, in particular extolling a Mag- 
dalen kneeling at tiie feet of the Redeemer, a truly imposing 
picture, that ornamented the church of that saint in Yia 
S. Donate. Of much the same degree of merit was Yinoenzio 
Ansaloni, who gave only two altar-pieces to the public, but 
sufficient to establish his titie to the character of a great artist 
Giaoomo Lippi, called also CKacomoneda Budrio, was another 
distinguished artist, of universal genius, in whose fresco his- 
tories at the portico of the Nunziata we trace the pupil of 
Lodovico, not very select, but of prompt and practised hand. 
Some pictures in fresco too by Piero Pancotto, at S. Colombano, 
gave rise to feelings of disgust, from the ridicule attempted to 
be cast on his own parish priest, caricatured by him in the 
features of a holy evangelist, though as an artist he could not 
be despised. 

Among the histories at S. Michele in Bosco, already de- 
scribed, is seen the Sepulture of the SB. Y aleriano and Tibundo, 
by Alessandro Albini, a painter of spirit ; the Giving Alms of 
S. Cecilia, by Tommaso Campana, who afterwards followed 
Guide; the St. Benedict among the Thorns, by Sebastiano 
Razali ; the Conference between Cecilia and Yaleriano, by 
Aurelio Bonelli ; all respectable artists, except that Malvasia 
blames the last-mentioned as unworthy of a school productive 
of so many noble disciples ; but it is rare that in such rich 
abundance some abortive specimen does not appear. Florio 
and Gio. Batista Macchi, Euea Rossi, Giacinto Gilioli, 



DOMBNICO HIRANDOLA. 129 

Ippolito Ferrantiniy Pier-Maria Poiettano, Antonio Castellani, 
Antonia Pinelli ;* all these gave to the Bolognese public some 
superior specimens of their skill, and more in the adjacent 
places ; and we may add Gio. Batista Yemici, who was sub- 
sequently employed by the duke of Urbino. Nothing remains 
there from the hand of Andrea Costa, or of Y incenzio Gotti ; 
of whom the former, according to Malvasia, painted for the 
S. Casa of Loreto some admirable pieces, now known, if I 
mistake not, under another name. The latter resided in the 
kingdom of Naples, mostly at Beggio, an artist of singular 
rapidity, whose altar-pieces in that city alone amount to the 
number of two hundred and eighteen. Other followers of the 
Caracci are known to have renounced painting in &your of 
engraving and sculpture. The academy was closed on Lodo- 
yico's death ; .and the casts, with other requisites for the art, 
remained for a long period at Bologna. Domenico Mirandola, 
on the opening of Facini's academy, quitted that of Lodovico, 
became a celebrated sculptor, enriched himself wii^ the spoils 
of both, and kept an open studio, regulated according to the 
method of his first masters ; called for this reason by some the 
studio of the Caracci. Names, howeyer, are not realities; 
and correctness of design was not maintained in this sai^isant 
academy, but gradually deteriorated ; the honour of its revival 
being reserved for the genius of Cignani, of whom we shall 
say more in our fourth epoch. 

The review of the Bolognese artists is here complete. In 
the year 1617 the state of Ravenna had to boast a Guatini, 
an artist of a sound style, not far removed from that of the 
Caracci, if we may judge from a Pieti^ a.t S. Francesco, in 
Rimini, to which place he belonged. There too was one 
Matteo Ingoli, who is mentioned in the Yenetian school, to 
which he wholly devoted his talents. To the same state 
•belonged the family of Barbiani, who have continued down to 
this period their services to their country. Giambatista, the 
most ancient, is mentioned by Orlandi ; his school is not 
known, though he possesses an attractive manner, much 

* Hie wife of Bertusio, and admired by Lodovico Caracci for her sin- 
gular modesty and attachment to the art. Her finest production adorns 
the Nonziata, composed from Lodovioo's design^ in which she drew her 
own portrait with a bonnet* and thalK)f her husband. 
VOL. III. K 



130 BOLOGNEBB 6CHOOL. — ^EPOCH 111. 

TesemUiiig Ged's, bat differing from him in ibe study of eaoh 
£gaxe, and on this aeoount unequal with himseli His St. 
Andrew, and his St. Joseph, on twoaltais at the Franoescani; 
his S. Agatha, in the chnxeh of that name, with other pieces 
In different fJaoes, are well executed in olL In the chapel of 
N. ^gaora del Sudors, in the oathedral^ is the yaulied ceiling 
painted by him with an Assn—iption of the Virgin, which, 
«Ten eompared with Ghiido's ci^hk- ai Barenna^ does not 
^displease. Ason of Qio. Batietasueoeededhiminhisprofes- 
iaiOD, not in his reputatioD ; from whom, or some other mem- 
ber of the lunily, sprung Andrea Barbiani, who, on the 
«orbeb of the ssid ceiling, coloured the four Eyangelists, and 
painted several altar-pieces both at Bayemia and at Rimini. 
Ajfter examining his manner, and in particular his tints, I 
iwliere him to have been a pupil, or at least a disciple, of P. 
iPvonti of Bimini, diortly before commended among Guercino's 
•disoipleB along with Qennari, also i&om that place. Here 
likewiw we sftuEill mention a third, spning hem the school of 
PadovaninQ, but residing in his natiTO plaee; a painter more 
•of pictures for priyaie ornament than tv churches. His name 
was Carlo Leoni, and he competed with Gentino in his pic- 
ture of the Penitence of Darid, ^t the Oratorio^ and with 
other excdlent figurists who then flourished in Romagna. 
Among Ghrardno's dismples will be found also naiivee of 
Oesena; and I am convinced that many other artists of 
Bonugna were retained by him at Cento ; a hd which is 
4illuded to in hb life, without any mention of the names. 

At Fmawm, in the time of the Caraoci, flouriiAed one 
Perra^ da Faensa, with the additional £unily a^^Uation of 
iFanzoni, or Faenioni, deriyed probably from his country. 
According to Titi he was pupil to Yanni, but loft nothing 
«t Rome besides his fifeseo-painiings at the Scala Saiita^ at 
S. Gia Laterano, and in great number at S. Maria Masfiiore. 

ing tints, and good mixture of colours ; mostly executed in 
'Competition with Gentilesdbi, Salimbeni, Noyara, and Croce. 
IFrom his hand is the S. Onofno, in the cathedral at Foligno, 
with seyeral pieces at Ravenna and Faenjsa^ where however 
liis manner seems to have changed. There I heard him in- 
<;]uded among the pupils of the Caiacci, from whom perhaps 



TOMMASO MISCIROLI. 131 

lie some time studied. Nor is this at all diifficnlt to beliere 
•on contemplating the chapel of S. Carlo, in the cathedral, or 
his Deposition from the Cross, at thennnneijof S. Domenioo ; 
or his Probatioa, at the confraternity of S. Giovanni, which is 
the best preserved of all his pictures in the district, and nearest 
Tesembling Lodovico's style. I am assured that his real 
family was the Fenzoni, of noble origin, now extinct at Faenza; 
and that he died in his native place in 1645, aged S8. It is 
related that he perpetrated an atrocious deed, having assas- 
sinated, out of mere professional jealoui^, one Manzoni of 
Faenza, a young artist of rising reputation, as is apparent &om 
several of his pictures, of which two are in the possession of 
the Ab. Strocchi, Giudice di Pace, in Faenza. Nor is he less 
esteemed for his altar-pieoes, particulariy that of the Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Eutropio V escovo, exhibited in that church. He 
would luLve shone a distinguished ornament of the art, had 
not his career been thus untimely cut short by envy. The 
assassin artist failed to restore to Ftainting that of which he 
had deprived her, even by educating his two young daughters, 
Teresa, who painted much for her native place, and Claudia 
Felice, perhaps her superior, at Bologna, where she died in 
1703. 

One Tommaso Misciroli left several specimens of his hand 
at Faenza, known generally by the name of Fitter YiUano. 
He flourished after Ferrau, and owed his reputation to his 
genius rather than to any precepts of the art. Neitiier in his 
design, his expreanon, nor his costume, has he any thing to 
recommend him, and in these he often errs. But in itae viva- 
city of his attitudes, in his colouring, acquired from Chiido, 
his draperies from the Yenetians, he ia equal to many of this 
school ; yet this remark applies only to a few works executed 
with much care. Hie best of these is at the church of S. 
Cedlia, where he has exhibited the martyrdom of that saint ; 
and in ^e scene is introduced an executioner stirring up the 
flames, a figure almost copied from the grand picture by Lio- 
nello, at the church of S. Domenico in Bologna. 

Oiapeio Sacchi da Imola is known to me only from some 
pictures he conducted at Ravenna, and recorded first by 
F^bbri, next by Orlandi. It is uncertain to what country the 
Osv. Gius^pe IMamantini belonged, called by scHue in mistake 

K 2 



132 BOLOONESB SCHOOL.— EPOCH III. 

GioTanni ; but generally acknowledged to have been a native 
of Romagna. In the twenty-eighth volume of the Antichitd 
Picene it is asserted that he came from Fossombrone. He 
resided at Venice, and left at S. Moisd an Epiphany, in 
which he displays great freedom of hand, and a bold effect in 
the execution. He is more celebrated in collections belonging 
to the Venetian state than in chnrches, being met with at 
Rovigo and at Verona^ where, in Casa Bevilacqua, are some 
heads of philosophers in a very novel manner. His character 
indeed consisted in this kind of painting, and he would seem 
to have derived his idea of them from Salvator Rosa. 

We shall now proceed to treat of the landscape, flower, and 
perspective painters ; all artists in short connected with minor 
branches of the art. On this subject the historians who pre- 
ceded me have attributed no improvement to the Caracci, 
except in landscape ; though I l^lieve that their prevailing 
maxim of shunning all caprice and fallacy, and confining them- 
selves to representations of truth and nature in the art, spread 
its influence from the human figure down to the insect, from 
the tree to the fruit, from the palace to the cottage. In a 
similar way too was introduced the maxim of avoiding in 
literature that affectation, prevalent in the sixteenth century, 
in favour of the purity of better ages ; owing to which the 
style of writing, from that of history even to familiar corre- 
spondence, from the poetry of the epic to the sonnet, shone 
with real lustre 

Gio. Batista Viola and Gio. Francesco Grimaldi were the 
two leading painters of landscape at that period, in the manner 
of the Caracci. Viola was among the first to exclude from 
painting that hard, dry style so much practised by the Flemish. 
He has been mentioned as being at Rome, where he established 
himself, and decorated with landscape-fiescos different villas 
belonging to those nobles ; in particular the Villa Pia. But 
portable pictures of this artist are rarely to be met with, 
except, that being in company with Albani at Rome, his 
landscapes were frequently introduced into the pictures of the 
latter, and may be recognised in that city by judges as those 
of Viola, like Mola's in other pieces of Albemi at Bologna. 
Grimaldi continued many years in the service of different 
pontiffs at Rome; and some years in that of the Car. 



BENEDETTO POSSENTI. 133 

Mazarini at Paris, and of Loais XIY. He suipassed Viola 
i|i good fortune as well as science ; a noble architect, excellent 
in perspectiye, in figures, and as an engraver of Titian's land- 
scapes and of his own. His prints display singular judgment 
in the individual parts, and great beauty in their edifices ; he 
is also much more ample in drawing the foliage than the 
Caracci, and also very different, as is observed in the '' Lettere 
Pittoriche."* His design always answers to the workman*- 
ahip ; his touch is light, his colouring very strong, only par- 
taking too much of tiie green. He waij employed by Inno- 
cent X., in competition with other artists, in the Quirinal and 
in the Vatican palace ; and was also selected to decorate some 
churches, in particular at S. Martino a' Monti. The Colonna 
gallery is enriched with his views, and he is often met with in 
others, though not so much sought after in foreign parts as 
Claude and Poussin. Such is their number, that I doubt not 
some of his works were executed by his son Alessandro, who, 
according to Orlandi, was a disciple and follower of Gio. 
Francesco. His specimens are not equally abundant at 
Bologna, where, about the same period, other landscape- 
f>ainters are known to have flourished. 

We have extolled Mastelletta, and now for a similar taste 
we must praise Benedetto Possenti, a pupil of Lodovico, and 
also a spirited painter of figures. His landscapes present us 
with sea-ports, embarkations, fairs, festivals, and the like 
objects. Bartolommeo Loto, or Lotti, was also held in high 
esteem, first a disciple and next competitor of Viola, one who 
invariably adhered to the taste of the Caracci. Paolo Antonio 
Padema, a pupil of Guercino, afterwards of Cignani, dis- 
played in his landscape admirable imitation of Guercino's 
manner. There was likewise Antonio dal Sole, from the cir- 
cumstance of painting with his left hand, denominated il 
3f onchino de' Paesi,t Francesco Ghclli, and Filippo Veralli, 
all sprung from the school of Albani, and all much prized for 
their rural views in different collections. 

Annibal formed, as stated in the first volume, a Gio. da 
Udine of his own, in a distinguished painter of fruits, called 

* Vol. ii. p. 289. 

t The handless landflcape-painter. 



134 BOLOGKESE SCHO0L.-^EPOCH III. 

il Gobbo di Cortona, or il Gobbo de' Garacd. Similair repu- 
tation was acquired by two Bolognese artists, Antonio Mez- 
zadri, wbose flowers and fraits are in abondance at Bologna ; 
and Anton Maria Zagnani, wbo reeeived eommissions even 
from princelj' foreigners. Both were excelled bj Paolo 
Antonio Barbieri, as fionons for bis representation of animals, 
flowers, and fraits, as bis brother Gio. Francesco for the 
human figure. He bestowed, however, little study on the 
art, bding too much oecupied with his fimiilj affidrs.* There 
was a pupil of Guido, by birth a Milanese, but settled kt 
Bologna^ maned Pierfiiuceseo Cittadini, commonly called il 
Milanose, who surpassed all his frilow-scholank Some of his 
altar-pieces shew him to have been capable of greater per- 
formances ; but following the genius and example of sereral 
artists whom he saw at Rome, he restricted himsdtf to painting 
small pictuies on canvas, and small branches of histories and 
landsca^yes. Yet these were excelled by his specimens of 
fruits and flowees, with birds of every kind, to which he 
oocasionalb^ added portraits and very giacefoi figures, in the 
same piece. Bologna abounds with his paintings, as such a 
line of study proved useful to the quadrataiists,t who were 
often deairous to secure Cittadini's assistance and fhat of his 
pupils in their omammital labours. 

For portraits drawn from life, without any oth^ aeoessoiies, 
Gio. Francesco Negri, pupil of Fialetti, in Tenice, was then 
in credit at Bologna; where he had for his fellow^pupil 
Boschini, who fiiudly became a designer and engraver in 
copper. Commendations of Negri are met with in the 
volumes of Malvasia and of Czespi. 

Bologna had to boast little that was gieat in regard to 
ornamental architecture up to the time of Dentone (Girolamo 
Curti), who became its restorer also in other parts of Italy. I 

* Ab tbe head of the domestic establishment, he mserted in a book the 
pictures onivfaidi he and his brother were employed, with the prices which 
they obtained. On his death this was continued by Benedetto and Cesare 
Gennari, who recorded tiie works conducted by their snrviring nncle. 
Sach a registry was Tcry usefiil to ascertain the dates and prices of th& 
Guercinesqae pictures ; from the family of Gennari it came into posses- 
sion of the Prince Ercolani, who made a yaluable collection of MSS. and 
Tcry rare books on the fine arts. 

i Ornamental and architectural painters. 



DBNTONE. 135 

SB J restorer, inasmuch as Gio. and Cherubino Albert! at Rome^ 
aiKi the Sandrini at Breeda, with the Bruni in Yenioe, had 
produced some fine specimens. Nor, if we consider the times^ 
were Agostino dalle Prospettive and Tommaso Lanretti, in 
Bologna itself, destitute of merit, as we have already stated. 
But their models being either n^ected or corrupted by their 
successors, produced no solid advantage to the art ; so that 
there were either no quadratnrists in any cities of Italy or 
they were extremely rare, and esteemed only as the refuse of 
the fignrists. Dentone, with his companions, not only reyived, 
but deyated and enfakiged this art. Sprung from a spinnings 
Tnanufactoay of the Sgnori Bizzardi, he oommenced under 
LioneUo Spada to attempt the design of figures ; and finding 
this too difficidt, he turned to ornamental painting, and ac- 
quired £n>m Baglione the use of the rule, and to draw the 
lines. He proceeded no &rther with this master ; but, haying 
porcfaasBd &e works of Yignolaand Serlio, he in these studied 
the different orders of architecture, grounded himself in perspec- 
tiye, fanned a solid and weQ-regulated taste, which he fiurther 
iinprtrred with what he saw at Borne, among the renuins of 
ancient architecture. He attempted much in the form of rdief, 
whidi is indeed the soul of this profession. His fine illusions 
of cornices, colonnades, lodges, balustrades, aiohes, uid modi- 
j^oni, seen with tiie c^ect of foreshortening, haye led to the 
snppoeitiDn of his being assisted by stnccos, or some materials 
of strong relief ; while the whole is produced by the effect of 
diiarosenro, brought to a &cility, truth, and grace neyer before 
seen. In his odours he preseryed those of the stones and 
marbles ; avoiding those tinte of gems and precious stones, 
afterwards introduced at the expense of all yerisimilitnde. It 
was an invention of his to lay gold-leaf over his works in 
fresco. He made use of burnt oil, wilJi turpentine and yellow 
wax, melted together, and placed, in a dissolved i^te, with a 
fine pencil, on the parte where the fi^te occur, and where the 
gold leaf is applied. Still he but sparingly availed himself of 
such discovery, consigning ite abuse to his foUowers. Anxiom 
lor durability, he was accustomed to rough sketeh, and after-^ 
wards to fill up with other layers, then making of the whole 
ene solid impasto, or mingled layers of colours ; while in the 
most exposed spots, not trusting wholly to the plaster, he 



136 BOLOONESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH ni. 

united Teiy fine portions of white marble, as subtly inserted 
as we see in the £a;9ade of the Grimaldi palace. He thus con- 
ferred fresh lostre on both palaces and churches ; and next 
proceeding to the theatres, he exhibited novel spectacles in 
them. The neannost scenes he painted with the most com- 
manding power of shade, and diminishing its depth by d^;ree8, 
conducted the eye to the most remote with sensations of har- 
mony and delight. This contrast of depth and sweetness gave 
the iUni^on of an immense prospect in small space ; and such 
was the degree of relief in the edifices there represented, that 
numbers, on the first appearance, went upon the stage in order 
to explore the reality more nearly. His excellence in this 
respect soon obtained him commissions out of Bologna ; from 
the Card. Legate, at Ravenna, from the sovereigns of Parma 
and Modena, and at Rome from Prince Lodovisi, for whom 
he painted a hall, which outshone the Sala Clementina, deco- 
rated by Gio. Alberti, until then esteemed the most admirable 
of its kind. 

It was Dentone's custom to retain the services of a figurist, 
in order to model his statues, prepare his chiaroscuri, figures of 
boys, and sometimes even animals and flowers, with all which 
he ornamented, not always with discreetness, his architectural 
views. The most erudite among the young artists here vied 
in ofiers of their services, desirous of profiting by the same art, 
and acquiring reputation. In the hall of the Conti Malvajda, 
at Trebbio, he was assisted by Brizio, Francesco and Antonio 
Caracci, and Yalesio ; also by Massari, in the grand chapel of 
S. Domenico, who attended him as well in the library of the 
fathers of S. Martino, where he painted the celebrated ^Dispute 
of S. Cirillo. In the Tanara palace he even engaged Guer- 
cino, who there exhibited his grand Hercules ; while elsewhere 
he was assisted by Campana, Galanino, and Spada, and a few 
cartoons were afforded lum by Guido himself. But his most 
useful colleague was Angiol Michele Colonna, who arriving at 
an early age from Como, and having studied some time under 
Ferrantini, finally united himself with Dentone, and became 
celebrated throughout Europe. This artist, according to 
Crespi, enjoyed i£e reputation of the greatest fresco-painter of 
whom Bologna could boast ; such was his spirited drawing 
both of men and animals, such his eminence in perspective, 



ANOIOL MICHELB COLONNA. 137 

and every species of ornamental work, that he was himself 
alone eqnal to any grand undertaking, and painted alone an 
entire chamber at the Florentine court, and a chapel at 
S. Alessandro, in Parma. The perspectives in the tribune of 
that church were by his hand ; the figures by Tiarini ; and in 
several other places the perspectives were by Dentone, the 
figures by Colonna. It formed his peculiar talent, with what- 
ever painter he might engage, so to adapt himself to the atyle 
and spirit of his colleague, that the entii^ work seemed the idea 
of the same mind, the product of a single hand. Nor did he 
require any delay ; for whilst his companion proceeded with 
liis own portion, he, with wonderful velocity, consistency, and 
admirable harmony, despatched the work ; a gift for which 
lie was very generally sought after, and more particularly by 
Dentone, who retained him after his return from Rome, until 
the period of his decease. 

Whilst these two celebrated men thus promoted their pro- 
fession, there was rising into notice one Agostino Mitelli, a 
youth of very prolific genius, not unacquainted with the figure, 
which Passer! supposes he acquired from the Caraoci, and 
well-grounded in perspective and architecture, under Faloetta. 
When the two friends were engaged in decorating the archi- 
episcopal palace at Ravenna, and at the courts of Parma and 
Modena, Mitelli alternately assisted the figurist and the qua- 
4raturist. This last, however, was the art he most affected, 
and to which, on separating from his masters, he finally devoted 
himself. His first labours proved very attraotire to the public ; 
not that they equalled the force, solidity, and reality of 
Dentone, but on account of their peculiar grace and beauty, 
such as almost to obtain for him the fame of the Guido of the 
quadraturists. Employing his own taste, he softened down 
&e harder features of the art, made the elevations more deli- 
cate, the tints more mild, and added a style of foliage, scrolls, 
and arabesques, decorated with gold, such as seemed to breathe 
of grace. The play of the ornaments varied with the nature 
cf the edifices ; some ideas were adapted to halls, some to 
churches, and others to theatres. Each ornament filled its ap- 
propriate place, at just intervals ; the entire work finally 
according with a delightful symmetry and harmony, so as to 
take by surprise people not yet fftmilarwitii similar illusions. 



138 BOLOGNESI SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH in. 

and to lemind them, as it were, of the enchanted palaces of the 
romanoers. MiteQi's fizst asaistants were two of his fellow- 
papik in this art, Andrea Sighini and Gio. Padema, with occa- 
Bionallj the fignnst Ambrogi ; names not unworthy a place in 
the history of the arts, though unequal to compete with such 
a colleague. 

Golonna alcme seemed bom to associate with him, as he did 
afifflr the death of his &To«rite Curii. An intimacy ensued, 
which was like the second act of Angid Michele's life ; an 
intimacy which, strengthraied by mutiul esteem and interest, 
and cherished by habit and kmd offices, continued during 
twenij-lbor years, until terminated by the death of Mitelli 
These two mends added greatly to Ihe exceQent models of 
the art at Bologna; and among their most celebrated labours 
are the chapel of Bosario, and the hall of the Conti Oapran. 
Elsewhere, as in the Bentiyogli and Pepofi pafaoes, Agostino 
pioduced only j^ecimens of arohitecture ; and in others we 
see his pictures of penq>ecttye with figures by CKoseffo, his 
son, a diwnple of Tone, who engtared eren bettor than he 
painted. In their commiasicms beyond Bobgna, Mitelli and 
Colonna were always invited together; as to Parma, to 
Modena, to Florence, by their lespectiTe rulers; by the 
Marehesi Balbi to Oenoa^ and by C^udinal Spada to Rome^' 
whose ample hall they enlarged, as it were, and dignified by 
means of feigned colonnades, aitfbl recesses, and magnificent 
steps; where numbers of figures, arrayed in varied and novel 
drapery, were seen ascending and descending. Called subse- 
quently to the court of Philip lY., they decorated three 
chambers and a magnificent* hsJl in Madrid, where Colonna, 
too, produced his so highly extdled Fable of Pandora. They 
here sojourned for the q»aoe of two years, the last of Mitelli's 
life, who died much regretted by the whde court, and by the 
Spanish artists, at whose head stood Diego Velasquez. 

Golonna returned into Italy, and as a third act of his life, 
we may record the twenty-seven years which he afterwards 
lived; daring the eariier portion, availing himself^ for his 
architectures, of the services of Giaeomo Alboresi, Mitelli's 
great pupil ; and in the latter, of Giovacchino Pizioli, his own 
scholicr, known also among painters of landscape. Crespi 
adds the name of QiOi Gherardini, and Antonio Roli, or RoUi 



according to the Car. Titi, whose flpedmens in this bmocli, at 
the Certosa of Pisa, he extols as peifect raincles of the art 
(p. 301). In this trio ace inclnded ail belonging to Colonna's 
sohooL It IS observed by MalTaflBa^ that fiom Mitelli's 
society, Angiol Midide himsc^ deriyed utility, as regarded 
architecture ; not thai he ever eqnaUed his deceased frigid, 
but from adopting IhenceftHTwafd a more elegant manner. 
This progress is a]^pareni in the enpola of S. Biagto ; as well 
as in the ceiling and in a chapdi of S. BartdommeO) decorated 
by him after his return finn& Spain. Other spednians he 
woduoed at this period, at PMUESoeo^ & yillft of the Marchese 
Nicolini, of Florence ; in the Meriaini palace, at ^Mlna, and 
at Paris, for M. Lionne, state seexetarj to the French Jong* 
Colonna attained the age of eighty-siz, and left, at his death, 
numerous professors of aa axt, which he and his twt» col- 
leagues may almost be said to hskre ittrented, and given to^ 
the publia 

I have enumerated different young artists of tiiese schoob ; 
and they, too, united together, trarersing Italy in the serrice 
of prinoes and noUes, and fonnii^ pupils in every place ; so- 
that no art ever epxead nore rapidly. €tio. Paderius papilto 
Dentonoi and next an aceemplished imitstor of JkOtelli) became 
the colleague of Baldassare Bianchi ; and the latter, at th» 
death of Pad6m% having become Mitellils 80]i-i]t**law, ivas 
placed oompaaion, by the father-in^aw, with Gio. Giacomo 
MontL This partnership aliw met with success in Italy, in 
particular at Mantua^ where they both received regular 
salaries. Their figure-painter was Gio. Batista Obcoioii, of 
Budrio, pupl to Canati, and a good disciple of Oignani, who 
left frescos, altar-pieces, and private pictures ;^ in particular, 
his heads of old men, in high requests Another son-in-law 
of Mitelli, Giacomo Alboresi^ was mooh employed at the 
court of Parma, in that of Florence, and in the villa Oapponi, 
of Colonnata. He was assisted in his figures by Fulgenzio 
Mondini, and on his death, by Giulio Cesare Milani, who was 
esteemed the best pupil of Torre. Domenico Santi, named 
Mengaoino, was also one of the ablest among Mitelli's pupils, 
and left, at the Servi, in S. Colombano^ and in the Batta 
palace, some fine works in perspective, with figures by 
Giuseppe Mitelli, by Barrini, and most of all by Canuti> 



140 B0LJG3fBBE SCHOOL.— ^EFOCH ni. 

oerer haTiiig left Mi nathre pkoe. His pexspectires, on 
canvMy are highly estoemed in cibinets, and are sometimes 
haidly to be dtstingiiiBhed from those of Agostino. Andrea 
Bigfaua, the £ftther and master of three artists, was employed 
also at Tniin, Mantua^ and Parma, where he received a 
salazy from the oonrt, and had Pasinelli for his best com- 
panion. It wonld cany ns too frr to leoonnt all the quadra- 
tnrists sprung from these schools; nor wonld all, perhaps, 
deserve commemoration. Though no art was more rapidly 
extended, none sooner degenerated; caprice nsniped the 
place of sound rules of ardiiteeture, and was carried to a 
pitch of extiayaganoe and impertinence, when the Borromi- 
nesqne taste began to extend through Italy. Architecture 
itseG^ which forms the basis of this profession, b^gan in course 
of time, to b^ regarded as an accessary ; a greater share of 
study was employed in the vases of flowers, in festoons, in fruits, 
and foliages, and certain novelties of grotesque, against which 
both Algarotti and Crespi have so justly and successfully 
invdg^ed. 

We cannot close this account without the name of Giovan- 
nino da Capugnano, an artist ven' fully treated of by Malvasia 
and Orlandi, and highly extolled in the studies of the painters 
oven in our own daja, ' Misled by a pleasing selfnlelusion, 
he believed himself bom to become a painter ; like that 
ancient personage, mentioned by Horace, who imagined him- 
self the owner of all the vessels that arrived in the Athenian 
port His chief talent lay in making crucifixes, to fill up the 
angles, and in giving a varnish to the balustrades. Next, he 
attempted landscape in water-colours, in which were exhibited 
the most strange proportions, of houses less than the men ; 
these last smaller than his sheep ; and the sheep again than his 
birds. Extolled, however, in his own district, he determined 
to leave his native mountains, and figure on a wider theatre 
at Bologna ; there he opened his house, and requested the 
Caracci, the only artists he believed to be more learned than 
himself, to furnish him with a pupil, whom he intended to 
polish in his studio. lionello Spada, an admirable wit, 
accepted this invitation ; he went and copied designs, affecting 
the utmost obsequiousness towards his master. At length, 
conceiving it time to put an end to the jest, he left behind 



CAPUGNANO. 141 

liim a most exquisite painting of Lucietia, and over the 
entrance of the cluunber some fine satirical octaves, in apparent 
praise, and real ridicule of Capugnano. His worthy master 
only accused Lionello of ingratitude, for having acquired from 
him in so short a space the art of painting so beautifully from 
his designs ; but the Caracci at last acquainted him with the 
joke, which acted as a complete antidote to his folly. In some 
Bolognese galleries his pictures are preserved as specimens, in 
some degree connected with pictorial history ;* and which, 
though composed with all becoming gravity, are as diverting 
as any caricature of Mid or of Cerquozzi. Were we to 
desire a second example of such imbecility in the art, it would 
be found in Crespi,t who gives some account of one Pietro 
Galletti. Equally persuaded of having been bom a painter, 
Pietro became a laughing-stock to the students, who solemnly 
invested him with a doctorial degree in the art, assembling for 
that purpose in the cellar of a monastery. 

* See Lettere Pittonche, toI. ii. p. 53. f Crespi, p. 141. 



142 



BOLOGNESE SCHOOL 

EPOCH IV. 



PaainelH, and in particiilsr Cignani, eame a Change in flie Style of 
Bologncae Fainting. Hw Ckmentme Academy and iti Members. 

TfiB eommeaoement of the final qpoch of the Bologneoe 
sobool maybe dated flome years preyious to 1700; when 
Ikxtoleo Paeinelli and Carlo Cignani had already produced a 
etriking alteration in painting. The diaciples of the Caraoci, 
who had imitated Lodorico, and those who had produced 
new manners^ had all disappeared ; while the pupils who still 
continued attached to their taste were very few ; consisting 
of Guercino's Gennari, of Gio. Viani, formerly pupil to Torre, 
and some other less distinguished names. JPasinelli himself 
ceased to exist, on the opening of the new century, leaving the 
entire credit of the preceptorship in the hands of Cignani. This, 
too, was shortly increased by the formation of a public aca- 
demy of the fine arts in the city, to which he was appointed 
president during life. These details are to be met with in the 
excellent '' History of the Clementine Academy," composed 
by Giampietrio Zanotti. Here we are made acquainted with 
the principles and progress of that celebrated society, which, 
in the year 1708, received from Pope Clement XI. its sanction 
and its name, from the Senate its rooms, and its organization 
from Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsili ; besides effectual sup- 
port both from him and other nobles ; and here also we are 
presented with the lives of the academicians up to the year 
1739. To Zanotti's History, as well as to others of an older 
date, much useful supplement was added by the Canon 
Crespi ; and upon these two recent works, with a due degree 
of caution, I propose to rest the authority of my succeeding 
narrative. 



PASINBLLI AND CIGNANX. 148 

In iradng tbe origin of the nev taste, it will be requisite to 
go beck to 1670, or near that p^od ; when Pasinelli and 
Cignani, after their return from Rome, commenced teaching 
and operating, each in thmr respective method. Lorenzo 
pursued the draign of Baffiiello, condoned with the faarination 
of Paul Veronese ; while Carlo delighted in the grace of Gor- 
reg^o, united to Annibal's karmag ; and both had executed 
at Borne studies agreeaUe to their genius. It is reported, 
that one day they bi^pened to enter upon a long discussion 
of tbe relative merits of Baffaello and Gorr^ggio. Would that 
they had been joined by some new Borghini, as a third party, 
who might have put the discourse into the form of a dialogue, 
and have preserved it for posterity ! In course of time, Gig- 
nani came into higher repute than Pasinelli, though this 
excited no kind of jealousy ; they bad both of them wisdom 
enough to be satisfied eadi with his own share of genius, and 
to commend bis competitor ; thus abstaining from that indul- 
gence of rivaby which gives, even to the most celebrated 
artists and writers, an air of meanness. Thus, when the Cle- 
mentine Academy .was instituted, the pupils of both masters 
readily united in s^rviug ikiai new assembly ; vohmtanly sub- 
mitting to the direction of CSignani, placed by the pontifical 
diploma at their bead. Thenceforward the sbjrle of Gignani 
came into vogue ; though others sprung bom it, composed of 
two or more manners, which may yet be called natiraiaL Each 
has in it something of the CaiacKoesq^ue, owing to the young 
artists having commenced their career by designing from the 
woH^s of the three brothers. A few of these painters 
exlubit even too mudi of their manner, and that of tiie best 
among other artists; we find figures taken partially from 
different ancient masters, and worked up into one composition ; 
as we see sometimes done in poetry, with the lines of one or 
more writers. About this period the study of the beau-ideal 
received some accession, by means of the casts with which the 
academy was supplied. The style of colouring is far from 
careless ; thoi^h in the principles then adx^ted, there was a 
certain methocT pursued by different artists, from which their 
shadows have grown deeper, and assumed a rusty colour; and 
towards the middle of the same epoch, false and capricious 
colours came into use, and long continued *to find patrons. 



144 BOLOONB8E SCHOOL.-— EPOCH IV. 

Nor waa this error confined solely to the Bolognese school. 
Balestra, in one of his letters, dated 1733, inserted in the 
Pictoric collection (rol. ii.), laments the decline of ^' all the 
Italian schools," from their having fi&llen into mistaken 
methods. Possessing himself in Yerona three scholars capable 
of great performances, namely, Pecchio, who became a fine 
landscape-painter, Rotari, and Gignaroli, he seems to have had 
his fears even for them. In particular, speaJdng of the last, 
he sajB, '^ I fear lest he, too, diould suffer himself to be borne 
away by the prevailing stream, and become enamoured of 
certain ideal manners, and of a rapid touch ; consequently 
careless of good practice and of rules." Bespecting thes^ 
alterations, however, it is not yet time to treat 

To come down, at present, to the two heads of the school ;, 
Pasinelli, who first ceased to live, will first come under our 
consideration. He received his education in the art from 
Cantarini ; subsequently from Torre, whose school he too 
early left, owing to which, most probably, he never attained 
to perfect correctness of design. In this, nevertheless, he 
surpassed Paul Veronese, who formed his great prototype. 
He did not imitate him, according to the sectarist; he 
borrowed from him that effective and majestic composition ; 
but the ideas of the faces, and the distribution of the colours 
he acquired elsewhere. He was naturally too inclined to 
create. surprise by the display of copious, rich, and spirited 
compositions; such as his two pictures at the Certosa, of 
Christ's Entiance into Jerusalem, and his Return into Limbo ; 
and such too is his History of Ooriolaaus, in the Casa 
Ranuzzi, a piece found repeated in many collections. No one 
can behold these paintings without granting to Pasinelli a 
true painter's fire, great novelty of idea, and a certain 
elevated character, never the boast of middling artists. With 
these gifts, however, he is sometimes too extravagant in his 
attitudes, and in his Paolesque imitation of spectades, and 
strange novel draperies, which he is thought to have carried 
to an extreme, as in his Preaching of John the Baptist, in 
which his rival, Tarufli, found, inst^^l of the desert of Judea, 
the piazza of St. Mark, in Venice. He knew, withal, to 
restrain his fire according to the genius of his themes, as we 
may see in that* Holy Family in possession of the Scalzi ; a 



CARLO CIGNANI. 145 

"work partaking of Albani. He painted more for priyate 
persons than for the public ; uniform in the spirit, varied in 
. the colours of his pictures. Some of these private pictures 
boast, at once, a softness of hand, and a peculiarly vivid and 
gaj light, that might be taken for tliose of the Venetians or 
Lombards; in particular, a few of his Yenuses, which are 
. supposed to be portraits of one of his tiiree wives. In a few 
of his other specimens he displays very little relief whole 
colours, a tint almost like that of the Bolognese artists 
preceding the Caracci ; and these I should either attribute to 
his early youth, or his closing days. 

One of the four leading artists of his age was the Cav. 
■ Cario Cignani, as elsewhere stated, a genius more profound 
.than prompt; a hand eager to engage in labours, but most 
difficult, and ever dissatisfied in their completion. His picture 
of Joseph's Flight into Egypt, belonging to the counts 
Bighini, of Imola, cost him six months' labour; and many 
similar instances are recorded. Nevertheless, he always 
appears complete, never hard or laborious; and his facility 
is esteemed one of his rarest ^fts. Cignani's inventions are 
often referable to Albani, who was his master. He produced, 
' for a monastery of Piacenza, a picture of the Conception of 
the Virgin, who, robed in a white garment, is seen bruising 
the serpent'^ he^ ; and arrayed in a garment of rich purple^ 
her infant son at her feet, who, with an air at once of dignity 
and grace, places his foot upon that of his mother ;— what a 
language does tbis speak, how truly sublime ! There is much, 
too, of a novel and poetic cast, in his Birth of the Virgin, at 
the cathedral of Urbino ; a picture that at Rome was 
censured even for its novelty. Cignani was likewise a good 
composer, and so disposed his figures, by the example of the 
Caracci, as to give his pictures an air of larger dimensions 
than they really have. His four scriptural histories, in 
four ovals, each sustained by two cherubs, among the most 
perfectly beautiful in Bologna, are truly attractive ornaments 
oi S. Michele in Bosco ; nor are two others less so, of thp 
public hall, where he Tepresented Francis I., in the act of 
healing the lepers ; and Paul III. seen entering into Bologna. 
Less majestic, perhaps, but more beautiful, is one of his 
paintings, in the palace of the ducal garden at Parma. Agos* 

VOL. ni. L 



146 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL.— BPOCH IT. 

iino Caracci had there decorated the ceiling of a chaaber; 
there Cignani exhibited, on the walls, varions &ble6, iUnstmti^e 
of the power of Love ; in which, if he surpassed nok that 
great master, he, in the opinion of many, at least equaled 
him. In design he invariably emulated Corxeggio; bat, in 
his outlines, in his beauteous and noble ooimtenanoes, and in 
his grand, ample folds, he preswyed something original, a&d 
distinct from the Lombards ; while he is less stvdieaB than 
they respecting the use of foreshortening. He aimed at a 
strong layer of colours, which were dear and ««inH>.*<^ like 
Gorreggio's, to which he added, also, a sweelaess deriTed fzom 
Ouido. He was especially careful in his chiaioscuno^ and 
gaYe a great degree of roundnen to all his objeots ; wUek^ 
&ough in certain subjects it may appear orerwioni^ty and 
more ample than in nature, is neyerthelesB pleasing. 

His historical jueoes are rare; bnt not so a nunber of 
•others, containing one or two half-lengtii figues, and slBl less 
bis Madonnas. One of the most beautifal is in tiie Albwu 
palace, painted for Clement XL, with the Holy CSiiUi ; and 
another, representing her grie^ belongs to the princes Conini, 
. extremdv giacefol, as is also the aogd seen eonsdiing her. 
It would be difficult to decide whether he eieeUed mgttt 
in oils or in fresco, which last is the kind of painting in 
which great artists have ever dist in gn i shed thewetres. He 
spent the closing yeais of a hmg life at Ferii, wheie he 
established his iiuaily, and left the piondeat monnmeiit of hie 
genius in that grand cupola, perhaps ih» moat lemarkaUe of all 
ihe pictoric productious belonging to the eighteenth centuir. 
The subject is the Assumption of onr Lady, thd same as m 
the cathedral at Parma ; and here, too, as theie^ it ^libitB 
sucn a real paradise, that the more we contemplate it^ the 
more it delights us. Near tw^ity years weie demoted to its 
production, from time to time ; the artist, oocasionaUy, during 
that period, visiting Barenna, to consult the cupola by Guido, 
from whom he took his fine figure of St. Michael, and soma 
other ideas. It is reported that the scaffolds were, aff^ingfr 
his wish, removed, as he appeared to be never satisfied witk 
retouching and bringing the work to his usual degree of finish. 
From these two masters I now proceed to their disciples, 
and ehall annex, also, a few others, who q>rung from other 



autonio busrini. 147 

ftekools. Pasinelli had the good fortune to inberit, from Canuti, 
an excellent master, a nmnW of fine scholaia, on the latter 
qnitting Bologoai One of these was Gio. Antonio Burnni, 
who, while he retained his first master's manner^ became at- 
tached, also, to the composition of Piaolo, so much to the taste 
<^ Pasinelli. Indeed, h6 himself ai^>eared naturally inclined 
to it, by the richness of bis imagination, and his surprising 
«agemew and indnatrj in bis works. He devoted mnoh time 
to Paolo Yeronese, at Y^ce, often imitat>ing him in those 
petnres wloch are referred to hia first style. Distinguished 
^moiDg these is an Epiphany, painted for the noUe Ratta fa- 
ni3y, which yields to yeiy few pieces in their collection. He 
iwAoe onentfr exeonted a martyxdom of S. Yittona for the 
«atliedral of Mirandoky in competition with Qio. Gioseffo dal 
Sole ; who on beboiding it ao gzeatly sapsrior to bis own pic- 
tnre, was bitteily mortified. He was reassnred, however, by 
PasinaBi, thdr onnmon master, who predicted be would 
heoonm a better artist than Barrini, whose own fadlity of genius 
would at lengtii betrays bim into a mere practical line. And this 
piediction was yeiy exactly fulfilled, though be continued 
upwards of M»est yeaa to paint with toleiable care^ both for 
the prince of Oarisnaiio at Turin, and at Noyellata. He in 
parlicalar appearal to adTantage as a fresco^pamter at Bo- 
logna, being by some termed thePierdaCortoDa,orthe Gior- 
dano of bis scho<d. His freaoo histories in the Casa Albogati 
Bie wdl deservittg notice, as are those in the Alamandini and 
the Bigaad fiuniUes, with others produced in eariy youth. Im- 
pelled at lengtb by the cares cf an inereadng fiumly to lodk 
far giealer profits, be gave way by di^grees to bis fiieility of 
band, and formed a second style, wbich, owing to the indo- 
lence of baman nature, obtained more djsoiples than his first. 
Gio. CKostfo dal Sole, on tbe contrary, burned to become 
each day more perfsct, and raised bims^ to one of the first 
posts among the artifto of bis age. He bad constant commis- 
flimis from noblemen, both native and foreign, and received 
invitations also from the courts of Poland and of England. 
For some time he preserved a style conforming to Pasinelli's ; 
and in order to improve it from iSae same sources, he frequently 
returned to Yenice, though b^ never attained to that degree 
4if beauty, in his more elegant subjects^ that formed the boast 

L 2 



148 BOLOGNESB. SCHOOL.-^EPOCH IT. 

of his master. In many particnlan, however, he displap 
exquisite grace ; as in the hair and plomes of the angels, and 
eqnaUy in the accessaries, such as the veOs, hraceleis, crowns, 
and annonr. He seems to hare been inclined also more than 
Pasinelli to treat powerful themes ; more observant of costume, 
more methodical in composition, and more informed in point of 
architecture and landscape. In these indeed he is almost 
unique ; and the most beautiful specimens, perhaps, are to be 
seen at the Casa Zappi in Imola, representing Evening, Night, 
and Morning, all very pleasingly distributed, and with sober 
tints, such as the subject required. His other works display, 
in most instances, the most lovely play of vivid fluctnadng 
light, more especially in his holy pieces and celestial viaons, 
as we see in the St Peter of Alcantara, at S. Angiolo in Milan. 
Moreover, he was more exact and polished than Pasinelli ; not 
that he was by any means deficient in celerity in conducting ' 
his works, but esteemed it unworthy of an upright character 
to confer upon them less perfection than he was capable of 
bestowing. Being employed at Yerona for the noble family 
of Giusti, where he left several mythological pieces and scrip- 
tural histories, truly beautiful, he completed one of Bacchus 
and Ariadne, which artists pronounced excellent, within a 
week. Yet he cancelled almost the whole, to remodel it ac- 
cording to his own wish, declaring that it was enough to have 
shewn his rapidity of hand to satisfy others, but that it became 
his duty, by additional accuracy, to satisfy also himself. 
Hence his fresco at S. Biagio in Bologna, which is his greatest 
work, cost him an infinite deal of labour in its completion ; 
and in conducting his altar-pieces, few and valuable, as 
well as in his private pictures, which are very numerous, he 
called for high remuneration, persevering in his determination 
to paint only with care. In this artist, as many others, two 
manners are observable, of which the second partakes of Guido 
Rent's. It is on record, that he became attached to it late in 
life, and was less successful in it. It appears to me that a 
large portion of his pictures nearly approach the taste of Guido, 
and that the surname of the modem Guido, conferred upon 
him by so many, has not been granted as matter of fia.vour, nor 
at the expense of little time. 

No artist of these times could boast more disciples than 



GIOSEFFO DAL SOLE. 149 

Giangioseffo dal Sole, if we except Solimene, who was held by 
Lim in high esteem. In order to study his paintings, executed 
for the counts Bonaccorsi, Dal Sole went to Maoerata, where 
he conducted a few works for the church of the Yergini, and 
forthe house of the said nobles. I am uncertain if he derived 
iroia this visit that style of colouring, more attractive than 
natural, such as we find it in some of his smaller pictures, and 
in some Bolognese artists who succeeded him. From his 
scho<d sprung Felice Torelli of Yerona, and Lucia Gasalini, 
his wife, of a Bolognese fitmilj. Torelli came to it already 
instructed in the art, acquired in his native place from Santo 
Prunato, whose taste he, in a great measure, preserved. He 
became a painter of strong chfuracter, fine chiaroscuro, and of 
no common merit in canvas paintings for altars. These are 
found at Rome, Turin, Milan, and oUier cities of Italy. That 
of S. Yincenzio is most conspicuous, in the act of freeing a 
female possessed, at the Dominicans of Faenza; a picture 
finely varied in the heads, in tiie draperies, and the attitudes. 
Lucia likewise painted for some churches^ as nearly as she 
could in her consort's style ; but her chief merit lay in portrait^ 
such as to obtain for her admission of her own in the royal 
gallery at Florence. Another artist of her sex, initiated in 
the art of design by Sirani, and in colouring by Taruffi and 
Pasinelli, received her last instructions from Gioseffo dal Sole. 
Her name was Teresa Muratori Scannabecchi, who was in the 
habit of painting a good deal by herself, and with great credit. 
Assisted by her master, she executed a picture of St Benedict in 
the act of preserving the life of a child ; a very graceful produc- 
tion and of good efiect, exhibited in a chapel of S. Ste£Euio. 

Francesco Monti, another pupil of the same school, was 
endowed by nature with an enthusiasm for ample and copious 
subjects, to which he applied himself without much previous 
culture, either from imitation or from art. He executed for 
the counts Ranuzzi, who patronized him, a picture of the 
Rape of the Sabines ; and for the court of Turin the Triumph 
of Mardocheo; works abounding with figures, and highly 
extolled ; besides many other oil-paintings for diJEPerent collec- 
tions and churches. But his surpassing merit is to be sought 
for in his frescos, and more particularly at Brescia, in which 
city he fixed his residence. He also conducted many pieces 



r^n 



150 BOLOONBSE SCHOOL.— EPOCH IT. 

for the adjacent placee, applauded for his fertile genius and 
his nutftoilj style of colouring. A number of churches and 
noble houses, such as the Martinengo, the Ayogadro, the 
Barussi, were also decorated by him on a very extended scale 
of painting. Some portraits, too, executed by his daughter 
EleoQora, who received constant commissions from the same 
nobility, are held in high esteem. 

Oio. Batista Cbati and Cesare Mazsoni remained at 
Bc^gna, and as belonging to the Clementine academicians 
who then flourished, we meet with their lires in Zanotti. 
Subsequent to their decease, Crespi was enabled to treat their 
memory with more fJEomess. He praises the accuracy of th» 
former, and regrets his want of talent ; die second he pro- 
nounces a coamendable artist, observing that he was long^ 
employed at Faenxa^ Turin, and Rome, as well as at Bologna 
its^ ; though not witii good fortune. Antonio Lunghi also 
fiouriiriied ISnr liie most part in foreign states ; at Venioe, in 
Bone, and liie kingdom ci Naples. He returned, at an 
advanced i^e, to his natiTe place, when tiieie is h» picture 
of S. Ritik»t S. Bartolorameo, and othen in diffistent churches, 
which nvmted for their author some farourable consideration 
of GroBfi* Tot he has omitted him, for the puipose, as I 
siq^pose, el reservinf him for the fourth volume of the 
^^ F^iBtt Pittrice." it would be too much to attempt a com- 
j^ebe dceteh of Gio. CKosefib's discipleB who flourished itt 
other schools, such as Francesco Pavona of T7cBne, a good 
painter in oil, and better in crayons ; superior in his large 
altar-pieces, and st&l more in hxs portraits. He afterwards 
studied at Milan, and tlience proceeded to Oenoa ; next into 
l^in, Portugal, and Grermany, being welt received in all 
these courts ; after which he married and had a &mi!y at 
Dreeden. Subsequently he returned to Bdogna, which he 
left in liie course of a few years for Venice, where he shortly 
afterwards died. Francesco Oomi also left Bologna, call^ il 
Fotnaretto,* and the Mute of yerona, being deprived both of 
speech and hearing. Nevertheless he was distinguished in 
the art, and is commemorated by Pozxo among the artists of 
his country, and also by Orhmdi. There are others, of whom 
we make mention in almost every sdiool. 

* literally, Ihe littb baker. 



DONATO GBSn. 151 

Donato Oreti, a cavalier of the Gold Spam^ nnks u one of 
the most efluneiit of PaBaellis pnpils, and as the most 
aittached to hie manner ; thovgh he was indiiied to modify it. 
with that of Gaatanni, and of both oomposed a third, soffi- 
ci«fttly noble and gnoefnL He wonld haTe made it still more 
free and original had he applied hima^ diligently in earily 
youth, whieh he CMnitted.to do^ and earned his regrets for tnok . 
omifision down with him to the tomb. His merit is inqiaiied 
by his oelonring, which has in it something hard and omde ; 
eatertauung a maxim, that tints, such as they are in nature, 
oiight to be en^loYed, and kft to time lor aobeiing and bar- 
monidng — a maoom by some attribated to Paul Y^roaese. 
If there wove ever a paister who knew not when to lemoye 
bis hand from the canva% it was CretL In pauitiqg his & 
Yinoenzio, intended to be placed opposite the S. Baimond of 
Ifodoyico, he ooa^kted it with ereiy attention to the art ; 
yet waa dissatisfied vith the work, insomnoh that the peraon 
who ffkr^ the eommassion was ecMi^ielled to tike it hj foKoe . 
oat of his etodio^ in order to place it in the grand ehnrch of . 
the Padti PredicatorL This is, perhaps, his best altar-jneoe- 
His Alexander's Feast also boasts some merit) ezecated for 
the noble Fava &mily ; by some evui it is supposed to be bin 
master-piece. Oreti had a papil> named Eroole Gmiiaai^ 
who added greater power of execntioa to his master's styles a 
moie tnlaiged character, greater £reedom of hand| widi other 
qaalities which display his siqieriorfty. He approached 
Fraaoeschini and others who sacceeded to the echool af 
Cignani* He has been aocosed by one of his riyals of too 
moch effeminacy in his painting, and stady of niinntiai in Ua 
ornaments. Othess seek for a more just eqnality in hie 
coloors ; others more spirit ; thoo^ all mast give him cr^dit 
lor genius and industry e^jual to compete with the eminent 
artists of his day, and to surpass many, had he enjoyed tha 
good fortune to have met with an experienced master. Ha 
painted for S. Pietro, that Apostle in the act of ordaining; 
S. ApoUinaze ; ahistozy both copious and fall of dignity ; com- 
missioned by the Carainal Lambertini, who, on becoming 
pope, caused him to make a duplicate for the church of- S., 
Apdiinare at Rome. Also his pictures of S. Pellegrino, in 
Sinigaglia, the princes of the Apostles^ who take leayo, with 



152 BOLomnsfls 0cbool.<^epoch it. 

tlie most beautiful expression, to meet their martyrdom, 
placed at S. Pietro in Piacenza, with others beloiiging to his 
happier hours, are eqnaUj excdlent. To Creti and Gnudani 
we have to add Connt Pietro Faya, in whose house both were, 
during some time, brought up, at once assistants and com-* 
panions in the studies of this noble artist. He is ranked 
among Pasinelli's pupils and the Clementine academicians; 
and we have an account of his studying the works of the 
Caracci, to whose manner, equally with any other artist, he 
became attached. Although the cavalier is described as a 
dilettante in the art, yet on beholding his altar-pieces of the ' 
Epiphany and of the Resurrection of Christ, which he pre- 
sented to the cathedral of Ancona, with a few other produc- 
tions at Bologna, he appears more worthy of enrolment among 
its noble professors. 

Aureliano Milani acquired the principles of painting from 
Cesare Gennari and Pasinelli ; but^ struck with the Caracofs 
style, he devoted his whole time to copying their compositions 
entire as well as separate, repeating his designs of the heads, 
the feet, the hands, and the outlines. He caught their spirit, 
without borrowing their forms. It is remari^ed by Crespi, 
that no Bolognese shewed more of the Caraccesque in the 
naked figure, and in the whole symmetry and character of his 
painting. After Cignani, too, I have heard it noticed, that 
no one better maintoined the design and the credit of the 
flchooL In colouring he was not so excellent ; sometimes a 
follower of (Gennari, as in his St. Jerome, at the churdi of 
the Vita in Bologna, and in some degree in his St. John 
beheaded, at the church of the Beigamaschi in Rome. Here 
he took up his readence, being ill able to support a fiimily of 
ten children at Bologna. Here, too, he abounded with com- 
missions, and promoted with Muratori, another pupil of 
• Pasinelli, established there from early youth, the honour of 
his native place. Of the last one, however, we have treated 
under that school. 

Aureliano taught during many years at Bologna, and 
among other pupils of his was the celebrated Giuseppe Mar- 
ches!, called il Ssnsone. He first studied under Franceschini, 
whose taste he nearly appreaches in the vaulted ceiling of the 
Madonna di Galiera. It is even the opinion of some, that, in 



ANTONIO OIONIXA. 153 

his skill of foreshortening, and in the tone of his colours, no 
artist sncoeeded in imitating him so well. He took his design 
from Milani ; though at times his naked portion is rather too 
much loaded, which I would not venture to say of his master. 
Among his hest pictures is the Martyrdom of S. Prisca, in the 
Bimini cathedral ; an altar-piece of many and fine figures, 
and good tints, for which tiie S. Agnese of Dom^ichino 
suppHed him with some ideas. He painted much for galleries, 
2Xkd among other pieces, one of his pictures representing the 
four seasons (where it now is I cannot say), is reputed, by a 
first-rate judge, among the first works of the modem Bolog- 
nese school. 

Antonio Gionima was some time also a pupil of Milani. 
He was a Paduan of obscure birth, whose £skther and grand- 
father had been artists ; educated first by Simone his Neither 
(p. 112), afterwards by Milani, and for a longer period by 
Crespi. He died young, leaving works highly prized at 
Bologna, for their mvenUve spirit and for the high tone and 
clearness of their colouring. His picture of St. Florian and 
accompanying martyrs was engraved by Mattioli; and a 
grand canvas histoiy of Haman is shewn in the Ranuzzi 
apartment, conspicuous among numbers in the same place, 
whare no common artists gained admittance. 

Leaving aside certain oiher pupils of Pasinelli, of less 
account, as Odoardo Oriandi, or Girolamo Negri, who had a 
place, however, in the Dictionary of Painters, we shall close 
this catalogue with two others, who, becoming friends in the 
school oi Lorenzo, continued their intimacy to extreme old 
age ; GKuseppe Ghunbarini and Gian Pietro Cavazzonl Zanotti, 
Oambarini attended the studio of Cesare Gbnnari, whose 
xapidil^ of touch and power of natural effect he afterwards 
retained. He added no dignity of forms ; owing to which his 
few altar-pieces and other serious subjects obtained him no 
reputation. Applying himself subsequently to Flemish com- 
podtion, he represented women intent on domestic afbirs, 
boya' schools, mendicants beg^ng alms, with similar popular 
objects, copied &ithfully from life ; in all which he abounded 
with commissions. At Bologna such familiar pieces by him 
and his ajble pupil Gherardmi are very common, and please 



154 BOLOGNE0B mMBOL^^'^^roca TV. 

bv their spint aad Hbm esaetoeflv. Somedmes be represented 
also serious subjeds, as in that picture in Caaa Raniizti, exta- 
biting the coronatioii of Charles Y. during the goTemment of 
a Gron£ftlonier oi ih» fiuiulj. 

Zanotti is well known among the writers on pictoric sub- 
jects; and few have been laoie smeoeesfol in wielding with 
equal excellence both pencil and pen. His ^' Diiections for 
the Progress of young Artists " contain some learned maTimi^ 
which were meant to stem the corruption of the art^ bj res- 
cuing it from a low neehanieal manner^ and repladng it upon 
its true prin<Hples. Upon the settle maiims he composed his 
^^ History of the Clementine Academy," although he was not 
enabled to adopt cortespoading freeitan of style; baring 
there written the lives of the aeadftmicianSj then hidr deeeaeecl, 
or still alive. This work, printed bj JLelio dalla Voipe» 
in 1739, with a splendour neadhjr naknowni i^ to that period, 
in Italy, excited some degiee of indi^iation in good artists, 
who found, next their own, many names of mere mediocrity 
distinguished by portraits and lives, on a footing with them- 
selves. The complaints raised by Spagnnelo are leooided by 
the Canon Ctesfi in his Felsina (p^ 327, &«.). Other aocn- 
sations were doubtless advanced against him by inferior par* 
ties, who, though commended beyond their merits, secpetly, 
perhape;, believed themsdves deservii^ of still higher praise. 
2anotti, too, inserted notices, vdatis^ to himself ^he held in 
that assembly the offices of president and of secretary, for a 
much longer period. But domestic and literary matters com* 
bined, withdrew his attention from painting in his maturer , 
years ; whence we may date his more JbeUe perfonmmces, , 
whidk convey no great idea of him. Before^ howevei> he had 
conducted works which exempted him from tiie pietoric 
crowd ; in which list we may include his grand picture of an 
Embassy from the ^ple of Konu^gna to t^ Bolognese, which 
omam^its the public palace. In private houses^ too, are other 
compositions, either historical or mylliologica], composed in 
exc^lent taste^ one of which is in possession of the Signore 
Biancani Taezi, a piece greatly admired by Algarotti, as a 
perfect model of refined taste. A similar graceful little pic- 
ture of a Cupid and Nymph% wUch I saw at Sigaor Ydfi'si 



CHO. viAia. 155 

displays much poetical magioaiicfo, tliis artist delightiDg 
in poetical eompoaitioii, r&ry difierent from Lomazzo's and 
BoschiniX to an ezizeme old age.* 

From Zanotti, who was an exe^leut master, £i^oole Lelli 
acquired his knowledge of design. His extraordinary genius, 
his anatomical foeparations in wax, made by himself and 
Manzolini for the institution, and his gieat inflnenoe in the 
instmotion oi yoong artists, in l^e three branches of the fine 
arts, acquired him great reputation in Italy. At the same 
time^ it is known thiU he lectvred m«ch better tiian he painted ; 
the art requiring^ like a knowledge of languages^ dose and 
perseveris^ apf^ioation, such as L^i coidd not command. One 
of his altar-pieceB is mporied. in the ^ Bolognese Guide ;" and 
standing m need of de&noe, it was truly stated, thaft it was 
among his euiiest {deoes. in tiie Guide to Piaeensa^ another, 
his S. Fedele> M the Cappnoeiiii, is alse notieed ; tkouffh it is 
added, with mofe candbar, that his highest merit did not 
consist in painting* 

Gio. Tlaiu w«a fisUow-piipii to Pariaefii itt the sehe^oi of 
Torre ; but it is onhr a oonjeotOM that he was also hk 
assistant He was a Wmed pointer^ not inferior in dc^gn 
to any oontempotary of the same sAodk ; and added to las 
powers by assidaons drawing £rott the living model m the aca« 
demy, and the stady el anatomy, until the close ef his career. 
Te such knowledge he muted eleganee in his forms, softness 
of ooionrii^, o^^aipi^ aittitwles, lightness ef drapery, study- 
ing much from ^fe, and ^ving it an air of grace, in the 
manner of TocM) or ei Gtudo. That exquisite picture of St. 
John di Die, ait the hoq^ital of the Bnoniratdii, is such a 
speeimen of his art. In the porfeiee of the Serri he repre- 
sented, in a lunette^ S. Filippo Benin, borne up to heayen by 
two angels ; a fignre whidi, both in countenance and action, 
breathes an expression of beatitude, oonq^icuous, even at the 
side ef another history, by Ci^ani. In other lun^tes of the 
same portiwe he does not exdte equal admiratiott, and gives us 
an idea of an artist able to eenpete with the best masters, but 
obliged to work with a much larger share ef study tbm they 
were aocnstomed to bestow. 

* See Lett, fittor. torn. it. p. 1:36. 



156 BOLOONESE SCHOOL. — ^BFOCH IT. 

Viani opened school oppoaite that of Cignani, and taught 
to some extent ; in which he was succeeded hy his son Dome- 
nice, whose life was written hy Guidalotti, who, in point of 
merit, prefers him to his father. Few will suhscrihe to this 
opinion, he not having attained to that exactness, much less 
to that dignity of design, exhihited hy his father ; and inferior 
to him in the nature, truth, and clearness of his colouring. 
Still he possessed a grander character in his outline, a stronger 
execution, like Guercino's, more splendid ornaments, like the 
Yenetians, whom^e assiduously studied in their own capital. 
There is his St. Antony, at S. Spirito, in Bergamo, in the 
act of convincing a sceptic hy a miracle ; a surprising picture, 
extolled hy Rotari and Tiepolo, and perhaps thehest work 
which he left at Bologna. At the same place is his Jove, 
painted on copper, for the Casa Ratta^ besides other works in 
private houses, to which he chiefly devoted himself. 

His fellow-pupils in the paternal school were four Clemen- 
tine academicians, whose altar-pieces we find mentioned 
among the ^^ Pamtings of Bologna." These were Gian Giro- 
lamo Bonesi, who renounced both the name and style of 
Yiani, in order to follow Cignani, and complained of being 
included in V iani's school. However this might be, his pictures 
pleased, by adding to the beautiful a peculiar delicacy and 
sweetness that characterize him. Carlo Rambaldi, imitating 
both the Viani, wa^ not the less employed by Bonesi ; and 
pictures of both are met with, especially ludf-length figures, 
in select galleries at Bologna, and a few historical pieces in 
the royal collection at Turin. Antonio Dardani possessed 
more universal talent than either of the preceding, but was 
not equally refined. Pietro Cavazzi was a fine connoisseur in 
prints, and only on this accoui\jb was celebrated in Italy and 
abroad. Tronchi, Pancaldi, Montanari, with others, not 
admitted into the Clementine academy, may be found men- 
tioned in Crespi. No one, I ima^ne, would desire an account 
of the under-giaduates, when the academidans who enjoyed 
the first rank, were many of them, according to Zanotti, only 
artists of mediocrity. 

From the school of Cignani, to which I now proceed, 
scarcely any disciple issued who ultimately adhered to his 
style. A master^whose maxim it was to labour every picture. 



EMILIO TARITFFI. 157 

as if his entire reputation depended on it; who preferred 
to cancel, rather than retouch his less successful pieces^ might 
perhaps, have scholars, but not many emulators. Two of his 
fa,mily, however, imitated him; Count Felice his son, who 
long assisted him, particularly in the cupola at Forli; and 
the Count Paolo his grandson, whom he, perhaps, instructed 
in the outset ; while his fiither indisputably employed him at 
Forli, and Mancini at Rome. Both were gifted with fiunlity 
of genius ; but being sufficiently wealthy, they only deroted 
themselves to the art for the sake of the pleasure it afforded. 
Felice is seldom mentioned in the Guide to Bologna; in 
which, however, his St. Antony, at the Cariti^ meets with 
praise. At Forli is the altar-piece of St* Philip, by some 
ascribed to him, and by others to Count Carlo, in his declining 
years ; so inferior is it to the best style of that artist. In 
collections his paintings are not rare ; though appearing like 
a young boy in the presence of his father. Of Count Paolo's 
I only recollect a single altar-piece at Savignano, repiesenting 
St Francis in the act of appearing to St. Joseph da Copertino, 
and putting a demon, to flight. The scene appears illuminated 
by torchlight, and has a fine effect ; and the figures, in 
regard to their studied and finished manner, display the taste 
of his grandfather. 

After the relatives of Carlo comes Emilio Taruffi, his 
•fellow-pupil with Albani, as well as his assistant, first at 
Bologna, in decorating the public hall, and next at Rome, 
where he resided three years, sometimes employed at 
S. Andrea della Yalle, at others for private houses. No^ 
artist then better conformed to Cignani's style; and Taruffi 
could at least second him in painting histories. But his 
genius lay more in minor compositions. He was an excellent 
copyist of any ancient manner ; a portrait-painter of great 
spirit, and, in landscape, one of the best pupils formed by 
Albani. In these three branches he obtained his usual 
commissions, which he ever discharged with credit. He also 
conducted some altar-pieces, and that of S. Pier Celestino, at 
the church of that name, yields to few of the same period. 

Cignani's most distinguished pupils and heads of new 
schools were Franceschini and Crespi. The Cav. Marcan- 
tonio Franceschini left the school of Gio. Batista Galli for 



15S BOLOONHBB flCHOOL.^-HiPOOH IT. 

tliat of Cignani, and became his mort ^RMstire aasislant and 
intimate frigid. This frienddbip waB oemented by bis nnion 
-mth Oignani'a ooasm. Bister of Qoaini, iviiom I sball sborUy 
again mention. Some pzoduotions of Franoesebini migbt be 
tak^i lor CHgnani'v bimsdf; bat tbeee irare among bis 
eaifiest, before be had formed bis ebttracteristio manner. He 
remained iriih bis fnend many 7ear8> and posseeBing pecnliar 
graeeliilBeflB ef deeign, CSgnmii availed bimself of it to draw 
fiom life ibe indiTilixal portiane of bis oompositionB, enga^ng 
bim to eonealt Tarions modda^ in order to seleot the beet 
forms itam each. By ibis study of nature^ in whiob be 
penerered, and by copying from the designs and nnder the 
eye of his master, he aAtuned mnoh of the taste, the nice 
seleetncBs, and the giandenr of (SgnanL To these be added 
a certain grace of c(donxing, and a fiKstli^ wbkih gaye a noTd 
ebaraotOT to bis prodnctions ; besides an originality, eqnal to 
any other artist, in ibe foocm of bis be ad s, in lus attitodes, and 
in the costame of bis figures. His freabness^ bis barmony, 
bis JQst eqinlibrinm of fall and retreatiiig parts ; in abort, bis 
Trbole style p re s e n ts a glowing spectacle nerer before sera* 
If we trace in bis works, espeoiauy on an eirtended scale, a 
degree of mannerism, it may almost be eonmsed: wonld that bis 
disciples had restrained themselyes within the SMne limits I But 
easy roads to painting are like walking on a dediTity, where 
it is <fiffici^ to connt tone's steps, w reatrmn one's motioDS. 
Fiancdscbini seemed bom to ezecate wcwks on a large scale, 
fertile in ideas, and with fiMsility to dispose tbem in eyeiy 
point of liew, and to cdonr them at any distance. He ww 
■acoQstomed to eompoae lus carto<ms m diiaroscnro, and, 
baying fixed them in the intended epoky to jndge of the 
snecees of bis proposed work ; a me&od it would be desirable 
to incokate wad adopt more generally. 

His large firssco-paintings are nametoits ; the recess in the 
BannsD palace, the cnpola and ceiling in tbeehnrdi of Gorpns 
Dfouni, the tribane of 8. BarUdommeo at Bokgna. Amcmg 
those in other states we dball mentimi only the corbels of the 
capola, with tiiree histories, in the cathedral of Piacenza, and 
the grand cdling of the HaH of Public Coonsel at Genoa. 
This painting, of which it is enongb to state that Mengs 
devoted many boors in examining it in detail, the noblest of 



FRAlfCBSCnZNI AHD QUAIMI. 159 

FraneeiKluiii's perfonaanees^ perislied by fife, without a siiigle 
ttdgraring having been taken to eommemoiate its grandeur of 
conc^tion. The same fertility of ideas and attraction of 
sftjle are eonspicnons in his gnuaid histories^ dispersed among 
the first galleries of Europe, and in his no less co^noua altar* 
pieces. Saeh is the S. Tommaso da YiUanoTa, in the act <^ 
dispensing ahns, plaoed at the Agostiniani di Riinini; a 
picture truly imposiiig by its magnifioent woxkraanship, and 
which surprises by the beauty of its figures. What is 
equally snrpirising, the Gavalier Fxanoeschuu, when nearly an 
octogenarian, diq>layed pietoiial poweis equal to his best 
days ; as we gather from his Piet^ at the Agostiniani of 
Imola, and his BB. Fondatori, at the Serviti In Bologna, 
which betray no traces of decline. This artist rejected the 
naost advaartageous offers from courts, which all vied in 
solicitiDg his senrioes. CKordano eren wa« not invited to that 
of Madrid, until the situation had been refused by Francea- 
chini. He chose to remde in Upper Italy, there assuming the 
same rank, as head of his sdiool, with almost the same 
sacceBSt as Cortona in Lower Italy. Both schools adhered 
much to the Caracci's stf le, and in some measure rendered it 
more popalar ; and hefuoe, tiioee at Bome who are not fEuniliar 
with tte features and contrasts characteristiG of Oortona's 
sect, would easii^ confound them with tiie more modem artists 
of Bdogna. 

Luigi Quaiai, couw to Carlo Gignani, and brofther-in-law 
to Franceschini, was one of the most animated chadnctecB of 
his time ; equally well veirsed in history, in ajohiteetnrei and 
in poetry. The pupil, first of Quercino, next of Cignani, he 
was ett^oyed by the last as an assistant, and with such 
success, that, in painting, his hand could not be distinguished 
from that of his master. In distributing their labours to 
Franoesehini and to Quaini, he ordered the former to paint 
the fleshes £» the roundness and softness he gave to them ; 
while to the latter he ocmimitted certain gay and spirited 
countenances^ and a certain finishing of parts, m which, from 
his pecttliaf talent, he admirably succeeded. Later in life, he 
united with Franceschini, and leaving to him the inventive 
parts, he followed him in the style of the figures ; inferior, 
doubtless, to that of Cignani, in force of chiaroscuro and 



160 BOLOGNESE SCHOOL. — ^KPOCH lY. 

colouring, but more attractire from its peculiar beautj axtd 
felicity. He would, afterwards, wholly ornament the compo- 
sition by himself with flowers, annour, beautiful landscape, 
and noble perspective ; an art acquired from Francesco, his 
own fftther, a fine pupil of MiteUi. In this way did these 
two artists continue to paint, conjointly, at Bologna, at 
Modena, Piacenza, Genoa, and Rome; at which last place 
they composed some cartoons for the cupola of St Peter's, 
which were afterwards executed in mosaic. Quaini also 
painted many historical pictures of his own inyention. They 
decorate private houses ; his only composition in public being 
his St. Nicholas visited in prison by our Lady, a beautiful 
altar-piece, occupying the Ijest place in the church of that 
name. 

Marcantonio's school, from which he also derived those 
assistants who followed Quaini, dates its commencement from 
his son, the Canon Jacopo Franceschini. The Bolognese 
historians only represent him in the character of an honorary 
academician ; so that, by their account, I ought here to omit 
him. The Oav. Ratti, however, informs us that Marcantonio, 
coming to Genoa to adorn the church of S. Filippo, brought 
with him his son as his assistant, together with Giacome 
Boni. In the same city, too, I saw a large history, in the 
' hall of the Marchess Durazzo, as well as other pieces by him, 
well worthy commendation. At Bologna, also, are several 
paintings in public, all conducted in the style, and with the 
asnstance of his fetther. 

Boni was employed by Franceschini in many of his works, 
more particularly in that at Rome. He had been pupil also 
to Cignani, along with a few more, to be mentioned in the 
same school ; under whose care he chiefly had in view works 
of a more difficult cast. Such was the ceiling of S. Maria 
della Costa, at S. Remo, and of S. Pier Celestino, at Bologna ; 
besides several paintings at G^noa, where he became esta- 
blished. Two of his pictures, at the church of the Magdalen, 
met with great applause ; namely, a Preaching at Gethsemane, 
and a Piet^. He more particularly distinguished himself in 
fresco ; and in a chamber of his Excel. Pallavicini is an in&nt 
Jove, in the act of receiving nutriment from a goat, executed 
m the most elegant style. He was much employed in that 



ANTONIO ROSSI. t6l 

tapital, where, «ayB Crespi, ^' there is neither palace nor 
church, nor monasterj, nor honse, in which his works are not 
met with ; all striking and commendable." Nor did he pro- 
duce little at Brescia, at Parma, and at Remo ; besides being 
honoured with commissions from Prince Eugene of Savoy, and 
the King of Spain, for whose chapel he ffrwarded an altar- 
piece. This artist sometimes betrays a haste of the mere 
mechanist, not completing fully, or polishing his work ; 
besides colouring with a degree of lightness of hand which 
easily yields to age. Yet he always retains a delicacy and a 
precision in his contours, with a certain open spirit and joy* 
ousness which delight the eye. 

Antonio Rossi never conducted works on so laige a scale as 
Boni, but he surpassed him in diligence ; which induced his 
master, when entrusting commissions to his pupils, to prefer 
him to any other. He exercised himself in painting pictures 
for churches, and greatly added to his reputation by his Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Andrea, placed at S. Domenico. He was much 
occupied, also, with architectural pictures and landscape, to 
which he added small figures, so well adapted as to appear 
by the same hand. On this account he was an artist much 
liked by the artificers of similar representations, particularly 
by Ormidi and Brizzi. Girolamo Gatti was less employed 
for churches than Rossi, but is distinguished for small figure 
pieces, with one of which he decorated the hall of the Anziani. 
It exhibited the coronation of Charles V . in S. Petronio, and 
shewed the artist to be as good a figurist as a painter of per* 
epective. Although educated by Franceschini, as we learn 
from the new Guide, he did not imitate his colouring : this 
he sought to attain from Cignani. Giuseppe Pedretti long 
resided in Poland ; and on his return to Bologna executed a 
number of works in a good style. Giacinto Grarofolini, a 
pupil and kinsman of Marcantonio, displayed very middling 
ability when employed alone; but in conjunction with his 
relative, and with Eioni, he conducted various works in fresco, 
from which he is entitled to what reputation he obtained. 
To these Bolognese artists and academicians various foreigners 
might be added, as one Graetano Frattini, known at Ravenna 
by some altar-pieces at the Corpm Domini^ and a few others 

VOL. in. M 



162 B0L0GNE8B SCHOOIi.«-»EPOCH IT, 

whom we have leferred to dififeient schooLB. We sHall nov 
retam to tliat of Cigxuuii. 

Giuseppe Maria Crespi, whom for his neatness, of attire his 
fellow pupils sumamed Lo Spagnuolo, was instructed first by 
Oanuti, next hj Cignani ; being early grounded in the best 
principles of tast|. With unwearied assiduity he copied the 
Caracci paintings at Bologna ; and at his leisure stodied those 
of the first Venetians in that capitaL He examined, too, 
Oorreggio's at Modena and Parma, and long sojourned in 
Urbino and Pesaro to consult the works of Baroccio, Some 
of thaw he copied, and sold at Bologna for the originals. 
His object invariably was, to form a new manner out of many 
others, which he accomplished ; and sometimes Baroccio would 
be his most admired model ; at another, when he wished to 
employ more shade, he chose Chiercino ; nor did he , dislike 
Cortona, in respect to taste of composition. To the examples, 
too, of the dead, he added the observation of the liying ; and 
was ayerse, if we may credit his son, to the labours of a mere 
mechanist. He drew every thing firom nature, and even had 
a camera optica in his houses from which he copied the objects 
that o&red themselves to view, and remarked the various 
play and picturesque x<eflections of the vivid light His com* 
positions, indeed, tean with these novelties, and his short- 
enings also are as singular; so that he often places a 
number of figures in a small space, while the conceptions 
which he interweaves in his pictures^ are more peculiarly 
fiuacifbl. 

This turn for novelty at length led his fine genius astray ; 
insomuch that Mengs is brought to lament that the Bolognesa 
sdiool should approach its close in the capricious Crespi, (voL 
ii. p. 124). In his heroic pieces^ and even in scriptural sub- 
jects, he left room occasionally for caricature Wishing to 
exhibit novelty in his shadows and in his draperies, he fell into 
mannerism ; and varying his first method of colouring similar 
to the old painters, he adopted another more lucrative but 
less excellent. It consists of few colours, selected chiefly for 
efiect, and very common and oily ; gums applied by him to 
colouring, as other artists use them for a veil, or varnish ; few 
.strokes, employed indeed with judgment^ but too superficial 



GII^SEPPE MARIA CRESPI. 163 

and without strength or body. Snch was the method which 
we see pnisued in so many of his pictures ; or to speak more 
correctly, which are no longer to he seen, the tints having 
decayed or disappeared, so as to reqnire them to be newly 
copied by another hand. His son did not attempt to conceal 
this fault, though he wished to excuse it. The reader may 
peruse the defence in his ^ Felsina Pittrice," p. 225 ; and 
should he feel convinced by it, with similar benignity he may 
apologize for Piazzetta, who acquired his method of colouring 
from Crespi ; with others who more or less pursued the same 
practice, at tiiis period extinct. 

As a specimen of his more solid style, the picture of the BB. 
Fondatori, at the church of the Servi, appears to much advan- 
tage ; our Lord's Sapper, also, in Casa Sampieri ; a few pieces 
in the royal Pitti palace, where he waa long empWed by the 

freat Prmce Ferdinando ; besides a few other of his first pro- 
uctions. In his other style are various pictures conducted 
£or the galleries of the Koman nobility; the 88. Paolo 
and Antonio as eremites, for the Princes Aibani ; the Mag- 
dalen for the Chigi paJace; the Seven Sacraments for the 
Card. Ottoboni, of which I have seen copies in the Aibani 
palace at Urbino. The whole of these seven pictures display 
•certain bold coruscations and contrasts which dazzle the eye ; 
all shew novdly of idea ; in particular that of the Spousals 
between a young girl and an octogenarian, to the visible mirth 
of the spectators. Spagnuolo lived to advanced age, honoured 
by the pope with the insignia of cavaliere^ esteemed among the 
first of hid age, while his paintings every where abounded. 
Different houses, both in and beyond Bologna, possess them 
in great number ; histories, fables, and familiar pieces. He 
received most part of his commissions from the Signori Belloni, 
who decorated various chambers with his historical pieces, 
remunerating him with one hundred crowns each, though they 
contained but few figures, and all of an ell's length. 

Spagnuolo's manner was not one that could be pursued by 
every pupil with applause. Those artists who were unable to 
direct it with equal imagination, power of design, spirit and 
facility, produced very trifling results. Even his own sons, 
D. Luigi the canon, and Antonio, who painted for various 
churches, did not wholly follow their fathei^s style, but appear 

M 2 



164 B0L0ONB8B SCHOOL.— BPOOH IT. 

invariably more studied. The canon wrote much npon the art, 
as the lives of the Bolognese artists, or the third volume of 
the '^ Felsiua Pittrice," edited in 176d ; notices of the painters 
of Ferrara and Romagna, still unpublished ; various treatises ; 
with numerous letters inserted by Bottari in the pictorio col- 
lection. To few of his age is the history of painting so much 
indebted, although in certain national subjects he £uledto satisfy 
the whole of his fellow dtizens. The authors of the new Gui<fe 
of Bologna require from him more diligence in examining docu- 
ments ; greater fidelity as a public instructor ; more justice to 
the real merit of Ercole Lelli. The four dialogues in defence 
of his '^ Felsina Pittrice," written by a friend, were published 
by Bottari in the seventh volume of the work just cited, and 
are worth perusal. In the same volume (p. 143) we also meet 
with a letter of Crespi, in which he confesses his different 
errors, declaring that he would correct them in the fourth 
volume of his ^^ Felsina," which he was then composing, and 
which I am uncertain whether he ever completed. From 
these notices we gather, that, notwithstanding his violent 
temper, he was not wanting in fidelity as an historian, and in 
that readiness to retract his own errors, without which none caa 
pretend to maintain the true literary or historical character. 

For the rest, he must have afforded occasion for those 
clamours against his ^ FeLnna" and other writings by some 
satirical strokes, which are assuredly severe, accompanied by 
many personal reflections on his contemporaries. Concerning 
that very respectable academy he relates some observations of 
his deceased &ther, which had better have been consigned to 
oblivion. He disapproves the methods introduced into his 
school, and laments, that owing to the failure of good masters,. 
Bologna was no longer frequented as formerly by students. 
He detects, too, certain little impositions introduced into the 
art ; soch for instance as displaying in the studio a number 
of pictures prepared for colouring, to convey an idea of pos- 
sessing abundance of commissions ; pronouncing in a breath a 
number of anatomical terms on the bones and muscles, to inspire 
a high opinion of the artist's learning ; publishing eulogiums 
on some particular painting in an article of the day, which 
only the artist himself could have conceived, and written, paid 
for, and believed to be true. Such, or similar details, which 



CRBSPI'S PUPILS. 165 

must bave sufficed to recognise particular individuals^ doubt- 
less provoked manj replies from persons not publicly known, 
as tbe author gave no contemporaij names, but deeply offended 
and provoked to retaliate upon bim. 

Among the pupils of Giespi was Gionima, who survived 
only, as I have stated, to his thirty*fiflth year. Nor did Gris- 
toforo Terzi reach a much more advanced age, the pupil also 
of different masters. From his outset he boasted a decision of 
hand, able to sketch at few strokes very spirited heads, which, 
however, by dint of excessive retouching, he deprived of much 
of their expression. This defect he remedied under Crespi, 
and improved himself by residing several years at Rome. 
Many collections at Bologna possess some of his half-length 
figures and heads of old men, which are mistaken by less 
experienced judges for those of Lana. In the list of Crespi's 
pupils, too, are Giacomo Pavia of Bologna, who flourished in 
Spain ; Gio. Morini d'Imola ; Pier Guarienti, a Yeronese, 
who flourished at Venice, and was afterwards appointed 
director of the Dresden gallery; and the same who wrote 
the additions to Orlandi's Dictionaty. Francesco I'Ange 
of Savoy, a pupil of Crespi, became a Philippine monk 
at Bologna. His chief merit lay in small scriptural pictures, 
some of which I saw in Yercelli, in possession of his Ehninence 
Martiniana, bearing the author's name, and quite deserving, 
by their design and colouring, of a place in that collection. 

Besides Fnmceschini and Crespi, many others were educated 
hj Cignani. Their names have oeen given by Zannelli, who 
published their lives; a book 'I have vainly endeavoured to 
obtain while engaged in writing the present work. By 
Crespi we have an account of some pupils whom he instructed 
in perspective and landscape, as well as in flowers ; this skilful 
preceptor being accustomed to ascertain the young artists' 
talents, and confine them to the inferior, when not competent 
to the higher branches of art, and even to direct them to other 
professions when unequal to these. Such pupils as he retained 
ought not, then, to be lightly contemned, altiiough little cele- 
brated, either because they died young, were dispersed abroad, 
or obscured by brighter names. Among such are Baldassare 
Bigatti, Domenico Galeazzi, Pietro Minelli, known in history 
hj a few altar-pieces. Matteo Zamboni died young, leaving 



166 BOLOONBaB flCH0QL.-«4IP0CH IT. 

in some privabte holifleB a few spedmens of his works, as iatiek 
in Cignani's style as those of anj artist I am uncertain 
what puUio works he condnctedin Bologna ; bat he aeqnitted 
himself well, for his age, in two histories at S. Niccdo in 
Bimini ; the one rqwesenting St. Benedict, the other S. Pier 
Celeotino. Antonio Casteliaoi is inclnded by Gaarienti in 
the school of Gignani, though I think by mistake, asr he be* 
longs to that of the Gazacoi. Not so GinUo Benci, also 
mentioned in the Guide of Bologna, and to be distinguii^ed 
from the Genoese of that name. I may observe the same of 
Guido 8ignorini, recorded by Crespi, ana not to be confounded 
with anoUier Gnido Signorini, heir to Gtddo Eeni. So hr of 
the artists of Bologna. 

Federigo Bencovieh was a foreigner of a Dahnatian &mily, 
and I giro his name as he himself wrote it.*- In the Die^ 
tionaries it is spelt Bonoorich and Bendonich; and by 
Zannelli, Benoonidi; so that foteigneiB may be well ez^ 
cused ior ofiten mistakiDg the names of Italian painters. 
Federigo, commonly called in his own time, Federigketto, 
acquired more of Cignani's solidity than amenity of style; 
correct in his design^ strong in hie execution^ and well informed 
in the best principleB of lus art. Some of his altar-pieoes ate^ 
at Milan, Bologna, and Venice ; though most ci Ms pfoduc* 
tiona adorn collections, even in Germany, where he resided 
many years. In that of the Signori Yiauelli of Ohioggiay 
mention is made of his S. Jaeopo Sedente ; and in another 
collection, of Count Algarotti, at Yeniee, his landscape with 
a Tillage girl, to whieb Piaaetta added anotiier figure. Occa- 
sionally, iiB manner is somewhat too mndi loaded with ste^ 
dows, but by no mean* to be pronooneed contemptible^ as 
asserted by Zan^ti (p. 450), in OTOontion to the opinion ef 
GuarientL 

Gixolamo Donmai also resided out of his country ; bom at 
Correggio^ he lived at Bologna ; and being inclined to that 
school, was first treated of by Ciespi^ next by Tirabosohi 

* In hia two letters, directed to Roialba Carnera. See Catalogue of 
the deceased Camon Vianelli's Collection (p. 34). This artist also pub- 
lished a Diary, in 1720 and 1721, written at Paris hj the same lady ; in 
which she notices her own works, her remuneration, and honours. It is 
accompanied by learned notes. I have recentily received notiee oC the 
work, which causes me to mention it in this school. 



QIBOhAMO DONNmi. 167 

He had studied under Stiinga at Modena, and under Giangio- 
seffo dal Sole at Bologna. Thence he went to Forli, at the insti* 
gation of Cignani, not 80 much to heoome a machinist and a 
painter in fresco, as in order to treat leas difficult suhjects in 
oil. His chief merit lay in painting for private ornament^ and 
Orlandi, then Hving, bore testimon j that his pictures were 
held in high request for the decoration of houses. He excelled 
aLso on a larger scale ; one of his altar-pieces of S. Antonio, 
at the Filippini in Bologna, being conducted in a very 
masterly style ; as well as others, dispersed about Romagna, 
at Turin, in his native place, and elsewhere, the manner of 
which, as is xemarked W Crespi, clearly displays the hand, of 
CigEMmi's disciple. A mvourite pupil of Donnini, and whom 
he assisted in a variety of circumstances, was Francesco Boni, 
termed also il Gc^bino* de' Sinibaldi, from being in the service 
of those l<»rda. He was from Faenza, and left several good 
pietores in Us native place ; among others, a S. Teresa, with 
S. Gio. della Crooe, at the Carmelitani ; a Ndi me tangere^ 
and the Meeting of S. Domenioo and S. Fianceso, in the 
diuroh which formerly belonged to the IXmienicans. Pietro 
Donzelli, of Mantua, placed an altar-piece in the cathedral of 
Pescia, in whidi he represented S. Carlo administering to the 
sick of the plague^ displaying the style of a pupil of Gignani ; 
and this coostitates all the information I could obtain respect- 
ing him. 

The other foreign pupils of the Gav. Carlo, who diffused 
his manner through the Italian schools, are commemorated in 
the places where they flourished; as Lamberti, for instance, 
at Borne, and Parolini at Ferrara. Here I shall add a brief 
sketch of the artists of Bomagna» whom I unite to those of 
Boloinia. Antonio Santi was an Ariminese, whose school only 
IB mfntioned by Crespi ; but in the Gnid; of lUmiiii, where 
a few of his works remain, he is extolled as one of its best 
pupils, though he died young. The same Guide makes men- 
tion of ftome paintings in oil and fresco, particularly in the 
church of the Angioli, attributed to Angiolo Sarzetti, pupil 
to Cignani ; from whom, also, he obtained a design for an 
altar-piece at S. Colomba. Innocenzio Monti is included by 
Creq»i among the Bolognese, and by Orlandi among the 

* Gobbinb, the little hunch-back. 



168 B0L00NB8B 8CH00L.<^£F0CH lY. 

painters of Imola» where lie left some works. One, of the 
Circamcision of our Lord, at the Geeii of Mirandola, executed 
in 1690, is extolled in a little book of poems. He was more 
industrious than ingenious, and more suceessTul in Germany 
and in Poknd than in Italy. Gtioseffo Maria Bartolini, also 
of Imola, is esteemed, in his natiye place, for a Miracle of 8. 
Biagio, and for other works at S. Domenico, and other churches. 
He was employed a good deal at Imola, where he opened 
a school, and throughout Romagna ; an artist of great £icility, 
and partaking, in some degree, of the manner of Pasinelli, his 
first master. 

The artists of Forli, among whom Cignani lived during 
some years, are not a few. Filippp Pasquali was colleague 
to Franceschini, whose grand altar-piece at Rimini he sur- 
rounded with a very pleasing ornament Some of his earliest 
efforts are met with in Bologna, at the portico of the Serviti : 
but not equal to the altar-piece in the church of S. Vittore 
at Ravenna, which he painted at a more advanced age, . 
and which does him great credit. Andrea and Francesco 
Bondi, two brothers, are recorded by Guarienti ; though^ . 
in the Guides of Pesaro and Ravenna only one is alluded to, 
whose name is not given ; and what pieces I saw at Forli itself 
would seem to have proceeded from one hand ; such as the 
chapel of S. Antonio, at the Carmelites, the Crucifixion at S» 
Filippp, besides others. He boasts the fine execution of Cig- 
nani ; but the forms and expressions are not equally select 
Among other artists of Forli, instructed by Cignani, was 
the priest Sebastiano Savorelli, employed in some church 
paintings even in the adjacent cities. To him we may add 
Mauro Malducci, and Francesco Fiorentini, both priests, too, 
of Forli ; of all of whom there is found some account in the 
life of Cignani. 

Under the Roman school we treated of Francesco Mancini^ 
from S. Angelo in Yado, who, along with Agostino Castd- 
lacd, from Pesaro, was instructed by Cignani ; both nearly, 
contiguous to Romagna, but of unequal powers. Agostino is 
little known, even in his own state ; but Mancini was celebrated 
throughout Lower, as much as Franceschini in Upper Italy ; 
and he also educated several artists for the countries adjacent 
to Romagna. Sebastian Ceccarini was Mancini's pupil, bom at 



010, AJWKEA hAZZAKOa* 169 

Uibino, and often mentioned in the Guide of Rome, where, in 
the time of Clement XII., he painted the altar-piece for the 
Swiss chapel at the Quiiinal. He is more known, however, 
at Fano, where he was established, and long oontinned to live, 
with a handsome salary from that city. There he appears an 
artist of various styles, who would have shone little inferior 
to his master, had he always adhered to his best manner. His 
S. Lucia at the Agostiniani, and different sacred histories, in 
the public palace at Fano, display many fine imitations, strong 
chiaroscuro, and well- varied tints. 

The Canon Gio. Andrea TAKKarin;^ from Pesaro, also 
acquired his knowledge from Mancini. He was both a good 
poet and prose writer, and truly well informed in sacred and 
pro&ne literature. Few Italian writers can compare with 
him in treating pictoric subjects. His *' Account of the 
Paintings in the O^thedial at Osimo,"* and particularly his 
«^ Catalogue of the Pictures in the Churches at Pesaro," cited 
by us elsewhere, afford ample proofs of his superiority, no 
less than those brief '' Observations" on the best works there 
met with, and that very full '^ Dissertation upon the Art of 
Painting," that has been often re-published. It relates wholly 
to the branch of '^ invention ;" and he has other unedited 
works of equal merit, on *^ Composition," on *' Design," on 
^^ Colouring," and on ^^ Costume," which were read in the 
academy of Pesaro, as early as 1753. These embrace a true 
course of painting, an art which he taught gratuitously in his 
native placet Count Algarotti, in drawing up his Essay on 
Painting, both read and profited by them, as I heard, at least, 
from Lazzarini ; and as the Count, indeed, candidly himself 
confessed in a letter which he forwarded to him with the 

* These paintingB, executed in the '' abride" of the cathedral, with the 
assiftance <^ hii pupils, constitute his most celebrated frescos. In this 
*' Account" there is a Discourse, well worth notice, on Ancient Marbles 
of different Colours, which he introduced in those paintings, and the 
method he adopted in uniting them. Such a treatise, not to be found in 
any other writer, renders this little volume yaluable ; which shews, too, 
that be likewise excelled in architecture. 

t These Treatises were published at Pesaro in 1806 ; and, although as 
the industrious editor well observes, they were drawn up from unfinished 
sketches, they still gratify us, no less by their extensive information than 
by the ingenuity whidi they display. 



170 Bouoessma^ aoHooL.-— «poch iy. 

work. He also erineed Ids high regard for his pictoric 
talents, by giving him a commission for two paintings to adorn 
his select gallery, which were afterwards inserted in the cata- 
logue. The snlijects consist of Cincinnatns called to the 
Dictatorship, and Archimedes absorbed in his scientific stu- 
dies, daring the storming of Syraonse. These two histories 
are well executed, inasmuch as Lassarini was perfectly master 
of good xMunting, as well as good writing ; easy, yet always 
studied in every part; at once noble and graceful, with depth 
of learning to throw an air of antiquity round his produc- 
tions, but, at the same time, free from all affectation and 
parade. His first colouring was of a strong character, as 
appears from a Piet^ at the hospital of Pesaro, conducted, I 
believe, after having studied the Venetian and the Lombard 
schools, in the course of a pictoric tour. Subsequently, he 
imbibed a certain sweetness, whicb I may call more like 
Jtiaratta's, in which his rivals discover a want of vigour. 
Though he enjoyed long life, he did not leave many works, 
as he applied himself with assiduity to his clerical duties. 
Frequently he had occasion to paint for private &milie8, and 
succeeded admirably in his Madcmnas ; one of which, seen 
weeping, in the Yarani collection at Ferrara^ is among his 
most studied pieces. His native place possesses three altar- 
pieces at the Magdalen, ^ree at S. Caterina, others in different 
churches, and in general upon a small scale. But his genius 
ia more clearly apparent in some larger pictures, which are to 
be seen in the <»thedrals of Osimo and of Foligno; at S. 
Agostino, of Ancona ; and the two at S. Domenico, in Fano. 
One of these contuns various saints of the order, placed 
around the Virgin, whose portraits, positions, and action, 
exhibit singular variety and grace. The other represents S. 
Yincenzio, seen in the act oi healing the sick, before the 
people assembled by sound of bell ; nor is it easy, in this 
immense throng, to find any one figure resembling another, 
or superfluous, or less happy in expressing what it ought. But 
the work in which he appears, as I have been informed, to 
surpass himself, adorns the chapd of the Counts Fantuzzi, in 
Gualdo, a diocese of Rimini. He had spent several years at 
Rome, at the house of Monsig. Gaetono, afterwards Cardinal 
Fantuzzi ; for whom he made that &ae collection of pctnres^ 



OIO. ANDREA LAZ2ARINL 171 

from eadi school, which afberwards went to his heiz% one of 
whom, Count Marco, is well known to the poblio hj his 
*' Monuments of Ravenna," edited and illustrated in set-eial 
Tolumes, with much reseaich and erudition : and to whose 
courtesy I owe much of my information respecting Laszarini. 
In this collection are several of the canon's paintings, of vari- 
ous kinds ; landscape, a hrandi in whieh ho appears to per- 
fection ; instruments and books of music, poroebun^ and fruits 
that deceive the eye ; and, in particular, two pictures, on im- 
perial canvas^ one exhibiting the Baptism of Christ; the 
other, the Flight out of Egypt; whexe^ in the Egyptian plants 
and monuments we seem to reoognise that ancient land itsel£ 
Still the altar^-pieoe at Gualdo diews a greater degree of 
originality, as he here displayed his utmost care in imitating 
EsS^llo, whom he bad accurately studied, so as to derive 
from his forma and compoation all that eeuld go to adorn a 
picture of the Virgin and Holy Child, seen between St. Cathe- 
rine the martyr, and the B. Marco Fantnza, a Frandscan, 
who will, perhaps, obtain the honours of a solemn canonisation* 
The place is decorated with aichiteeture, the pavement varie- 
gated with marbles of different colours. The Holy Child, 
placed with the Divine Mother, upon a pedestal, is seen 
putting a crown on St. Cath^ine's bead ; while the Mother 
holds another in her hand, in order that the K Marco may 
be crowned by her in his turn. Two ang^ form the trai% 
one of whom points to the wheel, a symbol used by the saint, 
and indeed touches with his finger a sharp point, the bettor 
to give an idea o£ the sufferings of her mtatyidom. The 
other is an Angel of the Apocalypse^ with book and sword; 
a figure well suited to the last jud^nent, whose terrors the 
B. Marco inculcated ia his sermons. There are two other 
beautiful cherubs^ which add 4o the interest ; one standing 
near St. Catherine, holds a roll of Egyptian papyrus, with 
some Coptic characters, in which were described the acts of 
her passion ; while his companion pmnts the attrition of the 
spectator to a maxim cimtuiually repeated by the B. Marco^ 
*^ Nolite diligere mundum," inscribed upon marble. How 
widely different, in point of invention, appears an artist versed 
in literature, and one with no taste for letters ! This, how« 
ever, is not the whole merit of such a painting ; the saint and 



172 B0L0ONE8B SCHOOL.—EPOCH IT. 

one of tJiQ angels are truly RaffiielleBque figures ; the Beato 
in exttasy, brings to mind the B. Michelina of Baroccio ; the 
other figures are all exceedingly well studied, and seem in- 
tended to display the artist's refined gratitude towards his 
patrons. 

The best professors that Romagna could boast at this period 

have already been recounted in different Bolognese schools ; 

for which reason, without treating them separately, I shall 

proceed to the painters of landscape. Among these, excelling 

9a well in drawing as in figuring, Orlandi giyes us the name 

of Maria Elena Panzacchi, instructed in the art by Taruffi ; 

but her landscapes are now little known, even in Bologna ; 

and Crespi has indicated not more than two. Those of Paolo 

Alboni, her contemporary, are recognised in Naples and Rome 

itself, and in Germany, where he passed many years. Those 

which are seen in the Pepoli palace, at the March. Fabri's, 

and in other noble galleries, might be mistaken, according to 

Crespi, for the productions of Holland or Flanders, on whose 

models he was almost incessantly employed. Angiol Monti- 

oelli formed a style under Franceschini and the younger Yiani, 

which the same biographer highly extols. No artist, at this 

period, better knew how to dispose his colours ; none tinged 

his leayes, his earths, his buildings, and his figures, with 

more nature and yariety. But he was cut short in mid-career ; 

1^ became blind when his talents were in their perfection. 

Nunzio Femduoli, called also Degli Afflitti, was bom at 
Nocera de' Pagani, not a Bolognese. From the studio of 
Giordano, he went to that of Giuseppe dal Sole, in Bologna, 
in which city he was established. He incessantly employed 
himself in taking rural views, both in oil and fresco, and suc- 
ceeded to admiration, equal, says P. Orlandi, to Claude and 
Poussin ; an opinion to be attributed to the friendship subsist- 
ing between them. He had a mixed style, half foreign and 
lialf Albanesque, if we except his colouring, which is not so 
natural. Cavazzone provided him with two pupils, who, 
urged by their own genius, assisted by FerraiuoU, became 
tolerably good landscape painters ; namely. Carlo Lodi and 
Bernardo Minozzi. The first was an excellent disciple of his 
master; the second formed a manner peculiar to himself. 
Besides his ability in frescos, he was distinguished for his 



mrNZIO FBRRAIUOLI. 179 

landscape in waier-oolonis, which he illuminated on paste- 
board, and it met with much admiration both at home and 
abroad. Gaetano Cittadini, nephew to Pier Francesco, ex- 
celled in the same manner, his rural views displaying singular 
taste, fine effect of the lights, and spirited figures. I have met 
with them throughout Bomagna, as well as in Bologna. In 
Bomagna, however, Marco San Martino, a Neapolitan, or 
Venetian, is more generally met with ; and, in particular, at 
Himini, where he some time fixed his residence. His pieces 
are ornamented with beautiful little figures, in which he 
excelled. He also attempted more extensive works, such as 
the Baptism of Constantino, in the cathedral of Rimini, and 
the Saint preaching in the Desert, in the college of S. Yin- 
«enzio, at Venice ; though there, too, he is distinguished by 
his landscape, which formed, indeed, his profession. In the 
Guide of Rimini, he is named Sammartino, as well as by 
Zanetti and Guarienti. This last declares that he remained 
at Venice most part of his life ; and, in the next article, gives 
the name of one Marco Sanmarchi, a Venetian, both a land- 
scape and a figure painter, on a small scale, much extolled by 
Mtdvasia, and flourishing about the time of Sammartino. On 
the authority of Melchiori, who names him Sammartino, or 
Sanmarchi, I believe that these two landscape-painters of 
Guarienti resolve themselves into one ; and that the mistake 
arose from tbe resemblance of the two names, by which one 
and the same person was popularly known ; as we have had 
occasion to observe in other instances. Moreover, what could 
be the reason that this Sanmarchi, a Venetian, is not known 
in Venice itself, but only in Bologna, where it does not appear 
that he ever had a permanent abode ? 

The elder Cittadini, who excelled in flowers, and fruits, and 
animals, ia commended in the preceding epoch. In the present, 
we shall make mention of his three sons, Carlo, Gio. Bastista, 
and Angiol Michele, who, however able in figures, at least the 
two first, are known to have assisted their father, and imitated 
him in the subjects most familiar to him ; hence they were 
termed by Albano, syndic to the Bolognese professors,^ the 
fruiterers and florists. From Carlo sprung Gaetano, the land- 

* Malvasia, toI. ii. p. 265. 



174 BOLOOKBBE BGHOOL^— -EPOCH lY. 

scape painter, and Gio. Oin^amo, who down to our own dajs, 
though without attempting figures, ezxselled in painting dif- 
ferent ansmals, frnits, and vaBes of flowers. But this hmilj 
was suocessfollj riyslled by Domenioo Bettini, a Florentine 
professor in the same line ; who, after remaining a long time 
nt Modena, where we hare mentioned him, oame to establish 
himself at Bologna, towards the end of the sixteenth oenturj. 
He had learnt design under Yignal], and next oontinued to 
improve himself in the school of Nuzzi, at Rome. He was 
among the first, says Orlandi, who dismissing those obBcure 
«nd dismal grounds, painted more dear and openly ; adding 
attractions to such paintings, ^by the inTsntion of situations, 
and by the introduction of perspectiye; he was frequently 
invited to different Italian cities, to deoorato halls and csU>inets. 
But the fiftTonrito artists in this kind, of his day, was Oandido 
Yitali, who, taught by Oignani, always attclDtive to the pecul- 
iarities of his pupils, made rapid progresi in these attractive 
branches of the tkt. The fredmess whidi appeals in his fio wers 
and fruits, the beauty of his quadrupeds and birds, are fiiriher 
recommended by a tasto of composition, and a do&cmcy of hand, 
which are prised both in Italy and abroad. Baimondo Man- 
zini, a miniaturist rather than a paintor, painted less in oil ; 
but with such a degree of nature, that his animals, exhibited 
in cartoons, and placed by him in a certain light, have 
deceived even painters themselyes; for which he has been 
extolled by Zanotti as a modem Zenxis. An assemblage of 
his fishes, birds, and flowers, is to be seen in the fine gallexy 
of the Oasa Ercolani. 

At the same period the art was indebted to the judgment of 
Cignani for a good painter of battie-pieces in Antonio Galza, a 
Veronese, mentioned in the third volume;^ where it is 
observed that, being subsequentiy assisted by Borgognone, he 
became master of that branch of art at Bologna. Contempo- 
rary with him was another pupil of Gortese, who resided 
during several years in the same city, named Oomelio Yer- 
huik, of Rotterdam. Besides his baUle-pieoes in his master's 
manner, displaying strong and vivid colouring, he painted, in 
the Flemish style, markets, fairs, and landscapes, which he 

* Of the Italian editioDy and in the second of the present one. Tr. 



SAMXB TANBL 175 

enliyened with amall figoies, like thoM of Callot. From 
Cignani alao ihe Bologneee school received an excellent por« 
trait painter in Sante Yandi, more commonly called Santino 
da' BitiattL Few of his age weie qualified to compete with 
him in point of talent^ graoe» and correctnesB in the charac- 
terietie featmes, particnlarlj when drawn In email propor- 
tions, such as were calcalated even to decorate hoxes and 
ringGb For these he had oonttant commissions, hoth from 
private persons and from princes, most of all from the Grand 
Dnke Ferdinando of Tuscany, and Ferdinando, Duke of 
Mantua, who gave him a salary at his court, untU his return 
to Bologna on the duke's deaUi. But he remained there only 
a short time, being still inyited to differmt cities, so that he 
educated no pupils ft^ his natiye pkce, and died abroad. 
With him, obseryes Craspi, ^' disappeared the manner of pr(v> 
dncing portraits at once so soft and powerful, combined with 
such natural expression/' 

Aboye every other branch of inferior painting, however, 
ihe omamentiJ and perspectiye then flourished 9i Bologna. 
This art» as we have stated, after the solid foundations on 
which it had been placed by Dentone and Mitelli, aimed too 
much at a pleasing and beautiful, without consulting a natural 
eflect. But the school did not all at once deteriorate, being 
fiome time maintained by imitators of some of the most correct 
models. In thib number Zanotti extols Jacopo Mannini, a 
most accurate artist, who decorated a chapel at Oolomo for 
the Duke of Parma, in which the Car. Draghi was employed 
as fignrist, whose genius was at <mce as eager and rapid as 
Mannini's was slow. Much like two steeds of opposite temper 
yoked to the same vehicle, their sole occupation seemed that 
of biting and kicking each other ; and it became necessary to 
separate them, the slow one being sent back to his native 
Bologna, where owing to this blemish he never met with auy 
encouragement. Arrigo Haffner, a lieutenant, with Antonio 
his brother, who died a Philippine friar in Genoa, were also 
followers of Mitelli in deUcacy and harmony of colour. They 
had been much employed at Rome under Canuti, their master 
in figures, and the former was chosen by Franceschini to paint 
the perspectives in the church of Corpus Domini. They 
produced also many pieces at Genoa and in its state, some- 



^1 



176 BOLOGNESB SCHOOti.->fiPOCH IT. 

times with one, sometimes with another of the mdre eminent 
Ugarists. Antonio aoqniied most reputation, superior perhaps 
in all but invention to his brother, particuhirly in the sweet 
union of his tints, as well as in the estimation of distinguished 
personages. He was called by the Grand Duke Gio. Gastone 
to Florence, to consult him respecting the aXtar of pietre dursy 
intended for the chapel of the Depoalti at S. Lorenzo. 

A still higher station in this profession was attained by 
Marcantonio Chiarini, an excellent architect as well as writer 
in that department. He had frequent invitations from Italia^ 
princes and lords, and even from Germany, where he painted 
along with Lanzani in the palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy. 
Many of his pictures, conducted in perspective for noble 
Bolognese &mi1ieB, still remain, and are held as models of a 
sound and true taste, imitating the ancient colouring and 
design, without ^ving admission to certain marbles, which 
appear like gems, but please only the inexperienced. From 
Chiarini's manner was derived that of Pietro Paltronieri, 
universally known under the name of the MirandoleBe daUe 
proipettive. He was the Yiviano of this latter age, and his 
architectural pieces on the ancient model are met with, not 
only in Bologna, where he resided, but in Rome, where he 
long continued, and in a number of other cities. They consist 
of arches, fountains, aqueducts, temples, ruins, tinged with a 
certain reddish colour, which serves to distinguish them 
among many others. To these he adds skies, fields, and 
waters, which appear real; nor do they want appropriate 
figures, introduced by Graziani and other select young artists 
at Bologna. We must not confound Mirandolese with 
Perracini, also known in Bologna by the name of Miran- 
dolese, who flourished at the same period, but with no sort of 
reputation beyond that of a tolerable figurist. 

The school of Cignani increased that of the perspective 
painters. It first presented them with Tommaso Aldrovan- 
dini, nephew to Mauro ; both of whom accompanied Cignani s 
figures in the public palace of Forli. Tommaso was employed 
with Cignani himself at Bologna and Parma. Conforming 
himself^ under the eye of this celebrated master, to his best 
style, he so far succeeded, that the whole appears the work of 
Carlo alone, more especially in the chiaroscuro. His oma* 



THE BIBISNI. 177 

mental portion, too, is there conducted bo that neither the 
precise extent of the light, nor of the shade, is apparent, but 
only an effect resulting from them, as we see it in nature. 
He executed the architectural ornaments in the grand hall of 
Genoa, painted as we have said, by Franceschini ; and he left 
other works in that capital. It was his invariable custom to 
modify his style, alternately soft or strong, in the manner of 
the figurist. He instructed in the art Pompeo, son of Mauro, 
and his cousin, who, after having displayed some specimens 
at Turin, Vienna, Dresden, and in many other foreign cities, 
resided, and died at Rome, with the reputation of a very 
elegant artist From the school of Pompeo sprung two 
ornamental painters, Gioseffo Orsoni, and Ste&no Orlandi 
who, in conjunction, painted some able frescos in various 
Italian cities, besides many theatrical pieces for the same 
places. 

Whatever splendour of ornament may have been conferred 
upon the theatre by the Aldrovandini family, so greatly 
devoted to it, that of the Chilli, in the present age, sprung 
from Gio. Maria, pupil to Albani, sumamed, from his country, 
Bibiena, has acquired still greater celebrity. By the same 
surname were distinguished Ferdinando and Francesco, his 
sons, with their posterity; nor has any pictoric funily, either 
in this or any other age, advanced higher claims to public 
notice. There was haidly any court that invited not some of 
the Bibieni into its service ; nor was any sphere more eligible 
for that funily than the great courts, whose sovereign dignity 
was equalled by the elevation of their ideas, which only 
princely power could carry into execution. The festivals which 
they directed on the occasion of victories, of nuptials, or of 
royal entrances, were the most sumptuous that Europe ever 
witnessed. The genius of Ferdinando, formed for architecture, 
and for this reason wholly directed to it by Cignani, attained 
such excellence, that he was enabled to toich it, in a volume 
which he printed at Parma. He afterwards corrected some 
parts of it, in two little volumes published at Bologna ; the one 
upon civil architecture, the other on the theory of perspective. 
Indeed, his genius and works gave new form and character to 
the theatres. He was the real inventor of those magnificent 
scenes which we now witness, and of that rapid mechanic 

VOL. m N 



178 BOLOGNESB flCHOOL^— OBPOCH IT. 

motion with which they axe eeen to moye and ohftnge. Ho 
spent great part of his life in the Duke of Parma's service ; 
a good deal at MihiD, and at Vienna, in the court of Charles 
TI. ; always more esteemed as an arohitectthan as a painter. 
But heroi too, he shone, not only in oolonring scenes, and 
similar prodnctions for public festiyals ; hot in perspectires 
for palaces and temples, more partionlarly lor tiie state of 
Parma. Francesco, less learned, bnt an equally prompt and 
elevated designer, pursued the same line, and extended it in 
different eities, being invited to Genoa, Naples, ICantoa^ 
Yerona, and Bome, at whidi last he rsmained three years. 
He entered the service of the emperors Leopold and Joseph, 
who changed his resolution of proceediag to England, and 
Bubsequcntiy to Spain, where PMip V. had already declared 
him his arohiteot. The perspective pieces of the two 
brothers appear in different collections; and they are 
occaoonally enlivened with fignres by the hand of Fran- 
cesco, who acquired his knowledge Irom PasinaUi and Cig-^ 
nani, instances of whidli I hvre seen indifeent eofieotions at 
Bologna. 

Ferdinondo had a numemu fwotiily, of whose members we 
flhall mention Alessandro, Antonio, and GMsaeppe ; not beoauee 
equal to thmr pBedeeeasors, but as baiBg wmiaA in the prac- 
tice of their nw.wner» both in oil and finwo; and on tins 
account eagedy songhtalker by the dilineat eonts of Europe. 
The first enteied into the service of the Hbotor Palatine, in 
which he temunatod his dms. The second was much 
employed at Vienna and in Hungary. On retmning into 
Italy, too, he still removed £Eompla«a to i^aee, being retained 
by all the jSzai cities in Tuscany ; and still move in Lombardy, 
until the period <^ his death, which occurred at Milan. He 
was an artist more admired for his fiMsility of genius than for 
his correctness. Giuseppe, who, on his father's departure 
from Vienna on aooount of illness, was substituted architect; 
and pmnter of oourt festivals in his twentieth year, afterwards 
left that city for Dresden, where he enjoyed the same office, 
and, after the lapse of many years, also at Bwlin. He was 
invariably patronised by prinoes, who gave him regular sala- 
ries ; and by other members of the empire, who engaged him, 
at the moment, to adorn their festivals and theatres. His son 



'DOJUBOXIOO fRANCIA* 179 

Oarlo parsned the same career, being pensioned first by the 
Margrave of Bareith, and afterwards by the King of Fru8ffl% 
as sucoeesor to his &ther ; bnt he acquired great^ reputation 
in foreign countries. For, Germany becoming inrolyed in 
war, he took occasion to make the tour of France, proceeding 
tiirough Flanders and HoUand, and yisiting Rome on his 
letom into Italy. Last of all he made a voyage into England, 
and at the court of London rejected very advantageous offers 
to take up his residence in that city. Many of the deco- 
rations invented by Giuseppe and Carlo, on occasion of publie 
fec^ivals, have been engraved from their designs, in the 
production of which they were equally rapid, masterly, and 
refined. 

Where the Bibieni had foiled in introducing their novel 
inventions for grand spectacles, their disciples finally suc- 
ceeded. In this list, according to the history of Zanotti and 
ef Crespi, the most eminent rank is hM by Domenioo Fiancia, 
once the asnstant of Ferdinando at Ti«ina, afterwards ardii- 
tect and painter to the Sang of Sweden. After his term 
with that court had elapsed, he visited Portugal, and f^gain 
proceeded to Italy and Germany, till his arrival in his native 
place, where he died. To hnn we may add the name of 
Vittorio Bigaii, .mentioned in high ienns by Zanotti, an artist 
employed by different soveieigBS of Europe, and the £Ei4;her of 
thi^ sons, who pursued the same eeoeer. He also di^kyed 
mngnlar merit in his figures. Nor must we omit Serafino 
Brizn, who obtained equal reputation for his perspectives in 
oil interspersed both throughout forngn and native dties. It 
would form, however, an undertakjog no way adapted to a 
eompendious Instory, to oolleet the names of all the professors 
of so extended an art ; and the more so as, in the course of 
the present age, it was beoondng the general opinion that in 
many respects such art was greaHy on the decline, owing to 
the prevalence of only middimg and inferior artificers. 

Not many years ago, however, it seemed to revive, and a 
new epoch opmed upon the public, the praise of whieh is due. 
to Mauro Tesi, to whom his mends raised a marble monument 
in 8. Petronio, with a bust and the following inscriplaon ; 
^ Mauro Ten elegantis veteris in pingendo omatu et archi- 
-tectara restitutori." He belonged to the state of Modena, 

N 2 



18Q BOLOGNBSB SCHOOL.— -^BPOOH IT. 

and, when young, was pat to the school of a yeiy poor 
pidnter of arms in Bologna. Thns it was his lot, writes- 
Algarotti, to have had not a single master of architecture 
among the modems. By means of a peculiar natural genius, 
and studying the designs of Mitelli and Colonna, examining 
at the same time their models tliroughout the city, he re- 
conducted the art to a style, solid in architecture, sparing in 
decoration, as it had formerly heen, and in some parts still 
more philosophical and learned. His patron, the excellent 
Count Algarotti, assisted in perfecting his taste, and made 
him his companion in his tours, encouraging him to make ^ery 
excellent observations on the works of the ancients. Who- 
ever has perused his life and publications, a fine edition of 
which appeared at Yenice, edited by the learned Aglietti, 
will have perceived that he was as much attached to Tesi a» 
if he had been his own son. Nor did Tesi shew less respect 
to Algarotti than to a father ; and when the latter, in a de- 
cline, went to Pisa for his health, his young friend devoted 
himself so assiduously to him, as to contnict the same disease,, 
of which he died two years afterwards, still very young, at 
Bologna. Here he left various works, the most conspicuous 
consisting of a gallery belonging to the deceased Marquis. 
Zambecoari, with marbles, camel, and figures, very well exe- 
cuted ; a production displaying grand relief combined with, 
the most finished exactness. In Tuscany also are some re- 
mains of his taste, at S. Spirito in Pistoia, and in the hall of 
the Marquis Gerini at Florence. I saw, too, in possession of 
the count's heirs at Venice, two pictures, conceived by 
Algarotti and painted by Mauro. One of these, which he 
has described (vol. vi. p. 92) represents a temple of Scrapie^ 
decorated in the Egyptian manner, with baissi rilievi and 
pyramids in the distance ; fit to adorn the choicest cabinet. 
It is enriched with figures by Zuccherelli, in the same way as^ 
Tiepolo added them to Tesi's other pieces. There are en- 
gravings of some of Mauro's works in possession of the same 
nobles, as well as his whole studio of designs, landscapes, 
views of architecture, capitals, friezes, figures ; a rich and 
copious assemiblage of materials, almost superfluous in so short 
but bright a career. After Mauro, no greater proofs of esteem 
in this art were shewn by Algarotti to any one than ta 



coMcirsioN. 181 

•Gaspero Pesoi, to whom lie directed a number of his letters ; 
pf lum too Algarotti's heirs possess two pictures, consisting of 
ancient architecture, with slight sketches of figures, scarcely 
indicated. 

But at length we approach a conclusion. The Bolognese 
academy still continues to flourish in pristine yigour ; the aids 
afforded to the pupils have even heen extended ; and, in addi* 
tion to the academical prizes, tbere are dispensed others, which 
the noble families Marsili and Aldrovandi established at stated 
oneetings, and which still go by their name. I cannot, how- 
lever, as in other scbools, record very splendid remunerations 
to the masters. But this forms the more rare and distin- 
guished honour of the Bolognese artists — ^to labour for dis- 
tinction, and to confer their preceptorial services in the arts 
and sciences upon their country, not only without reward, but 
•even to their own loss, a subject fully treated of by Crespi 
(pp. 4, 5) in his '^ Felsina." Notwithstanding these disad- 
vantages, they have continued to maintain, during two centu- 
ries, the character of masters in the art. From the time the 
Caracci first spoke, almost every other school listened and was 
«ilent. Their disciples followed, divided into a variety of 
sects ; and these continued, for a long period, to hold sway in 
Italy. The reputation of the figurists being somewhat on 
the decline, a substitute sprang up in the decorative and per- 
spective painters, who established laws, and produced ex- 
amples, still eagerly imitated both in ItoJy and other parts. 
Neither the Bibieni, the Tesi, nor the others whom I have 
mentioned towards the close, are so exclusively entitled to 
historical consideration, but that the Grandolfi* &mily, with 

* Previoas to thepreient edition (1828), Gaetano Gandolfi breathed his 
last ; UbaldOy his elder brother, having already preceded him to the tomb, at 
the time he was preparing to decorate the capola of S. Vitale in Ravenna. 
Ubaldo had been pupil to Torelli, to Graziani, and in particular under 
Lelli had exercised his talents in drawing successfully from the naked 
model, and to such a foundation added dignity of style. Of this, several 
works in painting conducted with extreme care, as well as some in clay 
nnd stucco, at Bologna, and other places in Romagna, are ample proof. 
But to judge more particularly of his merits, we ought to examine his 
academical designs. In his ideas he was common, and not very natural 
in his colouring, and generally considered on this account inferior to his 
brother Gaetano, who was esteemed in Italy one of the most able artists 
of his day. Bologna, always grateful to its eminent citizens, expressed 



182 BOLOGNESB SCHOOIu-^EPOCH IV. 

seyeial others, wkieh have either reoentlj become extinet, or 
still floorijBh, may claim a share. DoubtLess these will not be 
in want of deserved ealogy from ether pens, that will sucoes-^ 
sively follow mine. 

at bis decease the degree of esteem in whicb he wai held while Vma^ 
His obsequies, of which a separate account was pablished in folio, equal 
what wa read in Mahrasia respecting those of Agostmo Caracd ; and the 
oration these radted in hia pruse by Sig. GfilUt desenres insertion in any 
of the moflt sekct works written on the art. Thece^ too» GandoUl, Terj 
judiciously, is not held np as a model in painting ; a forbearance wfaidi hie 
himself dii^layed, even refusing to receive pupils, and obserring that he 
was himself in want of instmctton. Yet from the influence of his great 
repntation be was frequently imitated, and, as it happened, witii most 
success in lus worst quaUtiea, more partisnlariy in H» tints. In th» 
respect be had been ill grounded by his elder brother ; but improved 
himself by studying for the space of a year at the fountain head of 
oolourists, in Venice, and by c6pying for a Venetian dilettante the finest 
pieces of the Cancel at Bciogna. It is difficult to account for his fine 
c(damrtng in some nointnigs, equal at least to the good artiste of his tfane* 
and his inferior celonring-in otikevs, as that of the Death vi Soeratea, at 
Monsig. IVenta's, bishop of Folagno. It is feeble and deficient in truths 
owing either to captce or to age. In his preparations of paintings he 
was more oommendable ; his first costcepttons were sketdied on slate with 
peneil, and more carefoUy on paper.. He next began to scJeet ; modelled 
the figurea in chalk, and. draped tiiem ; afterwarda forming the design en 
a lai^ scale, and by aid of his experimants, and of the living modd, he 
went on completing and retouddng his work. He has been aecnsed ef 
borrowing a Httle too freely from andcnt models ; but whoever had seen 
him, aged as he W88» devoting himadf in tJks pubHc academy to the prac- 
tice of modeling, vrill not unjustly confirand him with those plagiarists 
so notorious in our own day. Moreover, he may be ^tmrntaced inimi- 
table to most artists in those rare gifts which nature had lavished upon 
him: enthusiasm, fer^Sty of invention, sensibility, and skill in depicting 
the passions ; to wbidi he added a oorrect eye, nid aMIity both to design 
and compose, in the decoration of friezes for the institute, exotic plants 
and other rarities of nature, as wdl as to engrave witii much elegance^ 
and skiU to paint in oil as weQ as in fresco. A really impartial biographer 
must pass his opinion on every man, and let his verdict resnit from an 
examination of his master-pieces. Such belonging to Gandolfi are hia 
Assnmption, in the ceiling at S. M. deUa Vita, and the Nuptials of Cana, 
at the refectory of S. Salvatore in Bdlogna ; not to insist on the Martyr- 
dom of S. Pantaleone, at the dturdx of the Girolimiui in Naplest "with 
some other woiks scafttered through various parts of Italy. 



183 



BOOK IV. 

SCHOOL OF FERRARA. 

EPOCH I. 

Hie Ancients. 

Febbaba, (Miee the capital af a small piineipality under the 
dukes of Este, but, lunce the year l5Q7j reduced into a lega* 
tiou, dependant upon the see of Rome, lays chum to a series 
of excellent artists, greatly superior to its power and popula-* 
tion. This, however, will appear less extraotdinaiy, if we call 
to mind the number of its iUustrians poefts^ eoiaaoAjmng even 
before the time of Boiaxdo and Ariosto^ and continued 
down to our own days ; a sore indication ol naiional genius, 
equally fervidy elegants and InventiTe, adapted, more thaa 
common, ta the ctS^yation of the agMaJble arts. Added to 
this felicity of disposition was the good taste psevalent in 
the cUy, wUch, ia ita dktrilmtioii of pnUio laboira, or ite 
approbation of their results, was dueeted by learned and 
enlightened men, of whom it could boast in spverf department. 
Thus the artists hare in general obserred appropriate costxone, 
kept their attenti<»i on history, and composed in such a manner 
that a classical eye, particularly in their pazntings in the ducal 
palaces, recognises the image of that antiquity of which it has 
preyiously obtained a knowledge from books. The conye- 
niences of its site, also, hare beira farouxable to the progress 
of paintbg at Ferrara ; which, situated near Yenice, Parma, 
and Bologna, not far £n»n Florence, and at no yery great dis-* 
tance from Rome itself, has afforded facility to its students for 
selecting from the Italian schools what was most conformable 
to the peculiar genius of each. Hence the origin of so many 
beautiful manners as adorn this school ; some imitating only 
one classic master, others composed of yarions styles ; so that 



184 FBRRARBSB SCBOOLi^— -EPOCH I. 

Oiampietro Zanotti was in doubt whether, after the five lead- 
ing schools of Italy, that of Ferrara did not surpass every 
other. It is not my purpose to decide the question, nor could 
it be done without giving offence to one or other of the parties. 
I shall here only attempt a brief history of this school upon 
the same plan as the rest ; and I shall include a few artists of 
Romagna, agreeably to my promise in the preceding book, or, 
to speak more correctly, in its introduction. 

The most valuable information which I have to insert will 
be extracted from a precious MS. communicated to me by 
the Ab. Morelli, the distinguished ornament of his age and 
oountry, no less than of the learned office he fills.* This 
MS. contains the lives of Ferrarese professors of the fine 
arts, written by Doctor CKrolamo Baruffaldi, first a canon of 
Ferrara, next archpriest of Cento. To these is prefixed a 
laboured prefiice by Pierfrancesco Zanotti, with copious emen- 
dations and notes by the Canon Crespi. Such a work, drawn 
np by this polished writer, and thus approved, continued, and 
illustrated by two men of the profession, was long a deside- 
ratum in Italy; nor do I know why it never made its ap- 
pearance* A epecimen, indeed, was given by Bottari, at the^ 
end of his Life of Alfonso Lombardi, in the course of which ho 
inserted the life of Gakaso, and of a few other artists of Fer- 
xara. Moreover, in the fourth volume of the *' Lettere Pit- 
toriohe," he published a letter of the deceased Can. Antenore 
Scalabrini, relating to Baruf^di's MS., which underwent this 
noble ecclesiastic's corrections, communicated by him te Crespi, 
who inserted them in his annotations. Baruffaldi, also, having 
commenced the lives of the artists of Cento, and of Lower 
Bomagna, a work left unfinished, Crespi supplied all it wanted, 
and it has been mentioned by us in the school of Guercino, and 
among some artists who flourished at Ravenna and other cities 
of Romagna. Cittadella, author of the ^' Catalogue of Ferra- 
rese Painters and Sculptors" (edited in 1782, in 4 vols.), 
declares that he drew his chief information from Baruffaldi, 
(vol. iii. p. 140). He complains, however, in the preface, 
that a more correct work being either destroyed or lost, 
(alluding propably to this work with Crespi's notes,) ^* he has 

* Tliat of head librarian at St. Mark's. 



GELA8I0 BI NICCOLO. 185 

not been in possession of such nndonbted authorities as might 
be desired ; a very candid admission, fully entitled to credit. 
But this work having come into mj possession, through the 
courtesy of my learned friend, I shall avail myself of it for 
public information. On such authority I shall freely ground 
this part of my history, adding notices drawn from other 
sources, and not unfirequently from the Guide of Ferrara^ 
published by the learned Frizzi, in 1787 ; a work that may be 
included among the best yet given to Italy. So much we 
£tate by way of exordium. 

The Ferrarese school took its twin origin, so to say, with 
that of Venice, if we may credit a monumental testimony, cited 
by Dr. Ferrante Borsetti, in his work called '^ Historia almi 
Fenariensis Gymnasii," published in 1735. This memorial 
wajs extracted from an ancient codex of Virgil, written in 
1193 ; which, according to Baruffaldi, passed from the library 
of the Carmelites at Ferrara, into the possession of the Counts 
Alvarotti at Padua, whose books, in course of time, were 
added to the library of the Paduan seminary. At the end of 
this codex is read the name of Gio. Alighieri, the miniaturist 
of this volume ; and in the last page there had afterwards 
been added, in the ancient vulgar tongue, the following me- 
morial; — ^that in 1242, Azzo d'Este, first lord of Ferrara, 
committed to one Gelasio di Niccolo, a painting of the Fall of 
Phaeton ; and from him too Filippo, bishop of Ferrara, ordered 
on image of our Lady, and an ensign of St. George, which was 
used in going to meet Tiepolo, when he was despatched by 
the Venetian republic as ambaieBador to Ferrara. Grelasio is 
there stated to belong to the district of St. George, and to 
have been pupil in Venice to Teofane of Constantinople, which 
induced Zanetti to place this Greek at the head of the masters 
of his school. On the authority of so many learned men, to 
whom such memorial appeared genuine, I am led to give it 
credit ; although it contains some marks that, at first sight, 
^.ppear suspicious. I have further made inquiries after it in 
the Paduan seminary, but it is not to be found there. 

Approaching the fourteenth century, I find mentioned, that 
whilst Giotto was returning from Verona into Tuscany, " he 
was compelled to stop at Ferrara, and paint in the service of 
these lords of Este, at their palace ; also some pieces at 



186 FERHABESS SCHOOL.— EPOCH I. 

S* Agostino, which ace still iheie f tiiat is, in Tasaii's time^ 
from whom those wonk are eited. I am nneertaan whether 
any jet eidst ; bat thej afford sufficient anthority to beliere 
that the Ferrarese school, directed b j such models, reriyed in 
an equal degree with the other sciwols of Italy. There are 
no accounts of the artists who flouridked nearest to Giotto, 
from which we may judge how £u they wtte influenced by 
bis mannw • His suooesson^ however, must hare been one 
Bambaldo and one Laadadioi, wko^ about 1880, are recorded, 
in the annals of Marano, to have paiated in the church of the 
Seryi. This is now demoiishied, nor does there exist any 
account of tiie style of these painters. As oarly as 1380 ap- 
peared paintmgs in fresoo in the monastery of S. Antonio, by 
an unknown hand, and also retouched, but of whose style I 
find no indication. In the Bolognese school I treated of one 
Gristofbro, who painted about the same time, at tiate chuit^ of 
Mezmatta ; but as it is a disputed questum whether he 
belonged to Fenaa or to Modena, nodung certun can be eon* 
daded as to his Boanaer. Thus the lustoiT of letters affi>rds 
us some degree of light, up to the <^peniag of tiie ^fteeath cen- 
tury ; but tha history of existing monuments only dates from 
Oalasso Qalassi, an undoubted Fernueee, who flonrisbed sub- 
sequent to the year 1400, when eren in Fkreooe the Giot- 
tesque s^le had begun to decline in fiftTour of more recent 
artists. 

The master of this artist is unknown ; nor can I easily sup- 
pose, with some, that he was educated at Bologna. I found 
mj objection upon an observation made upon Galasso's 
pictures, mentioned by us in the dmrdi of Meszaratta at 
Bologna^ and obvious to alL They consist of histories of the 
Passion, ogned by the author's name ; and, if I mistake not, 
they are wholly opposed to the style of all other pieces in the 
same plaoe. The character of the heads is well studied lor 
that period, the beards and hair more in disorder than in any 
other old painter HE have seen ; the hands small, and fingers 
widely detached from each other ; and, in the whole, some- 
thing peculiar and novd, apparently not derived £rom the 
Bolognese, from the Yen^ians^ nor from the Florentines. I' 
conjecture, then, that he acquired this style of design when 
joung^ and introduced it from his native place ; the moi« so, 



GALAOSO OALASSI. 187 

as this production appearing in 1404, according to Bamfialdi, 
must hare formed one of his earliest specimens at Bologna. 
He afterwards remained there many years, though I cannot 
think the date 1462, said to he attached to one of his histories, 
genuine : and, if there, it must hare heen added suhsequently ; 
but other proofs are not wanting of his permanent reddence. 
For he there took the portrait of Niccolo Aretino, the sculptor, 
-who died in 14179 ^ '^^ >^ assured by Yaaari ; and on other 
authority, he produced some altar-pieces, one of which yet 
exists at S* Maria delle Bondini. It represents the Virgin 
sitting among rarious saints, and boasts, sajrs Ciespi, a depth 
of colouring, combined with architecture, countenances, and 
drapery not ill designed. ,He has also a Nunziata, in the 
Malrezri museum, a picture displaying aneiettt design, but 
well finished and of soft colouring. His best pkce was a 
history in fresco, representing the Obsequies of the Virgin, 
conducted by order of the Card. Bessarion, Bolognese legate, 
atS. Maria del Monte, in 1450; a work much admired by 
Crespi, in whose time it was destroyed. From similar facts^ 
added to the ccmnuendations bestowed on Ckdasso by Leandro 
Alberti, I conclude that he must have oiyteined muoh repu^ 
tation in the aboye ci^. He died in his native place^ in what 
precise year is uncertain^ Yasari treats of him at length in 
his firstedition, but in the second he is dismissed with a fewlines. 
Hence ihe Ferrarese also have directed against him the same 
complaints as the other schools. 

In the time of Galasso flouri^ied Antonio d&Ferrara, a dis^ 
eipla ai the Florentines. Yaaari bestows on Mm a short 
eulogy, among the pupils of An^ido Gaddi ; observing that 
he " produced many fine works at S. Francesco d'Urbino, and 
at Cittik di CasteUo." Treating too of Timoteo della Yite, 
bora at Urbiiio, the son of Calliope^ daughter of Mastro 
Antonio Alberto da Ferrara, he adds, that tbis last artist was 
^ a very fair painter for his age^ aueh as his wotks at XJrbinb 
and elsewhere declare him." Nothing undoubted now remains 
of him ; if^ indeed, a picture on gold ground in the sacristy at 
8. Bartolommeo^ representing the Acts of the holy Apostle, 
with others of the Baptist, in small figures, is not from his 
Mod. The work doubtless belongs to tibat age ; bearing much 
resemblance to Angiolo, with colours even more soft and warm. 



188 FERRARESB 8CB00L.-»EP0CH I. 

In Ferraia he left nothing that now survives ; the chamhers 
which he painted for Alherto d' Este, marquis of Ferraia, in 
his palace, afterwards changed into a public studio, being 
destroyed. This work was conducted about 1438, when the 
general council for the reunion of the Greeks was opened at 
Ferrara, in the presence of Pope Eugenius lY., and John 
Paleologns, the emperor. The Marquis ordered Antonio to 
represent this grand assembly on different waUs, with the like- 
nesses of full size of the principal personages then present. 
In other apartments he exhibited the Glory of the Blessed, 
which conferred on that place the name it still bears, of the 
the Palace of Paradise. From a few relies of this work it 
may with certainty be deduced, that this artist displayed 
greater beauty in his heads, more softness of colouring, more 
variety in the attitude of his figures, than Galasso. Orlandi 
calls mm Antonio da Ferrara, adding, that he flourished about 
the year 1500 ; a term of life too protracted for us to venture 
liere to confimu 

Towards the middle of the fifteenth century appeared Bar- 
tolommeo Yaccarini, whose paintings, signed with the artist's 
name, Bamffaldi declares that he himself had seen. There 
was also Oliviero da 8. Giovanni, a fresco painter, whose 
Madonnas were then by no means rare in the city. To these 
we may add Ettore Bonacossa, painter of that holy image of 
our Lady called del Duomo, which not long ago was solemnly 
crowned, at the foot of which is read the name of Ettore, and 
the year 1448. Still they were only artists of mediocrity; 
but others attained greater celebrity, having modernized their 
etjle in some degree, after the example, as I incline to think, 
of two foreigners. One of these was Pier della Franoesca, 
invited to Ferrara to paint in the palace of Schivanoia by 
Niccolo d'Este, as it is conjectured in a note to Bamffaldi. 
Surprised by sickness, he was unable to complete the work, 
but he painted there a few apartments, which yet remain as 
a model for young artists. The other was Squarcione, who 
also, in the clajrs of Niccolo d'Este and his son Borso, opened 
a school in Padua ; whose manner had followers without 
number throughout Italy, and must have influenced the Fer- 
rarese artists ; distant, perhaps, two days' journey from 
Padua. 



BTBFANO DA FBftBARA. 189- 

PossessiDg such means appeared Cosimo Tara, wham Yasari 
and other historians term Cosmd, and give him as pupil to 
Galasso. He was court-painter in the time of Borso d' Este 
and Tito Strozzi, who left a poetic eulogy upon him. His 
style is dry and humhle, as was customary in that age, still 
far removed from true dignity and softness. The figures are 
treated in the style of Mantegna, the muscles clearly expressed^ 
the architecture drawn with care, the bassi-rilieyi highly 
ornamented, and laboured in the most minute and exact taste. 
This is remarkable in his miniatures, which are pointed out to 
foreigners in the choral books of the cathedral and the Certosa^ 
as extreme rarities. Nor does he vary in his oil paintings ; 
as in his Presepio, in the sacristy of the cathedral ; the Acts 
of S. £ustace, in tiie monastery of S. Gugliehno ; yarious Saints 
surrounding the Virgin, in the church of S. Giovanni. In 
his larger figures he is not so much commended ; though Ba- 
rufialdi speaks highly of his works in fresco, in the foremen- 
tioned palace of Schivanoia. The design was distributed into 
twelve compartments, in a grand hall ; and it might well be 
entitled a small poetic series, representing the exploits of 
Borso. In each picture was included a month in the year,, 
which was sciendfioally indicated with astronomical symbols 
and classical deities, adapted to each ; an idea very probably 
borrowed from the saloon at Padua. In each month, too, 
was introduced the prince in his usual employment at suck 
season ; in the judgment-hall, in the chase, at spectacles, with 
great variety of circumstances, and full of poetry in the- 
execution. 

There was also an artist of considerable merit named 
StefjEino da Ferrara, pupil to Squarcione, and recorded by 
Yasari, in the life of Mantegna, as a painter of few pieces, 
among which were the Miracles of S. Antonio painted round' 
the ark. Though Yasari describes his works only as tolerable, 
it must be observed that he was considerably above mediocrity^, 
at least in the smaller figures; since Michele Savonarola 
(de Laud. Patavii, 1. i.) says of the specimens before men- 
tioned, that they seemed to move, while the dignity and im- 
portance of the place in which he painted conveys a higk 
idea of his reputation. This work is lost ; but there remains 
in the same temple a half-figure of the Yirgin, which YasarT 



190 FERRARESE SCHOOL.-— EPOCH I. 

attributes to StefiBiio ; and in the church of the Madonnina at 
Ferraia is one of his altar-pieces of S. Rocoo, in a^good 
manner. Barof&ldi supposes that he flourished till about 
1500, when he found mention of the death of one Stefiuio 
FalsagaJloni, a painter ; an age very likely to be correct, 
when speaking of a contemporaiy of Mantegna. On the 
other side, there is cited an altar-piece at S. Maria in Yado, 
executed in 1531, but which might possibly come from the 
hand of another Stefano. 

However it be respecting this epoch, certain it is, that 
towards the beginning of the sixteenth century Ferraia was 
in no want of celebra4«d artists ; since Yasari, as we hare 
observed in the Bolognese school, affirms that Gio. Bentivoglio 
caused his palace to be decorated ** by various Fenarese 
masters," b^des those of Modena and of Bologna. Among 
these he indnded Francia, on whom, about 1490, he confers 
the name of ^^a new painter." In ihe Ikt of artists of 
Ferrara I included Lorenxo Costa ; and frem the cirBiimstance 
of Francia being then a ^ new punter," and ottnr raasons, I 
drew an argument against the reodlTed o|Mnio& that Costa was 
the pupil of Francia ; which, therefore, I shall not here re« 
peat. I must not, however, omit otiber infoimataoa Mspecting 
him, as connected with Ferrara^ where he resided before oonung 
into notice at Bologna. At court, as w^ as for faivaite indi- 
viduals, he there conducted pictures and poitrails, with other 
works ^^held in much esteem;" and at the Padri di S. 
Domenico he painted the vfrhole choir, now long since de~ 
stroyed ; where '' we recognise the care which he used in the 
art, and how much study he bestowed upon his works." 
These, I believe, and other pieces conducted at Ravenna, 
acquired him reputation at Bologna, and ilii^KNsed the Benti- 
vogli to avail themselves of his talents. 

It remains to discover on which of the Fenorese artists 
who attended him, such commission was conferred. Cosmd 
and Stefano were then living; but it is known that more 
closely connected than these with the Bentivogli, was Cossa 
of Ferrara, a painter almost forgotten in his native place^ 
from having resided so long at Bologna. Some of his pieces 
are still there, consisting of Madonnas, seated between saints 
and angels, with tolerably good architecture. One of these, 



IBROOXA GBAMm. 191 

bearing his name, and date of 1474, is now in the Institnte^ 
Tulgar in point of featmes, and bat middling in oolouring. 
This, however, is not his best specimen, there being two por« 
traits of the Bentivogli (one at the church of the Baracano, 
the other in the Merchants' palace), from which I shonld con- 
jecture that he is one of those artists of whom we are in 
search. Nor, at this time, is there any other Ferrarese artist 
whom ! can add to him, besides Baidassare Estense, some of 
whose pictures, signed bj himself, are cited by Baraffaldi; 
and in museums are some of his medals, two, more particu- 
larly, in honour of Eroole d' Este, Duke of Ferraia, very 
ably executed in the year 1472. 

On the subject of first-rate artists I am often constrained to 
introduce notices in different places ; in particular, when they 
were employed in some okies, and in others became heads of 
schools. Such was Costa in respect to Ferraia. B^ formed 
pupils lor otkor schools ; «b one Gio. Borghese, from Messina^ 
and a Nieoluerao Calabxeee, who, appreh^iding that he was 
caricatured in one of Costa's productions, fiercely anaulted, 
and almofit despatdbed hhn with his dagger. I pass over 
othera ascribed to Mm by Otiaadi, Bottari, and BaraffiJdi ; in 
which they am mistricen, as I remaxked in the school of Bo- 
logna, when tfealing of Francia. The Fefxaren constitute 
Ills real honour ; Costa being here what Bellini was at Venice, 
and Francia at Bologna, the founder of a greai school, and a 
public teadier. Soxne of his pupils competed with the best 
artists of the fourteenth century ; and part approached the 
splendour of the golden age. We fitall review iEhe wbole series, 
which, commencing at this period, and oontinuisg to the fol- 
lowing epoch, gives him a elaim toa primary station among 
the masters of Italy. All his discHj^es became excellent de- 
signers and noble coloorista, transmitting both these qualities to 
their successors. Their tints exhibit a peculiar kind of strength, 
or, as a great connoisseur used to express it, of fire and ardoni^ 
which often serves to characterize them in collections; a quality 
not so much deriyed from Costa as from some other masters. 

Ercole Grandi, called by Yasari, in his life, Eroole da 
Ferrara, became an abler draigner than his master Costa, and 
is greatly ]^eferred to him by die historian. Such too I 
believe to have been the public opinion from the period whea 



192 FBBBABBSB SCHOOL.— BPOCH I* 

Grandi was employed with Costa at Bologna^ in preference to 
whom he was invited to different places to paint alone. But 
his affection for his master, and his own modesty, led him to 
reject every advantageous offer ; so that when Costa went to 
Mantua, he would have followed, had he been permitted so to 
do. Lorenzo, however, could no longer brook a disciple who 
already surpassed him ; owing to which, and the necessity, of 
completing the painting he had begun in the Gargauelli 
chapel at St. Peter's, he left Grandi in his stead at Bologna. 
Ercole there produced a work which Albano pronounced 
equal to Mantegna, to Pietro Perugino, or any artist who 
professed the modem antique style; nor perhaps did any 
boast a touch altogether so soft, harmonious, and refined. 
He painted to advance the art, and spared neither time 
nor expense to attain his object, employing seven years on 
his fresco histories at St. Peter's; and five more in re* 
touching them when dry. This was only at occasional inter* 
yais, employing himself at the same period in other works^ 
sometimes at, and sometimes out of Bologna, He would evea 
have continued to render his work more perfect, had it not 
been for the jealousy of some artists in the city, who nightly 
robbed him of his designs and cartoons, which so gr^tly 
incensed him that he abandoned his labours, and Bologna 
itself. Such is the account of Baruffaldi, and it agrees with 
the invidious character of certain Artists of that period, drawn 
by Yasari, who in this respect also drew down upon himself 
the indignation of Malvasia. 

In the chapel of Gurganelli, Ercole painted, on one side, the 
Death of the Virgin, and on the other the Crucifixion of 
Christ ; nor did he produce in such a variety any one head 
like another. He also added a novelty in his draperies, a 
knowledge of foreshortening, an expression of passionate grie^ 
" such," says Yasari, " as can scarcely be conceived." The 
eoldiers ^' are finely executed, with the most natural and ap- 
propriate action that any figures up to that time had displayed." 
Many years ago, when this chapel was taken down, as much 
as possible of Ercole's painting was preserved, and placed in 
the wall of the Tanara palace, where it may still be seen. It 
js indeed his master-piece, and one of the most excellent that 
appeared in Italy during his times, in which the artist seemed 



tODOTICO MAZZOXilVI. 193 

to hare leyiTed the example of Isocrates, who deroted so man j 
jears to the polish of his celebrated panegyric. There is little 
else of his remaining at Bologna ; but at S. Paolo in Ferrara 
is a genuine altar-piece, and nothing more in public. Some 
pther of his works are preserved in the church of Porto in 
Bayenna, and some pictures in the public palace at Cesena. 
He has some specimens in foreign galleries ; two of his pic- 
tures are at Dresden, a few others at Rome and Florence ; 
though frequently his name has been usurped by that of another 
painter, Ercole not having enjoyed the celebrity which he 
deserved. Thus his picture of the Woman taken in Adultery, 
used to be pointed out in the Pitti palace for a work of Man- 
tegna. For the rest, his paintings are extremely rare, as he 
did not survive beyond his fortieth year, during which period 
he painted with the caution of a modest scholar, more than 
with the freedom of a master. 

Lodovico Mazzolini is not to be confounded with the Maz- 
lolino mentioned by Lomazzo in his ^ Idea of the Temple or 
Theatre of Painting ;" thus entitling Francesco Mazzuola, a« 
if in sport. Mazzolini of Ferrara was transformed by Yasari 
into Malini, by a Florentine writer into Marzolini, and by 
others divided into two, so as to become a duplicate, and 
answer for two painters— one Malini, another Mazzolini ; both 
of Ferrara, and pupils to the same Costa. To crown his mis- 
fortunes, he was not sufficiently known to Baruffiddi himself, 
who described him as '^ no despicable scholar of Costa," having 
probably seen only some of his more feeble efforts. He did not 
excel in large figures, but possessed very rare merit in those on a 
smaller scale. At S. Francesco in Bologna is one of his altar* 
pieces, the Child Jesus disputing in the Temple ; to which is 
added a small history of his birth. It was admired by Bal- 
dassare da Siena ; and Lamo, in his MS. often before cited, 
describes it as an excellent production; but this piece was 
retouched by Cesi. Other little pictures, and among these the 
duplicates of his histories already recorded, are to be seen at 
Rome in the Aldobrandini gallery, presented, perhaps, as a 
legacy by the Cardinal Alessandro, who in Mazzolini's time 
was legate at Ferrara. Other pieces are at the Campidoglio, 
formerly belonging to Card. Pio, as I gather from a note of 
Mens. Bottari. From such specimens, in considerable number 

TOL. in. o 



194 FERRARESiS SCBOOIi. — BFOCH I. 

vaA genuine, we may form «.n idea of Mazzcdini'a nflaatt!^ 
whiek Baanif^di iameoto should ooBjtinne to be eae neaiijr 
naknown to the dilettanti. It difiphijB aA incredible degiee 
of finish ; sometimes a{)pearing in his smaUest pietuxes like 
miniatixre ; while not only <^ figunes, bat the landfica|)e, the 
architecture, and the bissiiilieyi, are most -earefaUy exeoj^ted. 
There is a spirit and deamees in his heads, to which law of 
his contCTdpoxariBB could attain ; though they aro wholly takim 
from life, and not remarkably select ; in pactkmlar those of his 
old men, whdoh in the wtanUeB and the nose sometimes bc»der 
<m caricature. The oolonr as of a ^eep tone, in the style 
before mentiemed ; nsft fio fioft as that of Eroole ; with the ad- 
dition of some gilding eyen in the drapery, bat sparii^lj 
appHed. in aome eoIleotioaiB his name lam been confounded 
with that of Cbutdenzio Fecraia, perhaps deriyed by mifttakD 
from Lodoyico da Ferrara. Thus, in the royal gallery at Flo- 
rence, a littAe pooture of Ihe Virgin and Hcdy Oiild^ to whom 
6. Anna is seen presenting fndts, wiik figures of S. €ldoyao- 
chino and anothmr samt, ham been Attributed to Ferrari. But 
it is the work of MasEoiim, if Z do notdeoeiye myself^ after 
the comparison mads witii others exaflouned at fiome. 

From the zesembilaiice of hk style to Costa, and eyen eupe- 
rior in the heads, it is conjecstnred that ICiehele Coltellini 
sprung from the same scdiooL Some specimens of his works 
are recorded in i^ diuroh and conyent of the PP. Agofitiniani 
of Lombardy, two of which yet remain in existence ; one an 
altar-piece at iStm chnrdi, in ike nsnal oompQsition of the four- 
teenth century, aoid in the refectory st S. Monica with four 
female saints belonging io that ordes. The date inscribed, 
together with his name, on an altar-piece, informs us that he 
was still liying in the year 1517. It is tmcertain in what 
school Domenico Panetti receiyed his education ; but I know 
that his works, during sey«ral years, appear only feeble efforts. 
His former pupil, €rarofolo, howeyer, returning subsequently 
from Rome, alter acquiring the new style under Bafi'aello, he 
receiyed his old master, Panetti, as a pupil, aud so greatly 
hnproyed him as to render his latter works worthy of compe- 
tition with the best masters of the fourteenth century. Such 
is his St. Andrew, at the Agostiniani, just b^ore recorded, in 
which he dieplays not only accuracy, but, what is fiir moie 



DOMENIOO FANETTI. 195 

xare for his times, a dignified and majestic manner. The artist* 8 
name, which is affixed, with seyeral other works conducted in 
the same taste (one of which is now seen in Dresden) bear 
evidence of a change in pictoric character without example. 
Oio. Bellini imd Pietro Pearugino, indeed, improyed themselyes 
upon the models of their disciples, but they had previously 
attained the rank of eminent mafiters, which cannot be averred 
of Panetti. Yasari relates that Garofolo was pupil to Dome- 
nico Lanero, in Ferrara ; an .eiror resembling that of Orlandi, 
who terms him Lanetti, and all these are the same individnal 
Pomenioo Panetti. He flourished some years during the six- 
teenth century, in the same manner as the two Oodi, and the 
three Contignolli, who, though belonging to lower Bomagna, 
hasring flourislied i^Meoad, have been induded in the school of 
Bologna, otr m its adjacent places. A few others, knowv only 
by their names, snob as jAJessandro Carpi, or Gesaie Testa^ 
may be soogbtt for in the work cf Cittadella. 



o 2 



196 



SCHOOL OF FERRARA. 

EPOCH II. 



Artists of Ferrara, from the time of Alfonso I. till Alfonso II., last of the 
Este family in Ferrara, who emulate the best Italian tftjles. 

The most flourishing epoch of the Ferrarese school dates its 
commencement from the first decades of the sixteenth century. 
It traces its source to two brothers named Dossi, and to 
Benvenuto da Garofolo, or, more correctly perhaps, to Duke 
Alfonso d'Este, who employed them in his service, so as to 
retain them in their natiyo place, where they might form 
pupils worthy, of themselyes. This prince, whose memory 
has been emlnklmed by so many distinguished poets, was pecu- 
liarly attached to the fine arts. In his court Titian painted^ 
and Ariosto conferred with him upon the subjects of his 
pencil, as we learn from Ridolfi in the life of Titian himself. 
This was subsequent to the year 1514, when Gian Bellini,, 
already old, left in an unfinished state his noble work of the- 
Bacchanals, which has long decorated the Aldobrandini gallery 
at Rome ; and when Titian was called upon to complete it. 
He likewise conducted various paintings in fresco, which still 
remain in a small chamber, in the palace of Ferrara ; besides 
others in oil, such as portraits of the duke and duchess, and 
his celebrated Cristo della Moneta, which we have extolled 
for one of his most studied productions. Peliegrino da S. 
Danielle, another pupil of Gian Bellini, but not to compare 
with Titian, though not inferior to many of the same school, 
was retained and honoured by the same court, where he left 
a few works,* of which there remains no account, or ocin* 
founded, perhaps, with those of Dpsso, an artist of much 

* See Renaldis, p. 20. 



THE DOSSI. 197 

celebrity, and of yarious styles, at the same court, as we now 
proceed to shew. 

Assisted by such models, the talents of Dosso Dossi, and 
of his brother, Gio. Batista, bom at Dosso, a place near 
Ferrara, may have been considerably improved. They were, 
first, pupils to Costa, and afterwards, says Barufiydi, resided 
six years at Borne, and five in Venice, devoting themselves 
to the study of the best masters, and drawing portraits from 
life. By such means they formed their peculiar character, 
but of different kinds. Dosso succeeded admirably in figures, 
while Gio. Batista was perhaps below mediocrity. Still he 
aimed at them ; sometimes even in spite of his brother's re- 
monstrances, with whom he lived at continual variance, though 
unable to separate from him by conmiand of the prince, who 
gave him as his brother s assistant. He was thus like a slave 
at the oar, ever drudging against his will ; and when obliged 
to consult respecting their common labours, he wrote what 
suggested itself refusing to communicate by word of mouth. 
Envious and spiteful in his mind, he was equally deformed in 
person, expressing as it were the picture of his internal ma- 
lignity* His real talent lay in ornamenting, and still more 
in landscape, a branch in which, according to Lomazzo, he 
was inferior neither to Lotto, to Gaudenzio, to Giorgione, nor 
to Titian. There remain some specimens of his friezes in the 
palace of the Legation, and in still better preservation some 
works noticed by Barnfialdi at the villa of Belriguardo. 

The two brothers obtained constant employment at Alfonso's 
court, and subsequently from Ercole IL They, likewise, 
composed the cartoons for the tapestries at the cathedral of 
Ferrara, and for those which are in Modena, part at S. Fran- 
cesco and part at the ducal palace, representing various 
exploits of the Esti. How hx Yasari may be entitled to 
credit in his account of Ercole's invitation of Pordenone to 
compose cartoons for his tapestries, there being no good 
figurists at Ferrara for ^'themes of war," it is difiicult to 
decide. He adds, that Pordenone died there, shortly after 
his arrival, in 1540, as was . reported, by poison. This 
assertion, by no means flattering to the Dossi who then 
flourished, has not been noticed, I believe, by any Ferrarese 
writers, who else would doubtless have defended their reputa* 



198 FERRARESE 0CflK>Oai.^EPOCH H. 

tion by citing the exploits of anas fignved m a variety of 
tapestries. On other points, indeed, this Yum been done;, 
particnkcrly in regard to their pointings, whi<^ deeorated a 
chamber of the Imperiale, a villa belonging to the dnkes of 
Urbino. It is observed by Yasari, t£at ^the work was 
conducted in an absurd style, and they departed from- the 
Dnke Francesco Maria's court in disgrace^ wko tras compelled 
to destroy all they had executed, and cause the whole to be 
repainted from designs by Genga." The aaiswer made to this 
is, that the destruction of that work was owing to tiie jealousy 
of their competitors, and still more *^to tibe policy of that 
pcince, who did not widi his artists of Urbino snrpassed by 
those of Ferrara." These are the wonib of YalefflO, from 
Malvasia (voL ii. p. 150), though I b^eve thst too much 
deference was paid to Talesio in adopting socb «n expose ; as 
it seems inconsistent with the judgment and tasle of the 
prince to suppose him capable of t^s Bpems pi httrborism, 
and from the motive whi<^ is adduced. I falhier af p w b o n d 
that the tcork must h»ve fibiled by the &ak of CHhk Batii9ila» 
who, dissatisfied witii his allotted gvotes^n^ and te»k«ipes^ 
insisted on shining as a figsrist. These » a stndkr eziunpie 
in a eourt-^yard of Ferr»r% where he inserted some fgtam 
against Dosso's wishes, and acquitted kittiiA ilL For die 
rest, a much better d^bnee of their tstents was made bv 
Ariosto. For he not merely arVaileid himself of Dossed 
talents to draw his own poftasit, and llie acgmneniMf te^ the 
cantos of his Furioso, but has imnortalised hodi his and his 
brother's name, along with the most ondaeiit Italian paiiMeis 
when he wrotcj *' Leonanb, AndMa Mastegms ® ^^f^ JM M mo ^ 
Duo Dossi ;" names which ane foQewvd by.those of Michel* 
angelo, Raiaello, Tiziano, aad Sebastiuio del Piombo* Bmik 
commendation was not a mere tribute to friendship, but to 
Dosso's merit, always highly eztoQed likewise by fareignen. 
Ilis most distinguished wotks are now perhftps at I>resden^ 
which boasts seven of them^ aad in paitieiilflir the altar<*pieeo 
of the four Doctors of the Church, one of his most celebrated 
pieces. Hia St. John in Patmos is at the Lateranensi in 
Ferrara ; the head, free from any retondiing, is a master*pf00e 
of expression, and acknowledged by Cochin himself to be highly 
Baffaellesqne. But his most admixed pfoduetioB was at tilm 



Domenieafti of Faenza, wkere ibexe is now a eo|^j, tlie 
original kaving been removed on aeooimi of its deeaj. It 
exhibito ChriBt disputing^ among the doetora ; the attitndes so 
aatsialfy ejqpr&mre of axxrpnee, «id the feattires and draperies 
so well Yoried, as to appear admirable even in the copy. 
There is a little pscture on the some snljeot in the Campi- 
dpgliOy fbrmerlj belongmg to Card. Pio of Fenara, fall of 
MOf polish, and colour^ with laost tastefol and mellow tints. 
Bj the same hand I hftTo seen seyeral ^^ Conyersazioni" in the 
Casa Sompsen at Boiogna, and a few Hoi j Families in other 
coUeetkma^ one in possesskm of Sig. Car. Acqna at Osimo. 
In pictorio works I sometinies find him eompared with 
Baffiielloy flcnuetimes with Titian or Gk>rreggio ; and ocartainly 
he has the gisioe6&0B8, the tints, and ehiw)8cnro of a great 
master. He letains^ kewerer, more of the old jstjle than 
tiuBB aitists, amd boasts a deagn and drapexy which attract 
Hm JE^pectator bgr their mnrrity. And in some (^ his more 
Idboined pieces he adds to this novelty by a Tariety and 
wsimt^ of eolonrs whi^ neyertheless does not seem to 
dimifladi their unkm and harmony. 

DoflBO suryiv«d Gio. Batista some years, dnxtng which he 
ecmtinued to paint, and to form pn^s, sntil infirmity and old 
age coBopdled him to derist. The prodnciions of ti^is school 
are leeogBued in Fenara by their resembhinco of style ; and 
irom their great numbisr it is oonjectnred that the Dossi 
dhreeted te worhs^ whUe their assistants and disciples 
eaceeoted them. Few of these, howeyer, are known, and 
among them one Byangelista Dossi, who has nothkig to 
veeommend him bat his name, and whose wo^s 8cannelli did 
not care to point out to posterity. Jacopo Fannicciati, by 
Urlh Ik noUe, is mentioned by historians as a first rate 
imitator of the Dossi, though he painted little, and died 
yonng, about the year 1540. iNiecolo BosseQi, much 
CTsployed at Ferrara, has been supposed to belong to this 
eehool, from his resemblance in some pictures to Dosso, 
particnlariy in that of Christ with two angels, on an altar of 
the Battuti Bianchi. But in his twelve altar-pieoes at the 
CSertosft) he imitated also Benvennto and Bagnacavallo, with 
several other artists. His school, then, must remain uncertain; 
die more so as his composition, so very laboured, soft, and 



200 FERRAREBB 6CH00L.^EP0CH II. 

minute, with reddish tints like those of orayonfl, leaves it evMt 
doubtful whether he studied at Ferrora at sdl. The flame 
taste was displayed by Leonardo Brescia, more a merchant 
than a painter ; from which some have supposed him Rosselii'^ 
pupil. 

Better known than these is the name of Caligarino, in 
other words the little shoe-maker, a title derived from his 
first profession. His real name was Gabriel Cappellini ; and 
one of the Dossi having said, in praise of a pair of shoes 
made by him, that they seemed to be painted, he took the 
hint and relinquished his awl to embrace his new profession. 
The old Guide of Ferrara extols his bold design and the 
strength of his colours. The best that now remains is his 
picture of the Virgin between two saints John, at S. Giovan- 
nine ; the ground of which has been retouched, or rather 
spoiled. An altar-piece, in good preservation, is also ascribed 
to him in S. Alessandro, at Bergamo, representing our Lord'cr 
Supper. The manner partakes in some degree of that of the 
fourteenth century, though very exact and boasting good tints. 
In time, however, he approached nearer to the modems, aa 
we gather from another Holy Supper, a small picture in 
possession of Count Carrara. This new style has led to the 
supposition that he was pupil to Paul Veronese, which it is 
difficult to believe respecting an artist who was already 
employed in his art as early as 1520. 

Gio. Francesco Surchi, called Dieiai, was pupil and assistant 
to the Dossi, when employed in painting at Belriguardo, at 
Belvedere, at the Gioveoca^ and at Cepario, in which palaces 
they gave the most distinguished proofs of tiiieir merit. Thus 
instructed by both brothers, he became perhaps the most 
eminent figurist among his fellow-pupils, and beyond question 
the best ornamental painter. He left few specimens in the 
second branch, but many in the first. In rapidity, vivacity, 
and grace in his figures, ne approaches Dosso, and in a similar 
manner in his easy and natural mode of draping. In the 
warmth of his colouring, and in his strong lights, he even 
aimed at surpassing him ; but, like most young artists who 
carry to excess the maxims of their schools, he became crude 
and inharmonious, at least in some of his works. Two of his 
JS^ativities at Ferrara are highly extolled, one at the Benedet- 



BENTBNUTO. 201 

iini) tke other at S. Giovannino, to whioh last is added the 
portrait of Ippolito Rimioaldi, a distinguished ciyilian of his 
age. Writers are divided in opinion respecting the com- 
paratiye excellence of these two altar-pieces, bat they agree in 
■awarding great merit to both. 

We proceed to treat of Benvennto, another great luminary 
of this school ; and we must first premise that there are some 
mistakes as to his name, which has often betrayed our dilet- 
tanti into errors. Besides Benvenuto Tisio, sumamed from 
his country Grarofolo, there flourished at the same period Gio. 
Batista Benvenuti, by some said to have been also a native of 
Garofolo, and from Ins father s occupation denominated Orto- 
lanO) the gardener. Now, by many, he has been confounded 
with Tisio, both from resemblance of name and taste, so far 
AS to have had even his portrait mistaken for the former, and 
3S such inserted in Yasari's edition that appeared at Bologna. 
There Ortolano had pursued his studies about 1512, from the 
works of Raffaello, which were few, and from those of 
Bagnacavallo, whose style he afterwards emulated in some 
pictures. Leaving that place sooner than he had intended, owing 
to an act of homicide, he never attained to a complete imitation 
of Raffaello. But he excelled in his taste for design and 
perspective, united to more robust colouring, observes Baruf- 
faldi, than what we see in Baffiiello himself, and it is habitual 
in this school during nearly the whole of the sixteenth 
century. Several of his altar-pieces have been transferred 
into the Roman galleries, where in the present day they are 
attributed, I believe, to Tisio, whose first manner, being more 
•careful than soft and tasteful, may easily be mistaken for that 
of Ortolano. There are others at Ferrara, both in public and 
private, and one in the usual old style of composition at 
S. Niccolo, with the date affixed of 1520. In the parochial 
church of Bondeno there is another, which is extolled by 
Scannelli (p. 319), in which are represented the saints Sebas* 
tian and Rocco, and Demetrius, who, in military dress, is seen 
leaning on the hilt of his sword, absorbed in thought; the 
whole attitude so picturesque and real as at once to attract 
the eye of the beholder. 

We cannot be surprised that his name should have been 
eclipsed by Tisio, an artist deservedly extolled as the most 



nS FBRRABBSa flC!B0O£.«-EP0CH II. 

eminent among Fenanee pobiteis. Of him we liare treftfed 
ittther at lengtk in the Koman aehool, both as ooeapjing a 
h^ statios in the liat of Baffiello'a pupils, and as the one 
most ftequenilj net with in the Roman eoOeotions. We 
have a little before mentioned BenTenuto's first edneation 
nnder Panettiy frooi whose sdiool he went to Cremona, under 
Niccolo 8oiiaai, his matenml ancle, and next under Boccaccio 
BooeaceL On Nkcolo's death, in 149^, he fied from Cremona, 
and first resided daring fifteen months in Borne, with Qma 
Baldini, a FkwBntiDe. Thenee he travelled through yarious 
Italian cities^ xemsined two years with Cosia in Mantua, and 
then retsmiiig for a short space to Ferrara, finally proceeded 
bade to Rome. These cireumstances I here give, on account 
of a number of BearfBuiito's works being met with in Feiraia 
and elsewhere, which partake little or nothing of the Roman 
stjie, thoBgb not ezdnded as apocryphal, as they are 
attributed to his eavlier age. After remaining a few years 
with Raffaello, y» domestie aflhirs recalled him to Ferrara ; 
haring arranged these, he prepared to return to Rome, where 
bis great master anxiously awaited him, according to Tasari, 
in order to aoeomplish kira in the art of design. But the 
solicitations of Panetti, and stiU more, the commissions of 
Duke Alfonso, retained him in his native place, engaged with 
the Dossi in immense undertakings at Belriguardo and other 
^aees. It is obseired by Barnffal^ that the degree of 
Kafiaelksque taste to be traced in the two brothers' works, is 
to be attributed to Ti^. He conducted a great number of 
other paintings, both in fresco and in oil. 

His most Imppy period dates from 1519, when he painted 
in S» Francesco the Slaughter of the Innocents; arailing 
himself of earthen models, and copying draperies, landscape, 
and in short every thing from the Kfe, In the same church 
is his Resurrection of Lazarua^ and his oelebrated Taking of 
Christ, commenced in 1520, and finished in 1524. No better 
works appeared from his hand, nor better composed, more 
animated, conducted with more care and softness of colouring. 
There only remains some trace of the fourteenth century, in 
point of design ; and some little affectation of grace, if the 
opinion of Vasari be correct. The district formerly abounded 
with similar specimens of his in fresco ; and they are also 



met with ia private, aa that Meze in a ebaaiW of the 
Seminary, which in peint of grace aoeid Ba£SMiiesqtte taste is 
well deserviiig of being engraTed. Many of his worlBs, also, 
in oil remain, exhibited here and there ihrongfaoiil the 
churches and collections of Ferrara ; at once so many and so 
beautiful as akme to saffiee for the decoration of a dty. His 
St. Peter Martyr was more poortienlarly admired by Yasari ; 
a picture omamenting the Dominicans, remarkable for its 
force, which some professars hare supposed to hare been 
painted in competitiiMt T^th St. Peter Martyr by Titian ; and 
in case <^ its loss to have been able to supply its plaee. His 
Helen, too, a picture of a more degant character, at the same 
place is greatly admixed; this gxaeefufaiesB forming one of 
Benrenruto's most pectdior gifts. And, indeed, not a few of 
his Madcmnas, his Yirgiiks, and his boys, which he painted in 
his softer manner, have occasiamlly been mistaken for Baf^ 
faeUo's. His picture of the Princes Corsmi deeeired good 
judges, as we are inf<»med by Bettari ; and the same might 
have happened with the portrait of the Ihike of Modena, 
and others scattered throng the Bonma gslkeries, where are 
many of his pieces on a kuge scale, partimdarly in the Chigi 
pabce. All these must be kepi in view, in forming an 
estimate ol Oarcifole^ His Mttle pictores, oonsis^g ef scrip* 
tural histories, are very dbtndaoU ia diflerent calcitets (Prince 
Borghesi hinaself being in possessioD ef about forty), and 
although they bear fais mark, a gilly-iowef or viokt, they 
were, I suspect, meiely the prednction of his leisure hours. 
Those without such impress are frequently works of Panelli, 
who was employed along wkh him ; ofteft copies or repetitions 
by hi» papilfl^ who must harve been numerevs during so long a 
peried. Baruffaldi gives him €Ho. Ffascesco Disuiti, of 
whomi he mentions an altar-pieee at the Madonnina, in the 
style e£ Garofolo, and his tomb, also at the same fhce^ with 
the date of his decease in 1576. Batiste Orlffi and Ber- 
iftar<^a Fieri, known only by some ancient legal instrument 
belon^ng to tiie period of 1520, do set seem to have 
surpassed mediocrity; which is also remarked by Tasari of all 
the others who sprung from the same mkwA. We may 
except a third, mentioned in the same leg^l act, and this was 
Caipi, of whom I shaU now proceed to treat* 



SOi PBRBARESE SCHOOL.— ^BFOCH H. 

It is ancertain whether the proper tide of Girolamo be da 
Carpi, as stated by Yasari, or de' Carpi, as is supposed by 
Saperbi ; questions wholly frivoloas, inasmuch as his friend 
Yasari did not call him a native of Carpi, but of Ferrara i 
and Giraldi, in the edition of his ^^Orbecche" and of his 
^^Egle," premised that the painter of the scene was Mes. 
Girolamo Carpi, from Ferrara. And in this city he was 
instructed by Garofolo, whose young attendant, in the parch- 
ment before cited, he is said to have been in 1520. He 
afterwards went to Bologna, where he was a good deal 
employed in portrait painting ; until happening to meet with 
a small picture by Correggio, he becune attached to that 
style, copying every piece he could meet with, both at 
Modena and Parma, by the same hand. From Yasari's 
account we are to conclude that he was never acquainted 
with Correggio, Baffaello, and Parmigianino, whatever other 
writers may have said. It is true he imitated them ; and 
from the latter, more particularly, he derived those very 
pacefully clasped and fringed garments ; and those airs of 
Heads, which, however, appear rather more solid and less 
attractive. On removing to Bologna, in addition to what he 
conducted in company with Pupini, he singly executed a 
Madonna with S. Bocco and other saints, for S. Salvatore ; 
and an Epiphany, with smaller figures, full of grace, and 
partaking of the best Roman and Lombard manner, for the 
church of S. Martino. Returning at length to Ferrara, he 
conducted, along with his master, several pictures in fresco, 
particularly in the ducal Palazzina, and in the church of the 
Olivetani, where Baruffaldi clearly recognised his style, 
invariably more loaded with shadow than that of Benvenuto. 
In 1534 he himself represented, in a loggia of the ducal 
palace of Copario, the sixteen princes of Este ; twelve of 
whom with the title of marquis, the rest as dukes, had swayed 
the sceptre of Ferrara. The last was Ercole IL, who com- 
mitted that work to Girolamo, honourable to him for the 
animation and propriety of the portraits, for the decoration of 
the termini, of the landscape, and of the perspective, with 
which he adorned that loggia. Titian himself had raised 
Carpi in that prince's consideration ; not at the time when 
he came to Ferrara to continue the work of Bellini, since 



OIROLAMO. 205 

Girolamo was then only a child, but when he returned at 
another period ; and this I mention in order to correct one of 
Yaa^ri's mistaken dates. 

His altar-pieces in oil are extremely rare ; the Pentecost at 
S. Francesco di Rorigo, and the S. Antonio at 8. Maria in 
Vado di Ferrara, are the most copious, and perhaps the most 
celebrated which he produced. He was employed also for 
collections, mostly on tender and graceful subjects ; but there 
too he is rarely to be met with. His diligence, the commis- 
sions of his sovereigns, the study of architecture, a profession 
in which he served Pope Julius III. and Duke Ercole II., his 
brief career, all prevented him from leaving many productions 
for the ornament of cabinets. In his style of figures he had 
no successors : in the art of decorating with feigned bassi- 
rilievi, colonnades, cornices, niches, and similar architectural 
labours, he was rivalled by Bartolommeo Facoini, who in 
that manner embellished the grand court-yard of the palace. 
He afterwards painted there, as Carpi had done elsewhere^ 
the princes of £ste, or more correctly, placed in the niches a 
bronze statute of each of them ; in constructing which work 
he fell from the scaffolding, and died in 1577. He was 
assisted in the same labour by his brother Girolamo, by 
Ippolito Oasoli, and Girolamo Grassaleoni, all of whom 
continued to serve their native place in quality of ornamental 
painters. 

Whilst Benyenuto and Girolamo were thus bent on display- 
ing all the attractions of the art, there was rising into notice, 
from the school of Michdangelo at Rome, one who aspired 
only to the bold and terrible ; a character not much known 
to the artists of Ferrara up to that period. His name was 
Bastiano Filippi, &miliarly called Bastianino, and sumamed 
Gratella^* from his custom of covering large pictures with, 
crossed lines, in order to reduce them with exactness to a 
small scale ; which he acquired from Michelangelo, and was 
the first to introduce into Ferrara. He was son to Camillo, 
an artist of uncertain school, but who, in the opinion of 
Bononi, ^^ painted with neatness and clearness, as in hi& 
Annunziata at S. Maria in Yado ;" in the ground of which is 

* Gratella, literally a gridiron, or lattice-work. 



20^ FERRARE6E flC»OOIi*<i— EPOCH II* 

a fcaif-figore of St. Paul, whioh leads to the coiytctiifey that 
Camillo aspired to ^ style of MicholangekL it would aeem, 
therefore, that Bastiano imhibed from his fietiier his avdent 
attachmcHit to that style, on aooomit of whieii he seoEetly 
'withdrew from his fatiier's house, and went to lUme, where 
he beoame one of the most iadefiitigaUe ocqoyists and a 
fii^oarite disciple of Bonarmoti. How gzeatly fae impzored 
may be seen in has picture of the Last Judgment at Feixani^ 
completed in thvee years, in the diov of the Metropolitana ; 
a work so nearly approaching Midielangelo that the whole 
Florentine school can boast nothing of the kind. It displays 
gfand desogn, great rmety of figuves, &ie ^roufong, and 
-very pleadng repose. It seems incredyible ihf^ in a l&emo 
alroEMly treated by Michdiangelo, Filif^i diould haTO sue* 
ceeded in produ<»ng such nofel and grand eflfect. Like all 
tiiie imitators, he eridenily aimed at copjring the genius and 
spirit, not the figures of his modeL He abused the occasion 
here afforded him, like Dante and Michelangelo, to gratify his 
friends by placing them among ^e eleot^ and to zeyenge 
himself on those who had offended him, by giving their 
portraits in the group of the damned. On this ui^happy list, 
too, he p]|ced a young ladhr who had broken her tows to 
him ; elevating among the blessed, in her stead, a more £iif^- 
fbl young woman whom he married, and representing the 
latter in the act of gazing on her rival with looks of scorn. 
Baruffaldi and other Ferrarese prefer this painting before that 
of the Sistine chapel, in point of grace and colouring ; concern* 
ing which, the piece having been retouched, we can form no 
certain opinion. There is, mcnreover, the testimony of Barotti, 
the desc^er of the Ferrarese paintings, who, at page 40, 
complains, that *^ while formeriy those figures appeared like 
living fiesh, they now seem of wood." But other proofe of 
Filippi's colouring are not wanting at Ferrara; where, in 
many of his untouched pictures, he appears to much advan- 
tage; except that in his fleshes he was greatly addicted to 
a sun-burnt colour ; and often for the union of his colours, he 
overshadowed in a peculiar taste the whole of his painting. 

Besides this, his master-piece, Filippi produced a great 
number of other pictures at Ferrara^ in whose Guide he is 
more frequentiiy mentioned that any artist, except Scarsellino. 



BABIIAKO FILIPFI» 267 

Wh&se he repeeBenied na^ed fignree, as in kk grtaid. S, Cias- 
toiuDo at the Certos% he adheied to Michelangelo ; in hia 
draped figures he followed other models ; which is perceptible 
in that Oircamcision in an altur of the cathedral, which might 
lather he «ttx3faitted to his father than to him. Being impa- 
tient, hoth in 3>egard to inye^tion and to painting, he often 
repeated tflie same things ; as he did in one of his Annunoia- 
tions, lepvodnoed at least seven tiao^ almost invariablj with 
the same idoeks. What is worse, if we ^xoept the foregoing 
Judgment, his large altar-fdece of St. Oatheruae, in that church 
with a £bw other pnbhc works, he conducted no pieces wiithout 
losii^^ himself either in one part or other ; satisfied with stamp- 
ing upon each some commandiiitg trait, as if to ezhihit himself 
as a £06 hnt caDeless painter to the ejes of posterity. There 
toe few of his specimens in coUectiona, hut these are more 
exactly finished. Of these, without counting those of Ferrara^ 
I hove seen a Baptism of Christ in Casa Acqua at Osimo, and 
several oqpies from Mibheiangdo at Borne. iEarly in life he 
painted grotesques, hut subsequently employed in such labours 
Gesare, his younger brother, a very excellent ornamental 
painter, though feehle in great figures and in 'histories. 

Contemporary with, and rival of Filippi, was Sigismondo 
ScameUa, popularly called hy the Ferrarese Mondino, a name 
hfi has ever since jetained. Instructed during three years in 
tiie sohod of Paul Veronese, and afterwards remaining for 
thirteen at Venioe, engaged in studying its b^ models along 
with the rules of aicfaiteoture, he at length returned to For* 
lara, well practised in the Paolesque flfyle, but at condderable 
distance as a disciple. If we except his Visitation at 8. Groce, 
fme figures and Ml of action, we meet with nothing more 
by him in the last published Guide of Ferrara. The city 
possesses other of his works, some in private, some retouched 
in fluch a manner that they are no more the same, while 
several are doubtful, and most commonly attributed to his son. 
This is the celebrated Ippolito, called, in distinction from his 
father, Lo Scarsellino, by whom singly there are more pictures 
interspersed throughout those churches, than by many com- 
bined artists. After acquiring the first rudiments from 
Sigismondo, he resided almost six years at Venice, studying 
the best masters, and in particukr Paul Veronese. 



208 FERRARESB J3CH00L.— EPOCH U. 

fellow-citizens call him the Paul of their school, I suppose on 
account of his Nativity of the Yirgin at Cento, his S. Bnmo, 
in the Ferrarese Certosa, and other paintings more peculiarlj 
Paolesque ; but his character is different. He seems the 
reformer of the paternal taste ; his conceptions more beautiful^ 
his tints more attractive ; while some believe that he 
influenced the manner of Sigismondo, and directed him in his 
career. On comparison with Paul it is clear that his style is 
derived from that source, but that his own was different, 
being composed of the Yenetian and the Lombard, of native 
and foreign, the offspring of an intellect well founded in the 
theory of the art, of a gay and animated fancy, of a hand if 
not always equal to itself^ always prompt, spirited, and rapid. 
Hence we see a great number of his productions in different 
cities of Lombardy and Romagna, to say nothing of hia 
native place. 

There, his pictures of the Assumption and the Nuptials of 
Cana, at the Benedettini ; the Piet^ and the St. John be- 
headed, in that church; with the Noli me tangere^ at 
S. Niccolo, are among the most celebrated ; also at the 
Oratorio della^Scala, his Pentecost, his Annunciation, and his 
Epiphany, conducted in competition with the Presentation 
of Annibal Caracci ; of all which there are seen, on a small 
scale, a number of repetitions or copies in private houses.. 
They are to be met with too at Rome, where ScarseUino's 
paintings are not rare. Some are at the Campidoglio, and at 
the palaces of the Albani, Borghesi, Corsini, and in greater 
number at thb Lancellotti. I have sometimes examined them 
in company with professors who never ceased to extol them. 
They recognised various imitations of Paul Veronese in the 
inventions, and the copiousness; of Parmigianino in the: 
lightness and grace of the figures ; of Titian in the fleshes, 
and particularly in a Bacchanal in Casa Albani; of Dossi 
and Carpi in his strength of colour, in those fleiy yellows, in 
those deep rose-colours, in that bright tinge given also to the 
clouds and to the air. What sufficiently distinguishes hint 
too, are a few extremely graceful countenances, which he 
drew from two of his daughters ; a light shading . which 
envelopes the whole of his objects without obscuring them^ 
and that slightness of design which borders almost on the dry^ 



CAMILLO RIOCI. S09 

in oppoeition, perhaps, to that of Bastiano Filippi, sometimes 
reproached with exhibiting coarse and heavy features. 

Ippolito's school, according to Baruffiddi, produced no other 
pupil of merit except Camillo Ricci, a young artist who, 
Scarsellino declared, would have surpassed himself^ and whom^ 
had he appeared a Mttle later, he would have selected for his 
own master. From a pupil, however, he became Scarsellino's 
assistant, who instructed him so well in his manner, that the 
most skilful had difficulty to distinguish him from Ippolito. 
His style is almost as tender and attractive as his master's^ 
the union of his colours is even more equal, and has more 
repose, and he is principally distinguished by less freedom of 
luuid, and by his folding, which is less natural and more 
minute. His fertile invention appears to most advantage in 
the church of S. Niccol5, whose entablature is divided into 
eighty-four compartments, the whole painted by Oamillo 
with different histories of the holy bishop. His picture of 
Margherita, also at the cathedral, is extremely beautiful, and 
might be referred to Scarsellino himself. His smaller paint- 
ings chiefly adorn the noble house of Trotti, which abounder 
with them ; and there too, is his own portrait, as large as 
life, representing genius naked, seated before his pallet with 
his pencil in hand, surrounded by musical books, and imple- 
ments of sculpture and architecture, arts to which he wa&r 
wholly devoted. Among the pupils of Ippolito, Barotti enu- 
merates also Lana, a native of Codigoro, in the Ferrarese, 
though I leave him to the state of Modena, where he flou* 
rished. Cittadella also mentions Ercole Sarti,<!alled the mute 
of Ficarolo, a place in the Ferrarese. Instructed by signs he 
produced for his native place, and at the Quadrella sul Man- 
tovano, some pictures nearly resembling the style of Scarsel- 
lino, except that the outline is more marked, and the counte- 
nances less beautiful. He was also a good portrait painter,, 
and was employed by the nobility at Ferrara as well as for 
the churches. There is mentioned in the Guide, an altar- 
piece in the sacristy of S. Silvestro, and the author is extolled 
as a successful imitator both of Scarsellino and of Bononi. 
. Contemporary with the Filippi and the Scarsellini is Giu- 
seppe Mazzuoli, more commonly called Bastaruolo, or, as it 
means in Ferrara, the vendor of com, an occupation of hiff 

VOL. III. p 



SIO FERRARESB SCHOOL.— 'EPOCH II. 

h&er'sy not his own. He is at onoe a learned, graoefal, and 
correct artist, probably a pnpil of Sorchi, whom he sibcoeeded 
in painting for the entaUatnre of the Gresd some histories left 
tmfinislied by the death of his predecessor. Maznu^ was not 
so well skilled in perspective as in other branches. He injared 
his rifling reputation by designing some figures in too large 
proportion, owing to which, added to his slowness, he became 
proverbial among his riyals, and considered by many as an 
artist of mediocrity. Yet his merit was suffidently marked, 
particularly after the formation of his second manner, mora 
elevated in design, as well as more studied in its cdonring. 
The foundation of his taste is drawn from the Dossi ; in force 
of chiaroscuro, and in his heads he would seem to have owed 
his education to Parma ; in the natural colour of his fleekei^ 
more particuhtfly at the extremities, he apfooaches Titian ; 
and from the Venetians too seem to have been derived those 
varying tints and golden hues, introduced into his draperies. 
The church of Ges^ contains^ besides two medallions of his- 
tories, admirably composed, an Annunciation and a Onusi** 
fixion, both very beantifol altar-pieces. The AseensMm at 
the Cappuocini, conducted for a princess of the Estense fiuaily, 
is a magnificent piece, while an aUar-pieoe of the titular saint^ 
with half figures of virgins that seem to breathe, at the Zitelle 
of S. Barbcua, is extremely beautiful. Several other pieces 
both in public and private, are met with at Fersara. Ma^ 
zaoli was drowned, while bathing lor his health, at that f^aee; 
an artist every way worthy of a better fate, and of being mere 
generally known beyond ihe limits of his own coontiy. 

Domenioo Mona (a name thus read hj Baniffiddi hmm hie 
tomb, though by others called Monio, Honi, a«d Monna,) 
attached himself to the art after trying many odier professionB^ 
ecclesiastical, medical, and legal. He posseosed great fervour 
and richness of imagination, learning, and rapidity of hand* 
Instructed by Bastaruolo, he soon became a painter, aad ex- 
hibited his pieces in public. But not yet founded in technical 
rules, monotonous iu his heads, hard in his folding and unfi-^ 
nished in his figures, he was ill adapted to please a city already 
accustomed to behold the most finished productions at every 
step, so as no longer to relish any thing like mediocrity or 
inferiority of hand* Mona then applied with fresh diligence 



ta the ttrt» and corrected l^t lesAt, Aome o£ ]»« more glaring 
« faultcu Fr^m that time he wae inore readil j emplo jad by hig 
&Uow-eituseius, though his works wei« by no means equally 
appreved. Soiae» boweTer, were good, siieh as the two Nati* 
Tities at S. Maria in Yado, one of which represented the 
Yiigin, the other the Divine Child ; botii displanring a taste 
of eol<Mixing nearly resembling the Florentine of that period, 
here and diere mingled with a Yenetian tone* The best of 
all, howeyer) is his Deposition from the Cross, placed in the 
Sagseeda Capitolare of the eathedrsL A number of others 
only approadi medioerity, though stUl pleasing by their spirit, 
and a general effect whu^b proclaims siq^erior genius. Even 
hie eoloniing, when he studied H, is ealcnlated to attract by 
its warmth and yiridness, though not very natural. A few 
of his works are in such bad taste as to have induced his pupiL 
Jaeepo Bambini, out of oompeAsion, to retouch them ; and 
Baru&ldi aJLao notices this mgulejr inequality. For, after 
greatly ext(dUng his Deposition from the Cross, he adds, 
^^ It muet eurpriee tiie sf&eM^x to esmtsMit this with his other 
]^eeeii> nor can he leeoocile how he diould possess such capa* 
city, and yet iribow such indi&vsnce tot his own fiune." All, 
JbowevQi^ is ej^plaiued when we know that be was naturally 
m3kji9ci k> ittaani^« of whieh he finally became the victim, ai^ 
having liain a eein!tier of the Cw. AldobraniUiio, he ended his 
days in hwishment from his native place. By some, however, 
the deed wee attidlmted, not to ineanity, but to hatred of the 
iMwr geverament ; and in &et, so fax from aeting Uk^ 
heeoMeaJedUmseli^firstiu the state, luid next at the court of 
■Modwia^ FSflially, he sought refuge in that of Parma, where 
he is dedtfed to have produced pieees^ dnring a short period, 
in Us best tast^ OrlaiuM ^jlw Vitm Domenieo Mora. ^^1 has 
extolled Us two hxg» pictares of the Convesnou and the 
Mafftyrdcnn rf St foul, wUch adorn the jwsbytery of that 
ehuffh at Fensca. He morever adds, that he flourished 
in 1570, fof which date I am inclined to substitute that of 
1580, as it is known that he commenced the piaetioe of the 
art late in life, and died, aged fifty-two years, in 1602. 

From his school is supposed to have sprung Gaspero Yen- 
turini, who completed his education under Bernardo Castelli, 
in Genoa. This, however, is mere conjecture, founded on the 

p 2 



212 FERBARESE SCHOOL.— *£POCH II. 

style of Gaspero, which, in point of colouring, partakes of that 
ideal taste so pleasing to Castelli, to Yasariy Fontana, Ghlizia, 
and others of the same period ; nor was Mona himself free from 
it. Jacopo Bambini, whom we haye before commended, and 
Giulio Cromer, commonly called Croma, were assuredly from 
the school of Mona, though they acquired little from it. 
Subsequently they became more correct designers by studying 
from the naked model in the academy, which they were the first 
to open at Ferrara, and from the best antiques which they pos- 
sessed in their natiye place— on art in which they attained 
singular excellence. Nor were they destitute of invention ; 
and to Cromer was allotted the honour of punting the Presen- 
tation and the Death of the Virgin, at the Scala ; a featemitj, 
which, previous to its suppression, was regarded as a celebrated 
gallery, decorated by superior artists. Bambini had studied 
also in Parma, whence he brought back with him a careful 
and solid style ; and, if he sometimes displayed the colouring 
of Mona, he corrected its hardness, and excluded its capri- 
ciousness. This artist was assiduously employed at the Gesii, 
in Ferrara, and in that at Mantua. Croma was a painter of 
high reputation, and much inclined to the study of architec- 
ture, which he introduces in rather an ostentatious manner in 
nearly all his pictures. In other respects he more resembles 
Bambini than Mona, invariably studied, ruddy in his com- 
plexions, somewhat loaded in all his tints, and the whole com* 
position sufficiently characteristic to be easily distingoished. 
He may be well appreciated in his large histories of the saint 
at St. Andrea, near the chief altar, and in several pictures 
belonging to the minor altars. Superbi, in his ApparatOy 
describes one Gio. Andrea Ghirardoni as an able artist He 
left some respectable works, but coloured in a languid, feeble* 
style, with more of the effect of chiaroscuro than of painting. 
The names of Bagnacavallo, Rossetti, Provenzali da Cento, 
and others belonging to the Ferrarese state, who properly 
appertain to this epoch, have been already described under 
other schools. 



818 



* SCHOOL OF FERRARA. 

EPOCH III. 



^nie Artists of Fernira borrow different styles from the Bolognese School* 
— Dedine of the Art, and an Academy institated in its support. 



i 



Such, as jast described, was the degree of excellence to wliich 
the pictoric art arrived under the Esti, whose dominion over 
Ferrara terminated in the person of Alfonso II., who died in 
1597. These princes beheld nearly all the classic styles of 
Italy transferred into their own capital by classic imitators, 
which no other potentates conld bofust. They had their Raf- 
faelo, their Bonarmoti, their Correg^o, their Titian, and their 
Paul Yeronese. Their memory yet affords an example to the 
world ; because, like true citizens of their country, they fos- 
tered its genius, the love of letters, and all the arts of design. 
The change of government occured in the pontificate of Cle- 
ment YIII. for whose solemn entry into the place the artists 
Scarsellino and Mona were employed about the public festi- 
vals ; being selected as the ablest hands, equal to achieve much 
in a short space of time. Various other painters were subse- 
quently employed, in particular Bambini and Croma, who 
were to copy different select altar-pieces of the city, which the 
court of Rome was desirous of transferring into the capital ; 
leaving the copies only at Femua, to the general regret of the 
Ferrarese historians. Subsequently the Card. Aldobrandini, 
nephew to the Pope, was there established as legate ; a fo- 
xeigner indeed, but much attached to the fine arts. like other 
foreigners, he was more bent upon purchasing the works of 
old masters, than upon cultivating a genius for painting among 
the citizens. The same feeling may, for the most part, be 
supposed to have influenced his successors; since, about 1650y 
Cattanio, as we read in his life, ascribed the decline of the art 
to its want of patrons, and induced Card. Pic, a Ferrarese, to 



214 FERRABESE SCB0OL. — ^EPOCH III. 

allot pensions to young artists, to enable them to study at 
Bologna and at Borne. But such temporary aids afforded no 
lasting support to the school, so that if the others of Italy were 
greatly deteriorated during this last century, that of Ferrara 
became almost extinct. It may, therefore, boast greater credit 
for having retrieved itself under less favourable circumstances, 
and for having continued so long to emulate the most distin- 
guished originals. 

About the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the 
new civil government commenced at Fenara, a new epoch aiaa 
occurred in its pictoric school, which I call that of the Ca- 
racci. I can furnish no account respecting^ that Pie|;ro da Fer- 
ittra, mentioned by Malvasia, along with Schedone, among the 
pupils of Lodovico Coracci. I have no where met with his 
name in any other work. Diamitting him, therefore, I may 
award the chief station in this epoch to two able artists, who 
acquired the taste^ witlMmt entering into the academy of the 
Garaccii These were Bonone of the city of Ferraia, and 
Guerdno belonging to the state ; of whom, as residing so lon^ 
with his school at Bologna, I have there written wnat need 
not here be repeated. Thdy were succeeded by other painters 
in the Legation, nearly the whole of them pupils of Oaraccitd 
followers, or again of their disciples ; insomuch, that what now 
remains of the Ferrarese school, is afanoet a continuation of 
that of Bologna. It is the crowning glory of the Fenarese 
to have boasted superior emulators of the final school of Italy» 
as they had of all the prec^ng. But it is now time to pro- 
ceed to the particulars. 

Carlo Bonone, called by the admirable Cochin invariably 
Bourini, was pupil to Bastamolo. On being deprived of his 
master, he continued to exercise his acquired manner ; but he 
subsequently inclined to the strong, to contrast of light and 
shadow, and to the difficult parts of composition, more than 
any other oontempoiury Ferrarese. I suspect that, despairing 
of competing in grace with Scarsellino, he intended to oppose 
him by a more robust and enlarged manner. Nor had he &r 
to seeK for it, while the Caracci flourished in Bologna. He 
left his native place t and perhaps passing through that city, h& 
conceived the first idea of his new style. Arrived at Kome, 
he there continued above two years designing the beautiful 



OASLO BONONE. 215 

from nature in the academy, and out of it from the works of 
art; and then returned to Bologna. Here he remained a 
jeai^ ^^ until he had mastered the character and colouring of 
the Oaracci, and devoted himself exclusiTely to the principles 
and practice thus adopted, entirely renouncing all other 
manners/' Thus states Baru£y.di ; and adds, tha^ he resided 
also at Yenice, whence he departed more confounded than 
instructed, with the fixed intention of neyer in the least 
departing from the Caraccesque maiiner. He went also to 
Parma, and saw the works of Correggio, according to some, 
though without departing from his maxim. What progress 
he made in the path thus selected, may be easily gathered 
from the opinions of experienced Bologneae, contained in 
different histories^ who, on examining one of his works, 
ascribed it, without hesitaiaon, to Lodovico Garaeci ; and it is 
also to be iniferred from the public voice, which extols him as 
the Caracci of Ferrara. 

This mistake is apt to be made in those compositions with 
few figures, rather than in his large histories. In the former 
his dignity of deedgn is calculated to deoeire us ; as well as 
the conception and attitudes of his heads ol men, the form 
and fulness, the iaXL and folding of the dn^ry, the choice 
and distribution of the colours, and the geneml tone which in 
some works, more correctly conducted, greatly resemble the 
Bolognese style. But in his compoedtions on a grand scale, 
he does not closely imitate the Caracci, always sparing in 
their figures, and anxious to make them conspicious by a 
certain disposition peculiarly their own; but rather follows 
the Yenetians, and adopts methods to multiply the personages 
on the scene. The grand Suppers which he painted (of a few 
of which we hare engravings by Bolzoni) might be almost 
pronounced from the genius of Paul Yeronese, so greatly do 
they abound with perspective, stages, and staircases; so 
thronged is every situation with actors and spectators. His 
Herod's Feast, at S. Benedetto, is much celebrated, as well atf 
the Marriage of Cana, at the Certosini, at S. Maria in Yado, 
and other places in Ferrara, but in particular, his Supper of 
Ahasuerus, in the refectory of the Canonici Begolari of 
S. Giovanni, at Ravenna. The oiavas is large, as well as the 
vestibule which fills it, while the multitudes which ther^ 



216 FERRAREBE SCHOOX*. — ^fiPOCH in. 

appear thronged together is excesedve; guests, spectatorcl^ 
domestics, mnsical choirs and companies in the balconies, and 
in a recess, through which is seen the garden, appear other 
tables surrounded by guests, with so beautiful an illusion of 
aerial perspective, as at once to relieye and to gratii^ the eye 
with infinite yarietj. There is as much diversity also in the 
attitudes, novelty of drapery, richness of plate, &c., of which 
it seems impossiole to finish the inspection. A few figures too 
are more studied, such as that of Ahasuerus, of the master of 
the feast, and of a kneeling page, in the act of presenting the 
royal crown to the king. To these add several of the singers, 
which rivet the eye by their respective dignity, vivacity, or 
grace. In no other work did Bonone succeed equally well in 
captivating otliers and in pleasing his own taste. 

Yet the church of S. Maria in Yado boasts so great a 
number of his paintings on the walls, so many in the vault 
and in the ceiling, conducted too with so perfect a knowledge 
of foreshortening, that, in order to estimate the vastness of 
his talents, we ought to see that magnificent temple itselfL 
When Guercino left Cento fi>r Ferrara, he used there to spend 
hours devoted only to the contemplation of Bonone. I find 
mention that, for such productions, ^^ he was elevated even to 
a competition with Correggio and the Caracci," and he 
assuredly adhered much to that method, designing accurately, 
modelling his figures in wax, arranging the foldings, and 
exhibiting them to a nocturnal light to examine their best 
efiect, which he aimed at even more than the Caracci. Still 
I have too great deference for public opinion, which acknow- 
ledges no rivals to these noble masters, though they had 
Imitators ; and I have heard judges express a wish for more 
constant accuracy of design, choice in his heads, stronger 
union of colours, and a better method of la3ring on his 
grounds, than they find in Bonone. Notwithstandimg similar 
exceptions, however, this artist stands as one of the very first, 
after the Caracci. Though inferior in age, he could not be 
called inferior in merit, to Scarsellino ; and the city, divided 
into parties, could not agree to award the palm either to the 
elder or to the younger. They pursued difierent manners; 
each was eminent in his own, and when they came into 
eompetition each exerted his utmost industry not to be 
outshone, which left the victory still doubtful. There were a 



ALFONSO RIVAROLA. 217 

few years ago at the Scala, and are yet at other places, a 
number of these rival productions, and it is wonderful to see 
how Bonone, accustomed so much to fill his canvas on a large 
scale, can adapt his genius, equal to any, to study and 
vefinement, even painting his figures of small proportion 
almost in the style of miniature, in order that Scarsellino, iii 
these ornaments of the cabinets, should not excite greater 
admiration than himself. Difierent collections, and particularly 
that of the noble Bevilacqua, possess fine specimens of him ; 
in public is his Martyrdom of St. Catherine, in that church, a 
real treasure, much sought for by foreigners, who have 
frequently ofiered for it large sums without success. 

No disciple of Bonone's school acquired much celebrity, 
and, least of any, Lionello, nephew to Carlo, and his heir. 
He was indebted to his uncle for his knowledge of the art, 
but could never be induced to practise it with diligence. 
What he has left was either executed with Carlo's assistance, 
and from his designs, or is of very middling merit. Others^ 
who had successfully attained the manner of this master, died 
young, as Gio* Batista della Torre, bom at Rovigo, and 
Camillo Berlinghieri, both artists of genius, and highly 
estimated in collections. Some early pieces of great promise 
adorn the church of S. Niccolo, where the former painted the 
vaulted ceiling, but on some defect in the work being pointed 
out by the master, he refused to complete it, and setting out 
in anger for Venice he there took up his residence, and 
shortly came to an untimely end. By the second was painted 
the picture of the Manna, at S. Niccolo, besides several 
others throughout the city, and a few also at Venice, where 
he obtained the name of the Ferraresino, and where he died 
before completing his fortieth year. 

The highest reputation was obtained by Alfonso Rivarola, 
likewise called, from some property left to him, II Chenda. 
On his master's death he was proposed, as the most familiar 
with his style, by Guide Reni, to complete an unfinished work 
of Bonone. At S. Maria in Vado is the Marriage of the 
Virgin, sketched by Bonone, and which Chenda painted, 
Lionello having declined to venture upon such a task. This 
{)icture has a powerful rival in one of Bonone's, placed 
opposite to it, though it still displays a hand not unworthy of 



218 FERRA11H0B SCHOOL.— BPOCH III. 

following that of Bonone. His fellow-citizens entertained 
the same ofnnion of his other early efforts, snch as ihe 
Baptism of the Saint, exhibited in a temple of noble arohi- 
tectnre at S. Agostino, in a style of foreshortening that 
displays a master. His Fables, too, from Gnarini and Tasso, 
conducted in the Villa Trotti, as well as the pictures yet 
belonging to the same nobles, and to different honsee in the 
city, are held in esteem. But he executed little for churches 
and collections, aiming more at popular admiration, which he 
obtained by exercising at once the office of architect and of 
painter at pubEc feBtiTa]s,and in particular at tournaments, thea 
so Tery prevalent in Italy. One of these, which he conducted 
at Bologna, laid the foundation of his early decease. Either 
he met with littie aj^kuse, and took it to heart, or, according 
to others, had sudi success as to lead to his being earned off 
by p<»son. Thus, in few years, Caiio Bonone's school 
approached its dose, not without learing, howerer, numerous 
works which, owing to tiieir uniform style, axe now attributed 
generally to the school, not in particular to any artist. 

I reserved ior the series of the Garacci the name of 
Francesco Naselli, a Ferrarese noble, though stated by some 
to have been initiated in the art by Bastarnolo. This, 
however, is uncertain; it is only known that he designed 
from the naked model with assiduity in an academy (^>ened in 
conjunction with his efforts, at Ferrara ; and thai going 
thence to Bologna, he took copies of various works by thd 
Caracci and by their dismples. In the churches of his native 
pltK^, and in private cabinets, numerous proofs of these 
studies are met with, the most laborious of whidi are two 
miracles of St. Benedict, copied in the cloister of S. Michele 
in Bosco, and now placed at S. Giorgio of the Olivetani in 
Ferrara. Of these, one is borrowed from Lodovico, the other 
from Guide ; but preferred to both is his Conununion of 
S. Girolamo, which decorates the Oertosa, a copy from the 
original by Agostino. Guerdno also was one of his 
favourites ; of his he copied every thing he could meet with, 
having selected him, after the Caracci, for bis first guide. 
By such practice Francesco suoceeded in designing and 
painting with good success in his own manner, on a large 
scale, animated, soft, with rapid execution and strong union 



ORA2ZIKI AKD CALSm. 21 d 

of colours, incliiiiiig in tfaoae of bis fiesl^s to a aun-bnmt hue^ 
Of his own design is the S. Francesca Romana at the 
Oliretaoi, the Assumption at S. Francesco, sereral Suppers, 
abounding in figures, belonging to private institutions, fire of 
which are in the Cistercian monastery. He likewise painted 
at the Scala in competition with one of the Oaracci, with 
Bonone, and with Scarsellino. Nor was he judged miworthy 
of them ; and at the sale of those valuable paintings for the 
relief of the Hospital in 1772, conaideraUe prices were 
offered for his produotions» Although noble^ and in easy 
circumstances, he never ceased to persevere, and it would 
appear that he was deaarious of promoting the success of one 
of his domestics in the same art. Crespi declares that he had 
read a statement, showing Alessandio Naselli to be the son of 
Francesco, but, aooording to historians, he was an artist of 
mediocrity, the omission of whose works will scarcely be any 
loss to my readers. 

It is here necessaty to interrupt for a moment our series of 
the Caracci's disciples, to make mention of two geninses, who 
also became painters, like Naselli, but in the Venetian taste. 
Gio. Paolo Grazzini, one of Booone's best friends, professed 
the ffoldsmith's art, and it was owing only to his bias for 
paintmg, imbibed from Bonone and other contemporaries, that 
he acquired its principles in &miliar conversation. £ager to 
put them to the test, he commenced his altar-piece of S. Elgio, 
for the Goldsmith's schooL It occupied him ei^t years in 
its completion, but it was executed in such a masterly st}de as 
alone to decide his excellence, approaching quite as nearly as 
any to the manner of Pordenone. Being then about fifty 
years of age, it excited the utmost surprise throughout Ferrara, 
yet he still persevered and conducted some minor pieces, which 
decorate private buildings^ in the same tafite. So rare an 
example, or rather one so whoUy novel, appeared to me well 
w<Mrth historical mention. Somewhat at a later period Giu- 
seppe Oaletti, called il Cremonese, came into notice. He 
acquired the art rather from the mod^ of the Dossi, and of 
Titian, than from masters, imitating not only their manner of 
design, but their colouring, which is do difficult. He contrived 
also to imitate that antique tone which time gives to paintings, 
and thus adds to their harmony. He painted a ^od deal for 



220 FERRARESE BGBOOL.— EPOCH III. 

colleetions, such as luJf-Iength figures, baocbanals, and smafl 
histories. Bamflaldi recognised several in some noble galle- 
ries at Bologna, and has been compelled to argue the point 
with judges, who maintidned that they were Titian's. He 
fEurther relates, that an excellent pupil of Pietro da Oortona 
purchased a great number, at a high price, at Ferrara, being 
confident of reselling them at Rome for Titian's, or at least 
for works of his school. In Ferrara, which is filled with his 
pictures, it is difficult to succeed in these impostures. He is 
there distinguished by fleshes of a sun-burnt hue, by certain 
bold lights, strengthened by contrast with somewhat loaded 
shadows, by the fleeciness of his clouds, and by other careless 
and ill-conducted accessories. Often too the extrayagance of 
the composition betrays the real author, when, for instance, in 
a bacchanal, much resembling Titian, there is inserted a 
chase, or some modem sport, which is like representing wild 
boars in the sea, or dolphins in the woods. In a similar 
manner are his other fine qualities impaired for want of judg- 
ment, without which no artist is well calculated for the deco- 
ration of churches. In that of S. Benedict, however, his four 
Holy Doctors, on an altar, are seen to advantage ; and upon 
another his admirable St. Mark, a grand and correct figure, 
full of expression, and very picturesquely surrounded by 
abundance of volumes, in whose drawing he is so true and 
natural, as to have been called the painter of books. Having 
completed this work, il Cremonese disappeared out of the city, 
nor were fiurther tidings heard of him, although some writers 
conjecture that he died about 1660. 

Returning to the disciples of the Bolognese, the first 
deserving of mention here is Costanzo Cattanio, a pupil of 
Guide. His portrait, both on canvas and in prints, I have 
seen, and it has always a threatening kind of expression. 
That martial, or bravo character, affected by so many artists 
about the times of Caravaggio, also nusled this excellent 
genius from the right career. At times Costanzo was an 
exile, now at open defiance, and now wholly occupied in 
shielding his protectors, who never ventured out unanned, 
&om dread of their rivals, and to whom he pledged himself 
that they should not be assassinated in his presence. When 
he applied himself to his art his peculiar disposition appeared 



COSTANZO CATTANIO. 221 

stamped on the expression of his figures. The characters 
whom he was most fond of introducing into his histories were 
soldiers and bullies, whose fierce aspects seemed but ill-adapted 
to the soft style of his master. These, and many other ideas, 
he borrowed from the prints of Durer, and Luca of Holland, 
which he reduced to his own diligent and studied manner, 
particularly in his heads and his steel armours. Although 
attached to strong expression, and borrowing something from 
the other schools of Italy which he saw, he nevertheless at 
times betrays sure traces of Guide's school. Thus, in his 
S. Antonio, painted for the parish church of Corlo, and in our 
Lord's Supper, which he placed in the refectory of S. Silvestro, 
and in every other instance when he aimed at Guidesqne, 
he succeeded to admiration. 

Another Ferrarese, Antonio Buonfiuiti, called il Torricella, 
is said to have sprung from the school of Guide, though 
Barufialdi is silent on this point. Two large scripture his- 
tories by him are at S. Francesco ; but there are lew other 
paintings or accounts of him at Ferrara; and he seems to 
have taken up his residence elsewhere. It is certain that the 
young artists who succeed this period are all ascribed to the 
school of Cattanio. Such are Francesco Fantozzi, called 
Parma, Carlo Borsati, Alessandro Naselli, Camillo Setti, 
artists who* scarcely awaken the curiosity of their countrymen. 
Giuseppe Avanzi is more known by his very numerous works, 
for the most part confused, and painted aimost at a sitting. 
He is described more like an artisan bent on earning good 
wages by his day's labour. His picture of St John beheaded, 
bowever, at the Certosa, is extremely Gnercinesque ; and 
some others on canvas and on copper, which he retouched and 
studied a good deal, do him great credit 

But Cattanio's chief praise consists in his education of Gio. 
Bonatti, and in his recommendation of him to Card. Pio, who 
greatly assisted him, by placing him first at Bologna under 
Guercino, afterwards under Mola at Rome. He long supported 
him also at Venice, studying the heads of that school ; besides 
defraying his pictoric tours through Lombardy, and giving him 
the custody of his paintings at court. In fact, he bestowed 
upon him such &.vours that the public, considering him as the 
dependant of that prince, always termed him Giovannino del 



228 FERBABB8S 0CBOOI<.-«HSPOCID III. 

Pio, At Eome he was esteemed amxmg the best of his age; 
sdeofe, diligent, learned in the different styles of Italian eehook ; 
the yievr of which, daring his pieturesqne tour, he dedaired 
Tfras highly adrantageoas to him. ' And trtie it is that the 
painter, like the writer, is fonned by the study of great models ; 
but the one may behold them all collected in the same librazy, 
while the other has to seek them in different cities, and ia 
erery city to study them at diffi9rent places. At Borne his only 
pulS, w^xka are^a picture at the chLh deU' Aaima, a hbtoxj 
of 6. Carlo at the Yallicella, and aa altar-piece of S. Bernardo^ 
at the Cisterci^isi, highly commended in the Guide of Borne. 
The rest of his works, and they are bat few, belong to priyate 
persons; his health declining at the age of thirty-fiye, he 
lingered eleven years afterwards, and died at Bome. 

Lanfranco likewise supplied a pupd to this school, called by 
Passeri, Antonio Bichieri, a Ferrarese. He followed his 
master to Naples and Bome, where he painted at the Teatini 
after the designs of Lanfranco ><-4he sole information I have 
been enabled to collect respeetisg his paintjags. I am well 
aware that he deroted himself to engraying, as we learn also 
&om Passeri, and that at Naples he engrayed an altar-piece 
by his master, whidi was rejected by the pefvon who gaye the 
coBunissioa for it There is more kiiown of Clemente Maiol% 
whom the Ferrarese assert to be their fdlew-citi^ea a»d pnpil 
to Cortona. He conducted many works at Ferrara; one of 
S. Nicola suf^rted by m angd, in the church of S* Giuseppe* 
He is moreoyer mentioned as a fine popil of Pietni^ in the 
TSotiae of M. Alboddo, fer woiks there exiont Titi giyes 
account of oth^v left in Borne at the BotoiMla and in other 
temples ; but he differs reqMcting his maetar, decladng that 
he was instructed by BemaneUL 

Heacwhile Cignani's academy rose into notice, owing to its 
master's reputation, aad among those who r^aired thither from 
Feirara were MamreUo Scannavini imd Giaccmo PaiolinL 
Maurelio must be included acoong the few whose object was 
to emulate their master in that scrupulous ezaDtnesa» which we 
noticed in lia place. He was naturally slow, nor could he 
pieyail on himself t» dei^tch bis work from the studio until 
ha b^eld it already complete in all its points. Though im- 
pdled by domestic penury to greater ha^te^ he yaried not hi^i 



method ; and, free from envy, bekeld the rapidity of Ayanci^ 
who abounded with commisdons and money, whilst he and his 
&mily were destitute. The noble boose of BoTilaoqna assisted 
him much ; and it redonnds to its honour, that on remunerating 
him for some figures in an apartment where Aldrovandini had 
oonducted the architecture, a very large sum was added to the 
price agreed upon. He produced few other pieces in fresco ; 
a process that requires artists of more rapid himd. He painted 
more in oil ; among the most esteemed of which is his S. Tom- 
maso di Yillanova, at the Agostiniani ScaLn ; and at the 
church of the Moriara his St Bridget in a swoon, supported 
by angels. The families of Bevilaequa^ Calcagnini, Eondi- 
nelli, and Trotti^ possess some of his pictures for private 
ormiment ; among which ajra portraits that display Maurelio's 
singular taJent in this branch; and histories of half-length 
figures in the manner of Gignani. They exhibit gracefuln^s, 
union of eolouring, and strength of tints, which leave him 
nothing to envy in the artists by whom he is surrounded, 
except their fortune. 

Giacomo Parolini, pupil to the Cav. Penizzini in Turin, 
afterwards to Cignani at Bologna, was present at Maurelio's 
decease^ and completed a few works left imperfect, out of 
regard to his friend, and for the relief of his orphan family. 
He did not possess that true finish peculiar to the followers of 
Cfgnani; though he still maintained the reputation of his 
second sdbool, by the elegance of his design, the propriety 
and copiousness of his compcMutioo, and his vexy attractive 
colouring, partaeularly in the AosIhss. Aware of his own 
power in this difficult part of painting, he is fond of in- 
tiodncing into his pieces the naked figure, more especially 
of boys, from the proportions of which judges are enabled 
to reoognise their author. His baodianals, his Albanesque 
eaontry^HlaneeB, his oaprieei, are all of such frequent occur- 
rence at Ferraia, as to render it more eaay to enumerate 
the eolleetious in want of tiiem, than those where they 
«e. Fo»igne» also po«e« qp^imens ; and there Je 
engravings in aquaiorte by the designers own hand. His 
picture of the Ciatura, representing the Virgin among various 
saints, nearly all of the order of St. Augustiue, a piece en- 
gmved by Andrea Bolzoni, is held in much esteem. Nor are 



224 FBRRARBSE SCHOOL.— EPOCH lU. 

the three altar-pieoes in the cathedral unworthy of notice ; and 
in particular the entablature of S. Sebastiano at Yerona, which, 
greatly raised his reputation, representing the saint in the act 
of mounting into glory, amidst groups of angels ; a beautiful 
and well executed work. Parolini is the last among th& 
figurists whose life was written at length by Bamffaldi ; the 
last, also^ on whose tomb was inscribed the eulogy of a good 
painter. With him was buried for a season the reputation of 
Ferrarese painting in Italy. 

The author of the ^^ Catalogue," in the fourth volume has 
collected the names and drawn up the lires of certain other 
painters, Interspersing several episodes. Concerning these 
figurists, little else is related than mere failures and misfortunes. 
For instance, Gio. Francesco Braccioli, pupil to Crespi, 
though promising well in some of his works for galleries, 
subsequently fell into infirmity of mind ; one lost his taste for 
the profession ; another cultivated the art with remissness, or 
only as a dilettante; a third produced some tolerable efibrts, but 
was mostly extravagant ; one had genius and died early ; 
another long life without a spark of talent. Meanwhile this 
dearth of native artists was for some years supplied by Gio. 
Batista Cozza, from the Milanese ; a painter of a copious, 
easy, and regulated style. Not that he was invariably 
correct, though very popular, and when he pleased satisfying 
even judges of the art; as in that picture representing 
difierent SS. Serviti, in the church called di C^ Bianca. 

After him appeared the modem artists, who now enjoy 
deserved reputation in the academy of Ferrara, which, owing 
to the particular patronage of his eminence Card. Riminaldi, 
has recently risen into distinguished notice. With the name 
of this noble citizen and of the professors whom he himself 
selected and promoted, future writers will doubtless commence 
a fourth epoch of painting. By him the academy waa 
supplied with laws, and took its established form. To his 
care and munificence several young artists were indebted for 
their residence at Rome, and all the rest for the benefit of a 
well regulated institution at Ferrara. He also did much for 
the cause of letters in the university. But this is not the 
place to give an account of it ; and his merits, commended as 
they are to posterity in numerous books and monuments, and 



FRANCESCO AND ANTONFELICE FERRARI. 225 

impressed on the hearts of his grateful fellow citizens, are not 
likely soon to fall into oblivion. 

It remains to speak of other kinds of painting, and it will 
be best to commence with perspective. After this art had 
assumed a new aspect at Bologna, and spread through Italy, 
as already stated, it was introduced by Francesco Feriuri, 
born near Rovigo, into Ferrara. He had been instructed in 
figure painting by a Frenchman, and afterwards became 
professor of architectural and ornamental painting under 
€h.briel Rossi, the Bolognese, of whose name, to say nothing 
of his style, I find no traces left at Bologna. To those who 
had the means of comparing the manners of these two artists, 
it appeared that Francesco did not equal him in the dignity 
of his architecture, but surpassed him in strength and 
duralnlity of colouring, and in that relief so attractive 
in these performances. Moreover, he had a considerable 
advantage over his master, in his knowledge of appropriately 
painting histories. The Dispute of S. Cirillo is still to be 
seen, and the Rain granted to the prayer of Elias (in the 
church of S. Paolo), — ^pictures, observes Baruffaldi, which 
rivet the eye. Other proofs of his genius for history-pieces 
are met with at the Carmine and at S. Giorgio, but still they 
yield to his architectural labours, which may be said to have 
formed his trade. He worked also for theatres, and in 
different Italian cities, and in the service of Leopold I. at 
Vienna. Being constrained to leave Germany on account of 
his health, he returned to Ferrara^ and there opened school. 

Among his pupils were Momassi, Gras«deoni, Paggi, 
Raffanelli, Giacomo Filippi, and one who surpassed all the 
rest, Antonfelice Ferrari, his son. This artist did not 
attempt figures, but confined himself to architecture, in which 
he added to the somewhat minute style of his father a 
magnificence well adapted to attract the public eye. He was 
employed with success in the Oalcagnini palace, m that of the 
Sacrati, Fieschi, and in other private and public places in 
Ferrara, as well as at Venice, Ravenna, and elsewhere. 
Suffering much, however, in health by painting in fresco, and 
on this account being reduced to live with less comfort, he 
conceived such aversion for the art, that on making his will he 
enjoined that his son was to forfeit his inheritance if he ever 

TOL. III. a 



229 FSRRABE8E SCHOOL.— 4BP0CH IIS* 

became a h^eeo fainter. Sosae of his piq)2ls there£oi» 
suooeeded him, among whom Giuseppe Facchiuetti most 
distinguished himself. He painted ai S. Caterina da Siena 
and other places, at once in a delicate and sound style, and iv 
almost reputed the MiteUi of his school. Manrelio Goti o£ 
Ferrara nearly approached his style,, not without marks of 
plagiarism. From the ssaie country and school was Girolamo 
Mengozzi Golonn% who became a long resident at Yenico. 
He accompanied the figures of Zompini with ornamental 
woi^ at the ohu]»h of the Tolentini^ and those of Tiepdb ail 
the ScaUi; and conducted the architecture in the dacal 
palace and elsewhere. Zanetti, in his. Guide^ mentions his 
name as aJbore; but, in his ^^Pittura Yeneziana^" (thirty- 
eight years afterwards) he calls him Coloima Mengozzi, and a 
native of TivolL Guarienti extols him as the first archi- 
tectural aad ornamental paintor of his time. 

The art of landscape-painting, which, after the age o£ the 
Dosfii, had almost fellen into disuse at Ferrara, was revived 
there by some foreigners. Giulio Ayellino» called, from his 
native plaoe^ the Messinese, resided some time in this city<, 
and died tbexe at the beginning of the centoxy. He had been 
pupil to Salvator Rosa, whose style he somAwfaat adftenad,.and 
richly ornamented with views of ruins and architecturev a0 
well as with some small and well composed figuces. The 
^gnori. Cremona and Donati possess select s^ocunens; and 
there is acadwely a coUeotion in Ferrara. or B^mi^na which 
does not value itself on possessing them. After him appeared 
Giuseppe Zola, bom, aoeording to Crespi, at Brescia, a land- 
scape-painteiv of a taste devoted to no sing]a master, bat 
formed upon many. He was exceedingly rich in coneeptioa 
and in expedients : his buildings ace of a rustie hind.; his 
Kiins partake of the modem, and ai;e picturesquely oovered 
with creeping plants and ivy ; the back-grounds of an azure 
hue, aad\ g^eeat variety of objects said figures, in which he 
was less hi^py than in his landscape. His eaziier works are 
held ia most esteem. When he obtained greater commissions, 
he performed them with a more mechanical hand, and,, with 
l^e exception of his colouring, which he always studied, he 
bestowed little care on the rest. Those pictures are in general 
most oomplete, in which he introduced the smallest figures ; 



ANTONIO CONTBX. 227 

«Bd snob may be seen eren ont of priyate honses, in the 
Monte ddUla Pietit, and in the sacristy <^ S. Leonardo. He 
formed several pupils, tbe best of whom was GKrobimo 
Gregori. Instructed as a figurist by ParoHni, and afterwards 
by Gioseffo dal Sole, be &iled for want of perseverance, 
except very rarely, in greater works. Yet be produced many, 
and bis landscapes bave been highly extolled. Xhe same may 
be observed of Avanzi, mentioned by us shortly before ; who, 
in addition to bis very pleasing landscapes on canvas and on 
copper, sarpassed all bis fellow-citizens in the drawing of 
f owers and Iruits. 

An invention, finally deserving of mention, and extremely 
nsefal to painting, was made known during ibis last epoch by 
a Fenareae, and afterwards brought to perfection by others. 
Antonio Gontri, eon of a Ferrarese lawyer, who, for domestic 
reasons, bad long settled at Rome, and next at Paris, feeling 
a natural bias for demgn, practised it in both those cities ; but 
first displayed greater excellence in embroidery than painting. 
Returning into Italy, and establishing himself at Cremona, he 
was instracted in buidscape by Bassi, in which be was accus- 
tomed also to introduce flowers, the branch of painting in 
which be most distinguif&ed himself. He also succeeded well 
in perspectives and in animals. His pictures, and those of 
bis son Francesco, who pursued his style, remain at Cremona, 
Ferrara, and th«r vidnity ; but it was bis new discovery, just 
alluded to, which obtained a more wide drcubttion and repute. 
This is, the method of r^noving from walls to canvas any 
picture without tbe least injury to its design or colouring. 
Various trials of it, during tbe spaee of a year, instructed 
bim how to compose a sort of glue, or bitumen, which he 
spread (yter a canvas of equal sise with the picture he wished 
to transfer to it. Having ap]^ied this to tbe painting, and 
beaten it firm with a mallet, he cut the plaster round it, and 
applied to the canvas a wooden frame well propped, in order 
that tbe work might take bold, and come off equal throughout. 
In a few days he cautiously removed the canvas from the 
wall, which brought wi^ it tbe painting ; and, having ex- 
tended it on a smooth taUe, he applied to the back oi it 
another canvas, varnished with a composition more adhesive 
than the foimer. He tiben placed over the work a quantity 

q2 



228 FEBRARESE SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH in. 

of sand, which shonld eqnallj compress it in all its parts ; 
and, after a week's space, he examined the two pieces of can- 
vas, detached the first by means of warm water, and there 
then remained on the second the whole painting taken from 
the wall. He applied this method in different houses of 
Cremona, for BaraffiJdi in Ferrara, and in Mantna for Prince 
d'ELarmstadt, goyemor of the city; so as to enable him to 
send some heads, or other works of Ginlio Romano, thns re- 
moved from the ducal palace, to the emperor. The secret 
composition of his glue Gontri always concealed ; but similar 
attempts were made about the same period in foreign coun- 
tries. In the journal of Trevonx it is stated that Louis XV. 
caused the celebrated painting of St. Michael, by Itaffii«lio, 
to be removed from its original canvas to a new one, — a pro- 
cess which succeeded admirably, for on this last the chinks 
and creases disappeared which had greatly injured the former.* 
From this account I have been led to doubt whether Gontri 
were really the inventor of this art, as asserted by Ferrarese 
writers. I say only doubted, since I am unable to judge the 
question with precision, for want of ascertaining the exact 
year in which he first api^ed the method with success. What 
is indisputable however is, that he was the first who was in- 
duced to make such trial of it upon painted walls, and that 
the plan which he adopted was only of his own invention. 
But whether he discovered the art, or only the method of 
applying it, at this period his secret, or something equivalent 
to it, is pretty well known in Italy. On passing through 
Imola, I saw, in a private house, two histories of the Life of 
the Virgin, which had been painted by Gesi in the cathedral 
of that city, removed thence, and replaced on large new can- 
vas. Had this invention been elicited a few years previously, 
several of those ancient works might have been preserved, 
mention of which is now only to be met with in books, to th& 
regret of every lover of the fine arts. 

Here too we must ^ve some account of an exceedingly in- 
teresting art, as regards that of painting, — an art which, after 
the lapse of centuries, in some degree re -appeared in Italy, 
owing chiefly to the exertions of an ingenious Spaniard. He- 

* See n Sig. Ab. Requeno, in his " E88a3r8 for the Re-establishment 
of the andemt Art of the Greek and Roman Pfeinters." Ed. Ven. p. 108» 



COUlfT CAYLUS. 22^ 

leaded many years at Ferrary and was asdsted by the artists 
there in his experiments and undertakings. Some years be- 
fore, attempts had been made at Paris to recover the method 
of painting in caustic, or that which the Greeks and Romans 
sncceeded in by the medium of fire.* A few words in 
Yitruyius and Pliny, and these very obscure in our days, and 
to which various meanings are given by critics, formed the 
only chart and compass to direct the inquirer. It was known 
that wax was employed in ancient painting, much the same 
as oil in the modem ; but how to prepare it, to combine it 
with the colours, to use it in a liquid state, and how to apply 
fire to the process until the completion of the work, was the 
secret to be discovered. Count Gaylus, who pursued anti- 
quarian researches less for the sake of history than of the 
arts, was perhaps the principal promoter of so useful an in- 
quiry. The Royal A<»demy of Inscriptions joined him, and 
ofiered a public premium for the discovery of a method of 
painting in caustic, such as should be found worthy of its 
approbation. Many experiments were at this period made ; 
and philology, chemistry, painting, all united in throwing 
light upon the subject. Among various methods proposed by 
three academicians, Caylus, Cochin, and Bachiliere, two of 
them received premiums, though .in some measure the same, 
and both proposed by the last of the three mentioned names. 
The whole account may be read in the Encyclopedia, under 
the head of Bncatutiqtie. Thenceforward native artists did 
not fail to make new trials, and practise themselves in pictures 
air encattsto. One of these, who arrired at Florence in 1780, 
exhibited to me a head, and some portion of the figure, thus 
painted by himself. I likewise saw him so employed. He 
had near him a brazier, on which were placed small pans filled 
with colours, all of a different body, and mixed with wax, 
but with what third ingredient I know not— whether salt of 
tartar, as reconunended in the dissertation remunerated at 
Paris, or some other composition. A second brazier was &xed 
behind the cartoon or panel on which he painted, in order to 
preserve it always warm. The work being finished, he went 
over the whole with a small hair- brush, and gave it a dear 
and vivid glow. 

* See the Encyclopedia, at the art. Encofutique, 



290 FEBRARE9B 6CH0<Hik-^BP0CH III. 

Some there were at that time in Italy who much admired 
ibis art The nnmerous relies of aaoient painting, preserved 
free from the effeeta of time at Nf^les and at JEUffioer may be 
mid to exhibit a manifest trinm|4i OTer modem prodactions, 
which SO mock sooner become a^ed and £Eide away. This it 
was that induced the Ab. Yinoenso Beqneno to publish the 
book shortiy be£»re cited, at Yenice, first in 1784. In him 
were united all the requisite qualities for promoting the new 
disooYerf'^'^^he learning of a man of letters, experience of an 
artist, philosophical reasoning 4uid perseyeriog experiment. 
His work is in eyexy one's lumds, so as to «iaUe them to f<Hin 
an opinion, for this is not the place to enter into a discussion of 
its TEiious merits. It has be^i done by the Car. de Bossi in 
three extracts £rom that work, publiehed in the first volume of 
ibe '^ Memorie delle BeUe Arti," one of the moi^ brief and at 
the same time admired journals in Italy. My sole object is to 
do justice to his nngukr p^ietration and industiy. He gave 
a solution of the difficulty mentioned m theEncyclopedia) and 
discovered a new process. He iriiewed that salt of tartar was 
not made use of by the Grebes to dissohre wax, and adapt it 
to the Inrush, because they were unacquainted with snoh a 
substance ; ^ile his own experience convinced him it was 
useless for the purpose. He knew that the apphcation of fire 
to the back of the painting was not the method adc^ted by the 
Greeks, inasmudi as it was imqpplicaUe to their paintings 
upon huge walls. He tried many experiments, and he at 
length found that the resinous gum, eaUed mastic, would pro- 
duce the efiect which he had vainly sought fmn endt of tartar. 
With the gum and wax he made eraycns, and found various 
ways of combinii^ the colours, so as best to adapt them for 
the use of painting. When the work was finished, he was 
accustomed scunetimes to ^ve it a slight covering of wax, in 
phice of varnish, and sometimes to leave it witl^t ; but in 
everr process which he observed, he perfected the work by the 
apf^cation of fire, or, as be himself observes, by bumiug it. 
lliis he effected by holding a brazier near the front of the pic- 
ture, and lastiy going over the work with a small linen cloth,' 
which clears and enlivens the tints. 

I have seen the first proofs, as made by the Ab. Requeno 
himself, or by artists directed by him, in possession of his> 



Exodlenej P^^nafcelli i4; Bologna, who added to the didcorery 
no fiBtall share df in&nnaitioii and patronage. Birt it was not 
to be expeoied iktA a new kind of painting could he perfected 
hy wumna o£« nngie atadio. Aware of diis, the AHtiior of the 
work thus «xpie«e8 kimBelf : ^' At tke moBMnt when a reeii^ 
nous gum shaU be Ibond better, lHuit is, move white and hard, 
tban those mapkojed, by me, and eqnally «^uble wifk wax and 
water, the pietiums aod «aast«» wiU beeome more beanttfio!, 
oonfflBtent, and dnzabie. 1 am not a paifiter by profession, 
aor do I merit any partkralar connaendalaon among liilettanti. 
My pactnses have been ooodaeted solely for the psrpose of 
ahewing a asettiod of pakticg wi& ease and oe n s i srtettcy in 
wax, without oii, without |^e, and by means of gtm^s only, 
with wax and water." On this account he thenceforward 
invited professors to join in promoting his discovery, and 
lived to witness its effects. 

Omitting to speak of the chemists who aided in throwing 
light upon the progress of this art,* the pictoric school at 
Rome nndertook in a manner to promote and bring it to 
its last degree of perfection. At that period lived counsellor 
!Renfesthein, the friend of Mengs and of Winckelman, a man 
of exquisite taste in the arts of design, and ever surrounded 
by numbers of artists, who either received from him the 
benefit of his advice, or commissions from foreigners, private 
persons, and sovereigns. To these he proposed sometimes one, 
sometimes another method of the caustic art ; and in a short 
time he beheld his cabinet filled with pictures on canvas, 
on wood, and on cQfferent kinds of stones, which he had 
already submitted to every proof^ by putting them under 
ground, in water, and exposing them to every variety 
of weather without injury. From this time the new 
discovery spread to different studii, and was communicated 

* See the " Discorso della Cera Punica/' by the Cav. Lorgna, Verona, 
1785. Also '* Osaervazioni intomo alia Cera Panica/' by Count Liiigi 
Torri, Verona, 1785. In the work of Federici is an account of another 
little production by Gio. Maria Astorri of Treriso, edited in Venice, 1786, 
in which Spanish honey is much praised for the purpose of preparing and 
whitening the wax ; and being a painter he relates several experiments he 
made widi this and other meSiods, which succeeded well. Gio. Fabroni, 
keeper of the royal cabinet at Florence, likewise wrote concerning it. 
See the Roman Anthology for the year 1797. 



232 FERBABBBE SCHOOL. — BPOCH HI. 

saooeBsivelj to the Italian dtieB, and to foreigD nations. 
Entire chambers have thus been painted by caustic, a 
specimen of which is seen in that whidi the Aiehdoke 
Ferdinand, governor of Hihui, cansed to be thns deooiated in 
liis Till. Of Mono. And in oniamental puntiDg. and 
landscape this art may hitherto boost still more attnustions 
than in figures. All, however, mnst be aware that it has not 
jet attained that degree of softness and finish possessed far 
the ancients in thdr paintings in wax, and in oil and varnish 
by the modems. But where many unite to perfect it, it may 
be hoped that some Tan Eyck may rise up, who will succeed 
in discovering, or more properly in perfecting that which ^^all 
artists had long looked for and ardently desured."* 



8dd 



BOOK V. 

GENOESE SCHOOL. 

EPOCH I. 

The Ancients. 

Last among the ancient schools of Italy is to be enumerated 
the Genoese, in regard to the period in which it flourished, 
not to its merit) which I consider as being equal to that of 
many others. In Liguria the first revival of painting appeared 
tardy ; not so its progress, which was rapid and distinguished. 
In Genoa and Savona, as well as in oUier cities situated on 
the sea-shore, there remain some ancient paintings by unknown 
hands, one of which, oyer the gate of Sarona^ is distinguished 
by the date of 1101. The first artist known by any extant 
production, is one Fronciscus de Oberto, as he signs himself 
on the edge of a painting of the Virgin between two angels, 
which is in the church of S. Domenico, at Genoa, displaying 
nothing of the Oiottesque, and executed in 1368. It cannot be 
ascertained that he was altogether a native artist, as may be 
confidently asserted of the Monk of leres, and of Niccolo da 
Yoltri, names known to history though not by any surviving 
works. The Monk of the Isole d'Oro, or of feres, or Stecadi, 
where he long resided, was not pointed out to us by name by 
any ancient writer. His surname was Cybo, and historians 
place him in the genealogical tree of Innocent YIII. Besides 
l)eing a good Proven9al poet and historian, it is said that he 
became a miniaturist, and, on this account, a favourite with 
the king and queen of Aragon, to whom he presented several 
of his Qluminated books. He also delighted in representing 
in his paintings birds, fish, quadrupeds, trees with £ruits, ships 
of various forms, perspectives of cities and edifices— objects, in 
short, which he beheld in the islands around him. It is con- 
jectured by Baldinucd that Giotto's models, in an age 



234 GENOESE SCHOOL. — EPOCH Z. 

tlironged with miniaturiBis, and not wanting in painters, had 
influenced the efforts of this isolated artist. How this asser- 
tion can be confirmed I know not, the more so as history 
describes him as having devoted himself late in life to design, 
and in the island of Lerino, where it is not known there were 
any followers of Oiotto. Yokri was also a figure painter ; 
some of his altar-pieces survived to the time of Soprani, who 
extols them, without, however, pointing out with precision the 
peculiarities of his taste or schooL 

During the fifteenth century, and part of the following, the 
capital city, and those dopsoding on it, were supplied, for the 
most part, with foreign painters, almost all unbiown to their 
natiTe sdbools on aeoeunt of tlieir having, as it appears, 
resided in liguria. Bome account remains of a German 
called GKusto di Alemagna, in a cloister of S. Maiia di Gas- 
tdio, at Genoa. He tibere painted in &osoo an Annunctatioii 
in 1451, a precious picture of its sort, finulied in the manner 
of miniatunsta, and whidi seems to promise &r Germany €ke 
style of an Albert Dicrer. At the sune pmod Jacopo 
Marone, of Aiessandna, painted an altar-j^ece at S. J[aoopo in 
Savona, in distemper, consbisig of Tarions compartments, and 
in the midst of it a Nativity witli a lamlscape, a work con- 
ducted wit^ ezqnifiite eaie in every part. At S. Brigida, in 
G^noa, too, are seen, by the sune naod, two idtur-pieees, one 
with the ^te of 1481, the other of 14B4. The author was 
one Galeotto Nebea, of Oasteflaccio, a plaoe not &r from 
Alessandria. Hie three principal Archangels in the first, and 
8. Pantaleooe wtth other martyrs in the second, are i^re- 
sented <m a gdki ground, very tolerably executed, both in 
forms and draperies, whicb are extremdy rich, with stiff and 
regular foldings, not borrowed from any other school. It 
eidiibits aiso the grade or stq>, wirtii minute histories, a woi^ 
somewhat crude, but displaying dBigenoe. 

Turning from the hotd eity to Savona, a l^ird native of 
Alessandria, eaUed Gio. Massoae, painted al>out Hie year 
1490, in the church erected by Sixtus lY. for the sepulture of 
Ms fiunily. Although not mentioned in histoiy, he must have 
been ^Ustingnished in his time, to have been selected for such 
a work, and remunerated with one hundred and ninety-two 
ducats for his labour. It is comprised in a small altar-piece, 



L01>0TX00 BREA. 295 

wbere, seen at the feet of the Virgin, are the pertiiita of the 
pope, and the cardinal Giidiano, hlB nephew, afterwards 
Jnlius II. The same city, presendng somanyanoieat memo- 
rials, has also snatched irom ol^rion the nameB of one Tnodo 
di Andria, an artist employed »t B. Jaeopo in 1487, and of 
two natives of Pkyia, who, eomeiHiat later periuips, painted on 
canvas, and signed themsdves, the one Lamreniiui PmpiemUj 
the other Donatus Cumea Bardtu Papi&n»U, Another 
foreigner, by birth a Brescian, aad a Oarmelite by profession, 
presents tis with a signatuie, to be Irand at S. Giovanni, 
below an altar-piece of the Nativity of oar Saviour. It has 
written on it, ^Opns F. Hier<»iymi de Brixia Carmelite, 
1519." By the same hand, in the doister of tlie Oarmelitani 
at Ilorence^ is a Pietcl with this kumipticm, ^^ F. Hieroaymus 
de Brixia." This artist is well deserving of notiee, if only on 
account of his knowledge in pen^pective^ an «rt so mndi cul- 
tivated after Foppa in Brescia^ and throughout Lomburdy. 
Doubtless he was a pupil of that UMmastety, in which tibe art 
of painting was then cultivated ; as it is stated by Averoldi, 
who extols one F. Gio. Maria da Brescia, and the cloister of 
the Carmine, decorated by him with a aumber of histmes of 
Elias and of Efiseas. lliis Gi]x4amo I believe to have been 
his compamon or disdi^, a name that has in some way escaped 
Orlandi, who belonged to the same order. 

No one of the foreign painters is known to have opoied 
school in Liguria^ except a native of NisHs who, throng his 
succession, is ahnost regarded as tlie progenitor of the ancient 
Genoese schod. He is called Lodovico Bvea, and his works 
are by no meant raie at Genoa and throughout the state^ with 
notices of him between the years 1485 and 151d« In point of 
taste he is not equal to the best among his covtempoiaries in 
other schools, employing gilding, and more strong^ adhering 
to the old diyness of dcAgn. His style, nevertheless^ yields to 
that of few m the beauty of its heads, and in the vividness of 
its colouring, which stiU remains almost vnimpaited. H» 
folding is also good, his compoeition toleraUe ; he selects difi- 
cult perspectives, and his attitudes aie bold. From his whole 
painting he might be rather pronounoed the head of a new, 
than the follower of any other school. He never attempted 
grand proportions ; in smaller, as we see in the Slaughter of 



236 GENOESE SCHOOLi-HBFOCH I. 

the Innocents, at S. Agostino, he is excellent. His S. Gio- 
vanni, in the chapel of the Madonna di Savona, executed by 
commission for the Card, della Roveie^ in competition with 
other artists, is highly praised. 

Thus, until the year 1513, painting in C^noa was in the 
hands of strangers, and if the natives at all practised it, they 
were few only, as we shall shortly shew, while both one and 
the other were fax behind the best methods of their age. 
Ottaviano Fregoso, elected doge in the above year, at length 
shed new lustre on the arts. He invited to Genoa, Gio. Gia- 
como Lombardo, a sculptor, and Carlo del Mantegna, a painter 
who succeeded, as we have stated, both to the works and 
reputation of his master. Carlo not only painted in Genoa, 
but taught, and with a success that would seem quite incre- 
dible, were it not that the works of his imitators are still in 
existence. Thus the Genoese school first took its rise from 
Brea, and was promoted by Carlo, as we find it described by 
two painters in two volumes, — a school of a long, uninter- 
rupted, and illustrious succession. The first volume is by 
Bafiael Soprani, a patrician of the city, who wrote lives of the 
Genoese professors of design up to 1667; and added also 
notices of foreign ones who had been employed in that splendid 
capital. The second is by the Cav. Carlo Batti, secretary to 
the Ligustic academy, who, after having republished the 
Lives of Soprani, accompanied by useful notes, continued the 
same work in another volume and on the same plan, down to 
the present day. He has moreover published, in two volumes, 
a Guide, intended to give an account of the best specimens of 
art, both in private and public, which Genoa and every district 
of the state can boast, — an extremely useful undertaking, and, 
if I mistake not, without example either in or beyond Italy. 
Thus, owing to the exertions of this deserving citizen, the 
pictoric history of Liguria has become one of the most com- 
plete among those of all Italy as respects the number of its 
artists, and the most certain in enabHng us to form a correct 
opinion of their merits. Directed by these, and by other 
additional information received on the spot from Sig. Batti 
himself, as well as from others, I proceed to resume the thread 
of my narrative. 

About the period that Carlo arrived at Genoa, the same 



Ain'ONIO 8EMINI AND TERAMO PIAOOIA. 237 

citv was also so fortunate as to become the residence of Pier 
Francesco Saccbi, commended by Lomazzo, who calls him 
Pierfrancesco Pavese, an artist well skilled in the style then 
prevailing at Milan. He was a good perspective painter, 
delightful in landscape, and a diligent, correct designer. The 
public is still in possession of his altar-piece of the Four 
Holy Doctors in the oratory of S. Ugo. The style of Sacchi 
nearly resembles that of Carlo del Mantegna, from what we 
gather from his works in Mantua, there remaining no vestiges 
of them in Genoa. Two youths of very fine genius for the 
art were at this period instructed in the school of Lodovico 
Brea. One was named Antonio Semini, the other Teramo 
Piaggia, or Teramo di Zoagli, the place of his birth. There 
is no account of their being indebted either to the advice or 
examples of the new masters, when they began to be employed 
for the public, but their altar-pieces display the fact. They 
painted conjointly, and affixed both their names to their pro- 
ductions. In that of the Martyrdom of St. Andrew, which 
they conducted for the church of that name, they likewise 
added their own portraits. None can have witnessed this very 
beautiful altar-piece, without seeing traces of Brea's style 
already enlarged and changed into one more modem. The 
figures are not of those dimensions which we subsequently 
see in abetter age, nor is the design sufficiently soft and full ; 
but there is clearness in the countenances that rivets attention, 
an union of colouring that attracts : the folding is easy, the 
composition somewhat thronged, though not by any means 
despicable. Few originators of the style which is now termed 
modem antique, can be fairly preferred before these two artists 
and friends. Teramo in his individual specimens at Chiavari, 
and at Genoa itself, retains somewhat more of the antique, 
particularly as regards composition, but is always animated in 
his countenances, studied and graceful. Antonio appears to 
me almost like the Pietro Pemgino of his school. In his 
Deposition from the Cross he approaches nearer the better age, 
(a painting in possession of the Dominicans at Genoa), as well 
as in some other pieces highly commended for the figures, 
and the accessories of perspective and landscape, though his 
great merit does not appear most conspicuous here. For this 
we should consult his Nativity, painted for 8. Domenico in 



238 OBNOBSB SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH Z. 

SftTona, and we sball be conrinoed that he also emulated 
Perino and Baffadlo himself. , 

Before proceeding to an improved epooh, we ought here to 
insert the names of a few other native artists to whom we 
have already alluded. It is doubtful whether Aurelio Bobertelli 
ranks in this list, by whom, at Savona, is a figure of the 
Virgin painted on a ccdvmn of the old oathedral, dated 1499, 
and transferred to the new one, where it excites the particular 
Tmeration of the people. A little subsequent appeared a 
painting by Nicoolo Corso, at Genoa, bearing the date of 1 503. 
It represents a history of St. Benedict, painted in ireseo for 
tibe idlla of Quarto belonging to the Padri Olivetani, in whose 
refectory, cloister, and ^urch near the Corso, he was much 
employed. Soprani enumerates other histories, of which he 
extols the richness of invention, the passimiate expression, 
and especially the vividness and durability of the colouring. 
He adds that, were he less hard, he might rank amcmg i£e 
very first of his profession. The same writer commends 
Andrea Morinello for aa altar-pieee formerly seen at S. Mar* 
^no di Albaro, dated 1516, — an artist very grae^ul in his 
countenances, excellent in portrait, soft and dear in his out- 
lines, and one of the first m those parts who opened the way 
for the modem manner. He likewise praises F. Lorense 
Moreno, a Carmelite, skilled in fresco, who painted the Annun- 
ciation in a doister of the Carmine, now cut out of the 
exterior wall of the building in order to preserve it. Finally, 
he extols an ecdesiastie of the Franciscan order, by name 
F. Simon da Camuli, who, in his chureh at Yoltri, painted 
two histories in one large altar-piece in 1519. One of these 
represents the Instttotion of lite Eudbarist, the other the 
preaching of St. Antony. Still it is not free firom the hardness 
peculiar to the age as regards the figures ; but in the archa* 
tecture of the edifices, and in the gradual receding of the per^ 
spective, it is so perfect that the celebrated Andrea Doria was 
eager at any prioe to purchase it, in order to present it as a 
gift to the EscuriaL But the people of Yoltri refused every 
ofier, and still keep possession of it. A few others, who 
enjoyed a degree of reputation from their sons, will be men« 
tioned along with them in the ^K>ch of which we shall next 
proceed to treat 



239 



GENOESE SCHOOL. 

EPOCH II. 

PiBrmo and kis Foilowers. 

WHiiiaT the aart was sbdranciiig in Genoa and ber territories^ 
diefe oGCuned tlie celelHnutod a»ge of Rome, and the calamities 
wkich aceompanied and fbU&wed it, in consequence of which 
the schohins of Baiaello were dispersed, and established 
Ihenfiselres some in one eity and some in anoth^. We have 
aeen in the eonrse of this woi^ Polidoro and Salerno in 
Naples, Gittlio in Mantua^ PeUegrino in Modena^ and 
Ckuideniio in Milan, distingmsh themselves as the masters of 
eminent schook ; and we find one school founded by Perino 
del Vaga m Genoa, which has maintained the splendour of its 
origin in a waj inferior to none. Perino arriyed in Genoa 
in a state of distress in 1528, after the sacking of Rome. 
£te was tiiere liberally weleomed by Prinee Dona, who 
employed him Sar several years in the decoration of his 
magnificent palace without the gate of S. Tommaso. He 
8iq9erintended tts well the external decorations of the 
flendptnzes, as tbe internal oniaments of the stuccos, the 
gilding, the arabesques, the paintings in fresco and in oiL 
This i^aee, in consequence, breathes all the taste of the halls 
and loggie of the Vatican ; the celebrated works of which, at 
that time, attracted universal admiration, and in the execution 
of part of which Perino had a considerable share. This 
afftist has indeed nowhere displayed his talents to such 
advantage as in the Doria palace ; and it is doubtful wheUier 
Perino in Genoa, or GinHo in Mantua, have best sustained 
the style oi RafEaello. We find in the palace some small 
kislQiies of celebrated Romans^ of Coclesy for example, and 
Se8BV(^ which might pese for compositions of Rafiaello ; 
a group of Boys at Play, likewise, has all the air of that 
master ; and on a ceiling, in the War of the Giants against 



240 GENOESE SCHOOXi. — ^EPOOH II. 

tlie Gods, we seem to behold in conflict the same persons 
whom Raffiiello had represented as banqueting in the Oasa 
Chigi. If the expression be not so noble, the grace so rare, 
it is because that grand specimen of art may be emulated by 
manv, but equalled hy none. It may be added, that Perinos 
style is less finished than his master's, and that, in his 
drawing of the naked figure, he, like Giulio, partakes of the 
style of Michelangelo. Four chambers, Vasari informs us, 
were painted in the palace from the cartoons of Yaga, by 
Luzio Romano, and some Lombards, his assistants ; one of 
whom, of the name of Guglielmo Milanese, followed him to 
Rome, and held in that court the office of Frate del Piombo. 
The others have left no name behind them, and must have 
been indiyiduals of inferior talents and poorly paid, as we 
occasionally find rude and heavy figures. Such defects are 
not uncommon in the works which Perino undertook, for 
when he had made his cartoons or designs he gave them to his 
pupils to execute, with material advantage to bis pecuniary 
interests, but with detriment to his reputation. This is 
observed by Yasari, nor do I know how he could have the 
courage to mention in connexion with this circumstance the 
works which were executed with the assistance of their 
scholars by Raffii^llo and Giulio Romano, illustrious masters, 
irreproachable in the selection of their assistants, indefatigable 
in their application, and contemning that avidity of gain 
which drew down on Perino merited reprehension. There 
is still, in the palace Doria, a frieze of boys commenced 
by him in one of the loggie, continued by Pordenone, 
and finished by Beccafumo ; and the remains of what was 
there painted by Girolamo da Trevigi, who, through jealous 
rivalry towards Perino, forsook both the city and the state. 
Perino painted some pictures for the churches in QenosS; 
where too we find some eminent foreign hands, amongst 
which is the St. Stephen, painted by Giulio Romano for the 
church of that saint, — an altar-piece perhaps the most copious 
in composition, and the most striking that issued from ther 
studio of that master. It was at this time, too, that many 
noble individuals applied themselves to collect foreign 
specimens of every school, and they have since been emulated 



PERINO. 241 

by their posterity, who in this pursuit perhaps surpass all tlie 
private collectors in Italy, except those of Rome. 

By these means the country became enriched with beautiful 
works, and began to turn itself to a more perfect style, which ^ 
it attained with a celerity unknown to any other school. 
The transition from the style of Brea, which was that of the 
thirteenth century, to that of Raffaello, occupied but a few 
years ; and even the scholars of Nizzardo, as we have 
observed, very soon became worthy imitators of the first of 
modem masters. These principles were sure to make the 
most prosperous adyances amongst a people rich in genius and 
industry ; and amidst a nobility that abounded in wealth, and 
who in no way lavished it more freely than in raising splendid 
sanctuaries to religion, and sumptuous habitations for them- 
selves, which in grandeur, decorations, tapestries, and in 
other kinds of luxuries, scarcely yielded to royalty, Fron^ 
munificence like this, the school of Genoa derived aid and 
encouragement, though not much known abroad, as her artists 
were sufficiently occupied at home. Its characteristic excels 
lence, in the opinion of Mengs, consisted in the number of its 
excellent fresco painters ; so that a church or palace of any 
antiquity is scarcely to be named which does not possess thd 
most beautiful works, or at least the memory of them. And 
it is a remarkable fBbot, when we consider how exposed the 
city is to the sea air, that so many works in fresco, executed 
by early artists, should have remained in so perfect a state. 
Nor did the school of Genoa want celebrity in oil paintings, 
particularly in the qualities of truth and force of colouring, 
which excellences, derived first jGrom Perino and afterwards 
from the Flemish, it always retained; not yielding in this 
Tespect to any school of Italy, except the Venetian. It has 
produced also noble designers ; although some, like other 
mannerists, have debased the pencil by hasty and negligent 
performances. Not having in public many examples of ideal 
excellence, it has supplied the deficiency by the study of the 
natural ; and in the figure it has rather adopted the healthy, 
and the robust, and tho energetic, than the delicate and the 
elegant. The study of portraits, in which this school had 
excellent masters and most lucrative practice, had a great 
influence on the figures of its first epoch ; those of its last, if 

YOL. III. R 



242 6EN0ESB SCHOOIi.*— EPOCH 11. 

tliej hare more beautj, hxro less epirit. Thero odsfted a 
talent for eztenmye eompo^ioa, boi in middle eise rather 
than in great In these they had not epie masfesi:% like Paolo 
and other Yenetiane; thc^ did not^ ho^vvrer, no olfeen Yiolate 
deoomm and costume. This was» perhaps, the resnlt of the 
attadunent to literature entertaiBed hj many of the C(enoeee 
painters^ amen^gst whom axe enunented a greater anmher of 
men of letters, and eflpeeially gentlemen, mm m anj other 
school. This latter circnmstanee was^ in a great measoret, 
owing to Faggi, who, in a treatise of condmeiaUe Imgth, 
defended the nolMHty of the art,* and obtained a public 
deeiee»t deehuing the art honourable, and warthj of edItiTa.* 
tion by W»n of the noblest birth ; an event from which the art 
derired the greatest dignity. We now return to particalars. 
The first who attached themselves to Perino ler instructiott, 
were Lasauro and Fteitaleo Calvi, the sons and soholan of an 
Agostino.Calvi, a good paiat«r in the old a^ie, and one cf 
tl^ first in G^noa who forsook the gold ground fur one of 
colour. Laszaro was at that time twimtj^wfive ysam of age^ 
hier broths somewhat mote ; nor dUl the latter nse in reputap- 
tion, except in lending to the works cf lAzzaxo his aid and 
his name. These works abounded in Genoa and her terri- 
tories, at Monaco and at Naples, in every variety ef compo- 
sition, aonbesques, and stuecos, with w^ieh ai^ decorated 
palaces and dburdbee. Seme of these are ezceUent, as the 
fiEk9ades of the palace Doria (now Spinola), with prisoners in 
various attitndes, condkiered as a school of desiga ; and 
several histoncal c<mipontions in eoloors and chiaroionro, in 
the best taste.l In the palace Pkdlavidoi, at Zo^bino, is a 
composition ci theirs commonly called the Continence of 
Scipio ; a remark which I owe to Sig. Batti, who, not having 
included it in his edition of 1798, obligingly commmacafced it 
to me for this work. To this they also added naked figures^ 
with so happy an imitation of Perino that, in the opinion of 

* It it inaerted in the 7th toI. of flie <* Lettere Fittoriche,** p. 148. 

t Tbe decree is giTen hj the CaTalier Ratti in the notes to Sopnni. 
Hie namet oi the noUe paintera, amateoia of the art, mtf be jfitmiid in 
tboee two anthon. 

t Tlua work is extolled by Lomaszo as one of the best of Lsazaro ; it 
is classed with the Trinmphs of Ginlio Romano, Potidoro, and other 
emi&ent artists, in the <' Trattato delU PittBra»" p. 598. 



THE OAIYI. 243 

Mengs, they might he adjudged to that inarter. Moreover, 
we know that INsriBO was liberal to them in designs and car- 
toons ; whence, in these better works, we may always pie- 
snme on the aid of ^e mastec^s hand. Howerer it might be, 
Lazsaro indnlged in a sdf-conceit of his own powers^ and lefib 
behind some speoimemi of an eztraTaganoe which no painter 
has stnoe foltowed, eMoeipt Corenzio. He wsu particiilarlj 
jealons of anj young artist, who he thought might interfere 
with hia fome or islereste, and to gratify his eayy had recourse 
to the blackest arts. One <^ these riTiis, Qiacomo Bargone, 
he took off by pois<»i ; and to depvess the others he drew 
around himself a crowd of adherents and hirdlings, who in- 
fiumioed the opinion of the vulgar, by praising the works of 
Lazfluro to the skies, and depreciating those of his competitors. 
These cabak were more strongly instanced in the chapel 
Centurioni, where he painted the Birth of 8t. Joh% in eom^ 
petition with Andrea Semini and Luoa Cambiaso, who there 
also painted ether pictures from the history of tl»t saint 
This work was one of hia happiest eflR>rts, and the most ap- 
proaching to the style of his master ; but he could not crush 
the genius of Oarabiaso, which after tins occasion appeared 
more brilliant than hk own ; whence the Prince Doria selected 
that artist to execute a very considerable work in fresco for 
the church of B. Mattea This so enraged Galvi, that he 
gave himself up to a sea-lHe, and abandoned the pencil for 
twenty years. He ultimately resumed it, and continued, 
thou^ with a baldness of style, to paint tiU his eighty-fifth 
year. One of his last w(Mrks is to be seen on the walls and 
in the cupola of 8. CUfttherine ; but it is cold, meagre, and 
bears all tiie marks of semlity. Indeed, after his return to 
the art, and particularly after the death of Pantaleo, who had 
assiduously assisted hnn in ev^ work, Lazzaro was only 
m^noraUe for the extreme protxabction of his life, which ex- 
tended to 105 years. 

Of the two Semini, Andrea and Ottavio, it is not ascer-r 
tained that they had in Oenoa any other master than their 
£iither Antonio ; but, aft^ the example of their father, they 
deferred mudi to Ferine, as did also Luea their contemporary. 
In confirmation of which it is said, that Perino having found 
them engaged with a print of Titian, and hearing theBi re- 

B 2 



244 GENOESE SCHOOL.— ^EPOCH II. 

marking on some incorrectness in the drawing, reproved them 
by observing, that in the works of the great masters we ought 
to pass over their £einlts and extol their excellence. But the 
two brothers, enchanted bj the style of Raffaello, became 
ambitions of drinking at the fountain of. the art, and, repair- 
ing to Rome,' applied themselves to. the diligent study of the 
works of that master, and the remains of antiquity, particu- 
larly the Tiujan column. They were afterwards employed 
both at Genoa and in Milan, where they painted many works, 
both in conjunction and separately, all in the Roman style, 
particularly in their early career. Andrea discovered less 
talent than Ottavio ; and was, perhaps, more tenacious than 
he in his imitation of Bafihello, especially in the contours of 
his faces. He sometimes wante; delicacy, as in a crucifixion 
lately come into the possession of the duke of Tuscany ; and 
sometimes correctness, as in the Presepio, in the church of 
St Francis in Genoa, which is in other respects very 
Raffaellesque, and may be reckoned among his best works. 
Ottavio, an unprincipled man, was an eminent artist, and 
succeeded so well in the imitation of his master, as is 
scarcely credible to those who have not seen his works. He 
painted the £B^e of the palace Doria^ now Invrea, and there 
displayed so fine a taste in the architecture, and decorated it 
with busts and figures of such relief, and particularly with a 
Rape of the Sabines, that Giulio Cesare Procaccini took it 
for a performance of Raffi&ello, and asked if that great master 
had left any other works in Genoa. Of equal merit, or nearly 
so, were many of his firescos, painted for the nobility, until, 
as is often the case with fresco-painters, he ended his career 
in a freer but less finished style. Of these latter he left 
many specimens at Milan, where he passed the latter years of 
his life. In that city the entire decoration of the chapel of 
S. Girolamo at S. Angelo is painted by him, the chief compo- 
sition of which is the funeral group which accompanies the 
saint to the sepulchre. It possesses, if not a noble design, yet 
great fertility of invention, great spirit, and a strong and 
beautiful colour, as he possessed that part of the art in an 
eminent degree in works of fresco ; for in oils he was either 
unwilling or unable to colour well. 

Luca Cambiaso, called also Luehetto da Genoa, did not 



LUCA CAMBIASO. 245 

quit his native eonntiy to obtain instruction, nor did he fre- 
quent any other school than that of his &ther ; obscure indeed, 
but of a good method, and sufficient to a mind of genius. Gio- 
vanni his father, a tolerable quattroeentUtdiy and a great 
admirer of Yaga and Pordenone, after having exercised him 
in copying the designs of Mantegna, a master of chasteness of 
contour, and having instructed him in the art of modelling, 
80 useful in relief and foreshortening, carried him to the palace 
Doria, and there pointed out to his attention those great pro- 
totypes of art^ with the addition of his own instruction. The 
study of these performances, by a youth who was bom a 
painter, awakened in him such emulation, that he began in his 
fifteenth year to produce works of his own invention ; and 
gave promise of one day ranking, as he did, with the first 
painters of his age. He displayed fEMsility, fire, and grandeur 
of design, and was on that account adduced by Boschini as an 
example of fine contours, ^nd held in high esteem in the ca- 
binets of the dilettanti. He embodied his ideas with such 
despatch and success, that Armenini affirms that he had seen 
him paint with two pencils at a time, and with a touch not 
less free, and more correct than Tintoretto. He was, more- 
over, fertile and novel in his designs, skilful in introducing 
the most arduous foreehortenings, and in surmounting the dif- 
ficulties of the art He was deficient at first in the true 
principles of perspective ; but he soon acquired the theoiy 
from Castollo, his great friend and companion, as we shall 
shortiy see. Through him he improved both his colouring 
and his style of composition. In conjunction with Castello he 
executed several works, so much alike, that one hand can 
scarcely be distinguished from the other. These, however, 
were not his best performances. He must be seen where he 
painted alone ; and he shines no where more than in Genoa, 
nor beyond a period of twelve years, witiiin which space 
Soprani circumsoribes his best time. Let it not appear strange 
to those who hear this opinion of that writer. Luca had not 
the good fortune to benefit frrom those great masters who, with 
a word, put their scholars in the right path ; he went on, how- 
ever, improving from his own resources, a long and laborious 
course, in which a thousand wishes are formed before the 
goal is reached. But Cambiaso attained it, and held it until 



246 OEN0Ej» 8CHOOIi.-«^BPOCH II. 

an UBgorernaUe paesioB, as we dbali boo in l^e aequel, ihtew 
him back again. 

Confining onraelres to the uroxks ef ihe best tw^trs yesan dF 
his practice^ we see in him a man who poeseneda hifh predi* 
lection for the Boman school ; deriTiBg inetroelmi fieni pdnts, 
and impelled bj his own genius to attempt I know not what 
of originality. Where this origiaaiit j appeuv, we elioidd net 
wish Cambiaso other than himesi^ ead whtm it does not 
appear, we shonld not widi him an j thing Imt an inutator. 
Of the first kind is the Martyrdom of St GtMVge in tliediniich 
of that saint, wlach for the nobU character of Uie stti&rer, 
the sjrnipathy of the speetatcars, the oompositieii, Tarie^, and 
foroe of ciiiuroscoro, is eonsideied his ebif-d'«QTre. Of the 
second kind there are, perhapsy more specimens te he ft>ttnd ; 
as the foctnie at the Rooehettiai, ef S. Beoedette with J<^n 
the Baptist and St Lnfaa^ Teiy mndi in the style of Ferine 
and Ki^Gftelie ; and ehove all, the Bapeef tim Sabines in l!%r* 
lalba, a tuhiub of GeiKMs in the palaee of the Imperials. 
Every thing oombincs to please in this work ; the mi^fnifi* 
oenoe of the bnUdings, the beauty of the hones, tiie ahm of 
the vir^ns, the ardo«ir of the inraden^ the se^^nd episodes 
which, in Tarioos compartments, crown Hw principal ^abject, 
and, as it were, continue the story. It Is lelaited that Mengs, 
after having viewed thispiot«ie,SBid,ihatent of Romeheloid 
m^ seen any thing that more strongly hanyoghtto his reediee- 
tion the loggie of the Vatican, Ihui ttoe works. He also 
executed otl^r works of sii^^uiar merit, partieulaity for pri- 
vate eoUections, amQng whi^ I have fennd moie pictures of 
a free than of a devont description. Being left a widower, 
he became enamoured of a female relative, whom he in vain 
endeavoured to obtain permission fnom the Pope to manry. 
Hus disappcnntment indnoed Uie negieetof his art He then 
repaired to the ewot of Madrid, with the iriew ef fctalteting 
his wii^es, and when he found himself depri^red of all hope 
in tins ol^ect) he fell sick and died. He 1^ manvwotks in 
the Escurial, and amongst tiiese the solrieet of Paradise, in the 
vault of dw church, a hige eerapentuNi, and a work very 
much praiaed by Lomazao, but net equally so by Menge, who 
had seen and examined it for eevenl suece^ave yeaie. 

Gio. Batista Castelio, the ccmpaaton ef Cambhtto, is com* 



BATISTA CASTfiLLO. 247 

ttonlj oaUed ia CtonoA II Bexgaiiuu90(», to difirtingiush him 
from Gio» Batista Castiflo, a Genoese, a scholar of Cam- 
hiaso, and the most oeidbrated miniattire uuiiter of his age. 
Oar present sabjeet, bom in Bei^aino, aad brought, when a 
jtoath, to Genoa, by Aureiio Bmo^ {e* yoL ii. page 188) was, 
on his sndden depurtnre, left hj him in that city. In this 
state of desertion he found a patron in one mi the PallaTicim 
family, who gare him a friendly reception, and assii^ him 
with the memis of proseenting his studies ; sending him to 
lUmie, from whenoe he letnmed to Genoa an accomplished 
arohiteot, soolptor, and painta*, not inferior to Oambiaso* His 
taste, formed by studying at Borne, was similar to that of Luca, 
as I hare already observed ; and in the church of S. Matteo 
axe works painted by them in concert. We may observe in 
these the s^Ie ef Ba&eUo already verging on mamserism, but 
notao mnoh so as that whidi prevailed in Rome in the time of 
Gr^ry and Siztus. Oonnoissenrs discover in Cambiaso a 
greats genius and more elegance of design ; in the Bergamese 
more caie, a deeper knowledge, and colour ocoastonally par- 
taking more of the school of Venice than of Rome. It is how- 
ever very f«obable that when so friendly an intM!COurse sub- 
sisted they may have aided each other, ev^ in those places 
wheie they worked in competiition, where each claimed his 
own work, and distinguished it by his name. Thus, at the 
Nunnata di Portoria, Luca represented on the walls the final 
state of the bbst and the rejected in the last jndm^it ; while 
Gio. Batista, in the vault, punted the Supreme Judge in the 
midst of the ai^^lic choir, calling the elect to bliss. He appears 
in the attitnde <^ uttering the words Vmits henedictiy ap- 
pended in capital letters. It is a highly finished performance, 
and of so exsdted a character that we should think that Luca, 
when he painted the laterals to it, was asleep, so inferior are 
they in composition and expression. On many other occasions 
he painted alone, as the S. Jerome snrrouuded by monks ter- 
rified at a lion, in S. Francesco in Casteiletto ; and the S. Se- 
bastian in the church of that saint, reeeiviug the crown of 
martyrdom ; a picture "rich in composition, studied in execu- 
tion, and far beyond any commendation of mine. He painted 
in Genoa other pictures, and always discovered an air of life in 
the countenances, a magnificence in the architecture, a strength 



J 



248 GENOESE 6CH00L.*-BP0CH II. 

of colour and ohiaroscuro, which makes one regret that he was 
80 little known in Italy ; and possibly he was prerented from 
being known as an oil painter by the nnmerons works in fresco 
which he executed in Genoa ; the largest of which is in the 
Palazzo Grille. We there see a portico painted in arabesque, 
and a saloon, in the ceiling of which is represented the banquet 
given by Dido to j£neas ; a beautiful work, particulaiiy the 
arabesques, but not sufficiently studied. This artist, in his 
latter years, was painter to the court at Madrid, whither, on 
his death, Luca Cambiaso was called to finish the larger his- 
torical subjects ; but the grotesques, and the omamentol parts 
interspersed with figures, were continued by the two sons of 
Gio. Batista, whom he had carried with him to Madrid as his 
assistants. Palomini makes honourable mention of them, and 
the Padre de' Santi Teresiani, and the Padre Mazzolari Giro- 
lamino, in their descnption of the Escurial, enumerate their 
works, commending their variety, singularly, and beauty of 
colour. One was called Fabricio, the other Uranello ; and the 
latter, as Ratti conjectures, was the son of Nicolosio Granello, 
an able fresco painter of the school of Semini, whose widow 
was married to Castelli, and probably brought with her this 
son of her first marriage. 
\ Painters have in general been found to impart instruction 

, more freely to native scholars than to strangers ; and yet the 

I latter have always profited more than the former, so that it 

I rarely happened that on the death of the chief of a school the 

I reputation of that school has been continued by a son or a 

< nephew. Such was the case with the Genoese, where Calvi, 

the Semini, and Cambiaso, had each a numerous progeny, and 
a progeny too attached to the art ; and yet amongst so many 
there was not one who passed the bounds of mediocrity, except 
perhaps Orazio, the son of Luca Cambiaso, of whom Soprani 
merely says that he followed in a praiseworthy manner his 
father's style, and initiated some pupils in the art It was 
therefore to his better scholars that Cambiaso was indebted for 
assistance in his profession ; one of whom, Lazzaro Tavarone, 
followed him even into Spain, and remained there for some 
years after his master s death. He afterwards returned to 
Genoa, stored with the designs of Luca, and loaded with 
riches and honours. Luca seemed to live again in his scholai, 



CESARE CORTE. 249 

80 fally did he possess his style. He moieover distinguished 
himself by a method of colouring in fresco, which, if I mistake 
not, raised him abore all his predecessors in this school, and 
aboye all who succeeded him, except Carloni. This peculia- 
rity consisted in a richness, brightness, and variety of colour, 
which brings distant objects vividly to the sight, the whole 
composition appearing brilliantly illuminated, and the tints 
splendidly and harmoniously blended. One may perhaps 
occalnonally wish in them more softness, but in general they 
have all the richness of oil paintings. The tribune of the 
Dnomo, where the patron saints of the city are represented, 
particularly S. Lorenzo, from whose history some passages are 
selected, is the chef-d'oBuvre of his public works. The &9ade 
of the palace of the doge is also a considerable performance, 
representing 8t. George slaying the dragon ; around it and 
above are other numerous figures of citizens of eminence, of the 
virtues, of genii with nautical weapons and the spoils of the 
enemy, some of which might pass for the work of Pordenone. 
This grand work is exposed to the sea, the spray of which has 
affected, but not destroyed it. In many otiier churches and 
pahuses also are to be found the works of Tavarone ; histories, 
fables, and imaginary compositions, often so well preserved 
that the scaffolding and the steps by which the artists ascended 
and descended, appear as if just removed. Fortunate, had his 
works been fewer in number, and finished with equal care. 
Some pictures in oil are mentioned by him, but more rare and 
of less merit than his frescos. 

Cesare Corte was of Pavian extraction. Yalerio, his father, 
who was bom in Venice, was the son of a gentleman of Pavia, 
and became under the instruction of Titian, an excellent por- 
trait painter; and his talents insuring him a favourable 
reception in Genoa, he settled there. He remained in that 
city for the rest of his life, and died in poverty, his means 
being aU consumed in fruitless experiments in ^chemy. He 
was the intimate friend of Cambiaso, whose life he wrote ; 
and to him he committed the instruction of his son Cesare. 
This son did not indeed equal his &ther, but he surpassed the 
greater number of his fellow scholars. In the church of 
S. Piero he painted the tutelar saint at the foot of the 
Madonna, surrounded by angels ; a picture of chaste design 



250 OENOESB SCHOOL.— BPOCH II. 

and of a true And harmonkms ooloiuiiig. His burioriodL 
pictures and his porlnits toe found in many oolleetions : o»e 
of the former, in the Oaaa PalayicinOi on a subject from the 
Inferno of Dante, was celebrated by Chiabrant in an elegant 
sonnet. The fiune of this artist was tarnished by his heretical 
opinions^ imbibed by the perusal of some peraicions work, as 
often hsqppens to the faalf^-infotmed, who read eTerr thkgv 
understand little^ and fiAally bdlieve nothing. He however 
abjured his errors, though nerer released ftaat his prison, 
where he died. Darid, Ids 8on» restiiotod himself to the 
limits of a copyist ; and in this so higtdy distingidflhed him- 
self, that his pictures are placed in some colleotions at the 
side of the ori^nals as wonders of art» 

Bernardo Castdlo frequented the fldiool of Andrea Senini 
more than Uiat of Cambiaso ; in his priiioiples he iaeli^L 
more to the lattn*, and in practice he followed both mdif- 
ferentiy. Tiayelling afierwuds throuffh Italy he saw other 
works, and formed a style notdevoid of gxaos, nor of correct- 
nesB, when he worked with care; as in the martyrdom of 
St. Clement and St. Agatagnolo, in the chnrehof S. Sebsstiaa, 
and the St Anne at 8. Msitteo. He had a fertile invention, 
in whidi he was aided by the poets of the age, whose friend- 
ship he assiduously cultivated.* He was eulogised by lio- 
nardo Spinoia,, D. Angiolo Qrillo, Ceva, Marino, Chiabrera, 
and by Tasso, for whose Jerusalem he made the designs which 
were in part engraved by Agostino Caraoci* His reputation 
raised him not only to the rank of one of the first masters of 
his school, but of Italy its^; and he was thus seeded to 
work in die Vatican, as has been mentioned. He there 
painted St. Peter called to the apostlediip, a picture which 
was soon afterwards removed, and one by Lanfranco substi- 
tuted in its place, mther because it was injured by damp, or 
had not given satis&ction. Castello indeed did not possess 

* A strict intimacy existed, especially between him and the Cav. 
Mttrino, among whose letters we may enumerate twenty-eight more to 
Castello than to any otber pefaan. It is pleasing to obserre the dexterity 
of the poet, who often praises the ** mirvcoloos pencil" and the ** diTioB 
hand" of die painter, an homage bestowed still more liberally in the 
Gulleria ; and the gratitude of the artist who designed and coloured for 
hb fxiend gratis, and who exerts himself to requite every letter of the 
poet by seme accSqitable work of art (p. 175). 



SIMON BAMABBOfO, 251 

that TigoFous style whidi Rome at thk tisne dsmanded, 
re£asi]ig lier apflaiise to tbe Yuauaa snd Zuecaris. He hsA. 
mudi of their style of cdoni^ nor was hb exempt from their 
daqiatch; and^ lUce then, he opened the way in his sehool to 
facility instead of oocieotBess. Qenoa is filled^ or latker 
glattody with his woAa^ yet they still maintain itibeir r^nta- 
ti^9 as they aie all eustaiBed hy a oertein vigenr iftd grace of 
style. He sometimeB appeals in Hoieign c^eetio&a, and in 
tilu^ of the OolonsEa in JBLame I saw a Bamassus by htm wilh 
Pouasiuignies and abeantifnlkndseapey Whi<^ may be ranked 
amongst his most iinished wm^ Sopmni informs ns-that he 
was agsin invited to fienm, to paint a pictme of St Peter, 
and that he died ^ikt he was preparing himself for this 
jonmey, aged seTenty«4wo» Bnt at so advaneed a period of 
life one may denbt A» troth of this report He had three 
sons, paiotetfl^ of wheal Valerie alone is deserving of eomme- 
moiiatien, and we shall notice him in his plaee. 

Amo^ his foreign schokus Simon Barabbino deserves 
xemembrance^ whose rare genios created so strcmg a jealousy 
in OasteUo as to indnoe Urn to eacpel him from his school. 
He retired from it, and afterwards painted at the Nnnziata 
del Gnastato the & Diego, whioh Soprani almost prefers to 
the best work of Castello. But he dbd not obtain any great 
edel»ity amo^g his coantrynen. Milan rendered him that 
honour which his own iwliTe place denied ; in eoffiBeqnence of 
which he settled there, and wotked in the palaces and 
charches. There is by him, at S. Qir<damo, a Madonna with 
a dead Christ, aocompaaied by S» MSbhael and S. Andrew. 
The eokmr is trae» the heads aie eoneetly drawn, the naked 
figare wdOi nndentood, the eontoars suffi^ntly aoenrate and 
well relieved. He wonid have attained still greater perfection, 
but he tnrned to merchaadiae, where s instead of wealth he 
fottttd only his raia, and died in gaoL 

Gio. Bettista Puggi, a patrieian by birth, was led to the 
profession of a painter by his piadilection for the art, whioh, 
in spite of the opposition of his father, he indnlged in from 
his earliest years. He was highty aocomj^ished in letters, and 
his ^wons attainments in poetry, philosophy, and history, all 
served to assist him in the composition of his pictnres. He 
was periiaps not so much extolled by the poets as Castello, 



252 GENOESE SCHOOL.— EPOCH IZ. 

but he attained a greater celebrity among his brother artists. 
He was directed by Cambiaso in his first studies, which was 
the drawing in chiaroscuro from the casts of antique bassi 
rilievi, for the purpose of attaining a true idea of the beautiful, 
and preparing himself for the study of nature. Being well 
skilled in the practice of the crayon, with little labour, and 
almost alone, he learnt the art of colouring ; and without the 
instructions of a master, taught himseS architecture and 
perspective. Whilst he was rising into notice, he was 
compelled to flee his country for homicide ; and, for about the 
space of twenty years, he resided in Florrace, protected by 
^t court, and always profitably employed. Florence aA 
that time, abounded with men of first rate genius ; and it was 
then that Cigoli, and all the young painters, abandoned their 
own languid style for the rich and vigorous Lombard. Paggi 
had not so much occasion as the others to invigorate his 
manner, as appears from the works he executed in Florence 
not long alter his arrival there. There remains by him a 
Holy Family, and another picture in the church degli 
Angioli, and in the. cloister of S. Maria Novella a history 
piece of S. Catherine of Siena. It represents the saint 
liberating a condemned person, and is a large composition, 
ornamented with beaut^ul buildings, and so pleasingly 
executed that I have heard it preferred to all in that convent. 
Nevertheless the great merit of Paggi was not at that time 
vigour, but a certain nobleness of air, which always continued 
to be his characteristic, and a delicacy and grace which have 
led some to compare hun to Baroccio, and even to Correggio. 
It seems to me that he became more vigorous as he advanced, 
and a proof of it is to be seen in the stupendous Transfigura- 
tion, painted in S. Mark, which seems almost beyond his 
powers. In the same style he painted for the Certosa at 
Pavia three pictures from the Passion of our Saviour, which 
appear to me among his best works. He was ultimately 
recalled by the republic about the year 1600 for his excellence 
in his art, and the courts both of Pavia and Madrid invited, 
and were desirous of employing him. His patriotism 
however precluded him from accepting these honourable 
appointments. He illustrated his native city with beautiful 
works in the churches and in collections. They have not all 



BATISTA PAGGI. 253 

equal merit, as this artist also was not exempt Anom the 
disadvantages of bad priming, domestic anxieties, and the 
infirmities of age. His best works, according to some, are 
the two pictures at the church of S. Bartolommeo, and the 
Slaughter of the Innocents, in the possession of his Excel- 
lence the Sig. Giuseppe Doria^ painted in competition with 
Yandyke and Rubens in 1606. He formed also some 
excellent scholars, the account of whom we shall reserre to 
the succeeding epoch. We shall there again recur to him, as 
he is placed on the confines of the two periods of his school^ 
and may be regarded in the one as a scholar, and in the other 
as a master. 



S54 



GENOESE SCHOOL 

EPOCH III. 



The Art relapMs for lome time, and Is re-inrigorated by llie Woilts of 

Piiggi and aome FneigMn. 

Every school, whatever may have been the celebritj of its 
founder, betravs in the conise of tinoie symptoms of decay, and 
stands in need of restoration. The Genoese, in the hands of 
Castello, experienced a dedine abont the close of the sixteenth 
century, but soon afterwards revived, by the return of Paggi, 
and the arrival of some foreigners, who established themselves 
for a considerable period in that city. To this amelioration 
Sofonisba Angussola not a little contributed by the assemblies 
of scholars and professors of the art, which were held in her 
house, much to their improvement, as we have before observed. 
Among these were Gentileschi, RoncaUi, and the Procaccini, 
who were employed in various public works. Aurelio Lomi 
of Pisa settled in G(enoa, taught there, and left some excellent 
works at San Francesco di Castelletto, at the Nunziata del 
Guastato and elsewhere. Nor ought we to omit Simon Balli, 
his schobir, unknown in Florence, his native city, but 
deserving of being remembered for his style, which partook 
considerably of Andrea del Sarto's, and for some small cabinet 
pictures on copper. Antonio Antoniano of Urbino also 
resorted thither, if we are to believe Soprani.* He brought 

* In the Dictionary of the Artists of Urbino the ezisteaoe of this 
artist is rejected as fobnlons ; and it is attempted to snbstitate for him, 
in Soprani's work, Antonio Viviani, who was indeed in Genoa. Consider- 
able weight is given to the conjectore, from the family of Antoniano not 
being mentioned in Urbino ; and I may add the circumstlaioe of not 
finding any other works of this Antonio than those named by Soprani 
and his copyists. And how is it possible that one who came to Genoa 
an accomplished master, should not have left, either in Urbino or the 
neij^bonring territory, even a vestige or memorial of his pencil ? 



▲NTONIO ANTONIANO. 255 

with him the beiiatiful pietore paioted for the Dnemo by 
Barocoio, who ma his master; and he himsd^ in the church 
of S. Tommaso, painted the pictiire of the saint and another 
picture; and, if I mistake not, some others for private 
indiyidoals, which are at the present day attribnted to 
Baroccio, so snccessful was bis imitation of that master. 
There came to Cknoa firom £tona Salimbeni and Sorri, and 
with them Agoetino Tassi. The two latter remained there 
for a length of tim^ both working and teaching; and besides 
these^ C&ssoni, who was also a Sienese of some merit, a 
scholar of Alberti in Rome, and a fresco painter of a yigorons 
and engaging style. Simon Yovet also repaired thither, but 
did not remain long ; he however executed some works, one 
particularly of the Cmafixion, at S. Ambrose, not unworthy, 
as Soprani informs us, of his great name. Amongst the most 
cona^rable aid which €^oa experienced from foreign talents 
we must enumerate Rubens and Yandyke ; the first of whom 
lefl there some nobb public works, and a number of private 
historical pieces, and the second a very great number of his 
eloquait and anin»ted portraits. Qio, Rosa of Fhtnders also 
established himself th^e, mentioned by me in Rome, where 
he studied ; a happy imitator of nature in her most agreeable 
forms, especially animate. He died in Gknoa, and left there 
Giaeomo Legi, hie countiyman and scholar ; of whom there 
ranaitt some excellent pictures of animals^ lowers^ and fruit, 
though few in number, as he died young. Godfrey Waals, a 
Ckrman, and GiOb Batista Primi, a Roman, scbolaSrs of Taasi, 
and landscape painters of much merit, resided there for some 
time ; and OomeHo Wael, with Yincenao Malb, two 
Flemidi painters, clever in battles, landscapes, and hnmorous 
pieces, and the latter also in altar-{Heces. Some other 
Flemish artists must have resided there a dborter time, by 
whom I have seen in some pakces pictures of large size^ and 
to all appearance painted on the spot ; and these I regard as 
additional aids to a school that benefited at tlmt time more 
from example than from instruction. 

The young artists of Genoa, thus enriched in the course of a 
few years by fresh examples, entered on a new career, and 
adopted a more vigorous and grander style than they had 
before practised. And not a fow of them, alter receiving the 



256 OENOBSB SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH III. 

rudiments of instruction in their native place, repaired to 
Parma, or Florence, or Rome, to finish their studies ; and from 
these and other sources added celebrit j to their country. Thus 
the seventeenth century did not possess in Genoa so decided a 
character as the preceding, nor so select or ideal ; it had how* 
ever an abundance of excellent artists, and particularly of the 
best portrait painters and colourists, sufficient indeed to supply 
Venice with at her least happy epoch. It would also have 
attained a higher pitch of repute, if the plague of 1657 had 
not swept off a vast number of promising artists ; the names 
of some of whom, cut off at an early period of life, may be 
found mentioned in Soprani. The primary cause of this re- 
vival of the art in Ctenoa may be ascribed to the riches and to 
the taste of her nobility, who invited and supported these 
eminent foreign artists. And in the next place much of this 
merit is due to Faggi. There was at one time great danger 
of these excellent artists being negligent designers ; and it is 
indeed a common opinion, adopted also by Algarotti, that the 
best colourists are seldom correct in design. Paggi, in this 
important point, supported the credit of the school. He had 
studied design among the Florentines, the best masters in 
Italy ; and he composed for the instruction of youth a small 
treatise, intitled ^' Diffinizione o sia Divisione della Pittura," 
which he published in 1607. Soprani considers it a useful 
compendium, and containing, in plain and unaffected language, 
the principles of the art. It is mentioned with particular 
commendation in a letter of the younger Yasari, which must 
make us regret the loss of it ; and it would be desirable to 
search the Hbraries where papers of this description are pre- 
served, to ascertain whether it may be still in existence. All 
that we at present possess by Paggi is the treatise mentioned 
by us a few pages back. In the mean time we shall commence 
a new epoch with him and his school. 

Domenico Fiasella is called il Su^zana, from being born in 
the city of that name, where he obtained the rudiments of his 
style. He devoted himself to the study of the noble picture 
of Andrea del Sarto, which was then in the church o£ the Pre- 
dicatori ; and where there is at this day a beautiful copy of it. 
After being instructed for some time by Paggi, he repaired to 
Rome, and studied Raffibello, and imbibed also other favourite 



FIASELLA. 257 

styles. He there spent ten years, and became an eminent 

master, much praised by Guide Reni, and employed as an 

assistant by the Oav. d' Arpino and Passignano. He finally 

returned to Gbnoa, and in that city and in others of Higher 

Italy, executed numerous works. A very considerable part 

of them he left imperfect, being in the habit of neglecting 

them, or leaving them to be finished by his scholars, as is the 

tradition of his native place. Independent of this impatience, 

he was a great artist, and possessed many eminent qualities ; 

a felicity in grand compositions, a style of design often worthy 

of the Roman school, great life in the heads, an admirable 

colour in his oil-pictures, and an easy imitation of various 

styles. He is very Raffiiellesque in S. Bernardo, which is to 

be seen at S. Yincenzio in Piacenza ; Caravaggesque in a 

S. Xommaso di Yillanova, at S. Agostino in C^enoa ; in the 

Duomo of Sarzana, where he painted the Slaughter of the In^ 

nocents, and in the archiepiscopal gallery of Milan, in an Infeint 

Christ, he is a follower of Guide ; and in other places an 

imitator of Annibal Caracci and his school. He can command 

our admiration when he pleases, and has left a stupendous 

work in the church of the Augustines in G^noa, representing 

8t. Paul, the first hermit, for whose body discovered in a 

lonely forest by St. Antony the Abbot, a lion is in the act of 

scooping a grave. Many of his pictures are found in private 

collections. I have met with specimens at Sarzada, in the 

house of his Excellency the Marquis Remedi, a house cele-* 

brated for the cordial and generous hospitality of the owner ; 

and ip others too there and in the state. His Madonnas have 

for the most part a similarity of features ; not so ideal as those 

of Raf&ello, but still agreeable and prepossessing. 

On the death of Paggi, Fiasella became the principal in- 
structor in Genoa, and I shall mention his most conspicuous 
scholars. We may commence with his relative, Gio. Batista 
Casone, changed by Orlandi into Carlone, who did not paint 
much in Genoa. If we may judge from the altar-piece delle 
Vigne, representing the Virgin surrounded by saints, he re- 
tained the style of Fiasella, the colouring of which he endea* 
voured to invigorate. Gio. Paol Oderico, a noble Genoese, 
painted always witii great care, was select in his forms, and 
possessed a strong and rich colouring. The PP. Soolopi have 

VOL. III. 8 



958 GENOESE SCHOOL.— 7EFOCH III. 

% picture by liim of the S. Angiolo Custode, the work of • 
young hand^ but bearing promise of great talents. His histo- 
rical compositions are also to be found in galleries, but thej 
are rare, according to Soprani, and placed among the mo^ 
precious possessions. His portraits are not of such rare occur- 
rence, and in these he displayed great talents, and had nume- 
rous commissions. We find out few public works of Francesco 
Oapuro, in consequence of his being engaged by the court and 
indiyiduals in Modena, where he passed a great part of his life, 
at a distance from his own country. He was among the 
stricter followers of Fiasella in regard to design and com-; 
position, but in his colouring he partakes of Spagnoletto, 
under whom he studied in Naples ; and in the style of that 
painter he executed some pictures of half-dze, which pro- 
l)ably procured him his highest reputation. We have still 
fewer public works by the young Lnca Saltarello; but a 
S. Benedetto, in the church of S. Ste&no, in the act of restoring 
a dead person to life, a picture of sober colouring, beautifully 
harmonized, and full of expression and knowledge, sufficiently 
denotes his early maturity, and his capacity, if he had liye<l^ 
of forming an epoch in his schooL Being desirous of adding 
to his other accomplishments the advantages to be derived 
from the ancient marbles, he repaired to Rome, and died there 
through excess of study. 

Gregorio de'Ferrari of Porto Maunzio received from Sarzan^ 
instructions conformable to his principles, but which did not 
correspond with the genius of the scholar, which was naturally 
disposed to a style of greater freedom and grandeur. He re- 
paired to Parma to study the works of Correggio, and there 
made a most careful copy of the great cupola, which was 
purchased man^ years after by Mengs ; and he returned home 
with a very different style to his first Correggio was his 
only prototype, and he imitated him most happUy in the air 
of the countenances, and in many individual figures ; but not 
in the general style of composition, in which he is not so 
ideal; nor in the colouring, as in his ficescos he is somewhat 
languid. He is in general negligent in his drawing ; so that» 
with the exception of the two pictures at the Theatines of 
S. Pier d'Areaay this censure attaches to aJI his works. la 
liis foreshortenings and in his draperies he sometimes falls into 



YALERIO CASTELIiO. 259 

affectation. He posBesses however 'consideiaUe attractions - 
be is ingenious and novel, and displays a vigorous, rich, and 
correct colouring, particularly in the fleshes. By these quali- 
ties his S. Michele, at the church of the Madonna delle Vigne, 
predominates amongst the pictures of that church: and it 
may be justly ranked with those Yenetian productions in 
which the spirit and noble colourings atone for the inaccuracy 
of the drawing. He was much employed in Turin and in 
Marseilles ; and still more so in the principal palaces in his 
own country, particularly in that of the Balbi. There, how- 
ever, the great names of that celebxated collection, both foreign 
and native, wage against him, as we may say, a continual 
war. 

Yalerio Oastello is one of the greatest members of the 
Genoese school. He no sooner made his appearance amongst 
his fellow-scholarB than he distanced the oldest of them, and 
soon afterwards even rivalled his masters. The son of 
Bernardo, and the scholar of Fiasella, he followed neither the 
style of the one nor the other, but selected other prototypes 
more consonant to his genius, the Procaoeini in Milan, and 
Oorreggio in Parma; and from the study of these, and a 
grace wholly his own, he formed a style unique and peculiarly 
belonging to himself. If it is not the most correct, it seems 
to deserve pardon for its select composition, for its beautiful 
colouring and chiaroscuro, and for the spirit, facility, and 
expression which always distinguish his pencil. He excelled 
in frescos, so as to please even by the side of Carloni ; and 
is perbai^ sometimes, as in S. Marta, even superior to him. 
In his perspectives he occasionally employed Gio. Maria 
Mariani d'Ascoli, who also lived in Rome. Nor was he 
inferior in oil-pictures. He painted in the oratory of S. 
Jacopo the baptism of that saint, in competition with the 
chief of his contemporaries, and eclipsed them all, with the 
exception perhaps of Gastiglione. He worked also for collec- 
tions ; and in the royal ^dlery of Florence his Rape of the 
Sabines is highly prized, a subject which, on a more extended 
scale, but yet with some resemblance both of figures and 
architecture, he repeated in the palace Brignole. He is not 
however frequently met with, as he died early, and from the 
£reat celebrity he acquired, his works were in much request 

s 2 



S60. OEN0B8E 80H00L.«-"EP0CH III. 

in all tbe first collections, and thus his prodnctions were dis- 
persed. He tanght Gio. Batista Merano, and, after his own 
example, sent him to stndy at Parma, in which city he met 
with sufficient employment both from the prince ana private 
individuals. The Slaughter of the Innocents, at the Gesii in 
G^noa, is pointed out to us as one of his best pictures, and ib- 
a copious and careful composition, extremely well arranged. 
We must not confound this artist with Francesco Merano, 
called, from his first employ, II Paggio, a scholar and a^ 
respectable follower of Fiasella. 

Returning to the scholars of Gio. Batista Paggi, one of 
them, who was himself the educator of a generous race to hia 
country, was Gio. Domenico Cappellino. He had an extra- 
ordinary talent for imitation, whence, in his first works, he 
came very near his master. There vras not in him that air 
of nobility that in Paggi and Bordone seems to have been, 
derived from their birth and education. He possessed 
nevertheless other qualities of art which £eiil not to interest 
the spectator. This is evident in the Death of S. Francesco, 
placed in S. Nicoolo ; and at S. Ste&no in the S. Frano^9c& 
Komana, who to a dumb girl imparts the powers of speech. 
They are works which possess in the whole a peculiar origi- 
nality, and in the separate figures a natural charm, and an 
expression of the affections and a delicacy of colouring highly 
attractive. He afterwards .changed his style, as may be seen 
in two pictures of the Passion at S. Siro, and in many others, 
at Genoa, always vigorous, but less spirited than at first, 
rather obscure in tints, and removed from the manner of 
Paggi. He aimed at originality, and, finding her, pursued 
her without a rival. 

He had the good fortune to be the instructor of. a foreigner,, 
one of those men of genius who in themselves illustrate a. 
whole school. This artist was of the £eimily of Pioli, whicli. 
had already produced an excellent miniature-painter, called. 
Gio. Gregorio, who died in Marseilles, and a Pier Francesco^ 
a scholar of Sofonisba, who died young, with the reputation: 
of being one of the best imitators of Cambiaso. Pellegro. 
Piola, of whom we have now to treat, enjoyed a still shorter 
period of life, being assassinated at the age of twenty-three, 
hy an unknown hand ; and, as it is believed, through envy o£ 



□■■Pi^v^ 



POMENICO PIOLA. 261 

ills rare talents. It is not easy to describe very precisely the 
istyle of this young man ; for, as a student, he studied all the 
best works and formed himself upon them, and willingly in- 
clined to the more beautiful. He then tried a wider flight, 
and pursued it always with exquisite diligence, and a taste 
which charms us ; and whatever style he adopted he seemed 
to have grown grey in it. A Madonna by him, which is now 
in the great collection of the Marchese Brignole, was con- 
sidered by Franceschini an original of Andrea del Sarto. 
His S. Eligio, in the street of the goldsmiths, was by Mengs 
ascribed to Lodovico Caracci. He, however, aq>ired at some- 
thing far beyond mere imitation, and said that he had a 
mental conception of the beautiful, which he did not despair 
to attain if his life should be spared. But he was prema- 
turely cut off, as I have stated, and his works in consequence 
are very rarely met with. 

The rarity of the productions of Pellegio was compensated 
for by a brother, who filled the city and the state with his 
works. This was Domenico Piola, a scholar of Pellegro and 
Cappellini, the associate of Yalerio Castelli in many works, 
and for some time an imitator of that master, afterwards of 
Castiglione ; and, finally, the founder of a style bordering on 
that of Cortona. There is not in it a sufficient contract ; the 
forms are various, ideal for the most part, nor without beauty ; 
the chiaroscuro is generally little finished ; the design partakes 
of the Roman. There is, however, a considerable resemblance 
to Pietro in the distribution of the colours, and in his facility 
and despatch. He had a singular talent for the representa* 
tion of children, and he refined it by the imitation of Fiam- 
mingo. He enlivened every composition by their introduc- 
tion, and in some palaces he interwove them in elegant friezes. 
From this soft and easy manner, examples of which are to be 
met with in every part of the Genoese territories, he could 
occasionally depart, as in the picture of the Miracle of St, 
Peter at the Beautiful Gate of the Temple, painted at Garig- 
nano, where the architecture, the fleshes, the gestures, are 
highly studied ; and there is a force of efiect which seems to 
•emulate the Guercino, which is opposed to it. He also departs 
from his ordinary style in the Repose of the Holy Family at 
the GesiL Of three sons whom Domenico instructed, Paol^ 



262 OENOBSE SCHOOL.— EPOCH IH. 

will be mentioned among the moet excelleot artlBts of a fdtnie 
epoch ; Antonio oommendably followed bia fifcther's stj^e in his 
youth, but afterwards changed his profession. Gio. Batista 
oonld oopj or follow the designs of otiiers, but nothing beyond. 
This latter had a son, Domenieo, who whilst he was beginning 
to emulate the glory of his family, was cut off by death, and 
with him was extmgnished a fiimily which, for the course 
of nearly two oentuiiea, had conferred honour on the pro- 
fession. 

GKulio Benso^ the schohir of Paggi, excelled all his school 
in aichiteeture and perspective. Genoa, perhaps, does not 
possess any work ii| this department superior to that of Benso 
in the Nunziata del Guastato ; in the choir of which he repre- 
sented one of those perspectire pictures with balustrades and 
colonnades, in which Colonna and Mitelli so much excelled. 
These two artists were great admirers of this work of Giulio, 
but to us it may perhi^ appear too much loaded with omsr- 
ment. He there represented the Glorification of the Virgin, 
and added some histories^ in which he rigorously obserred the 
laws of the 90tto in $u ; an art then little practised in his 
schooL Giovanni and Batista Oarloni, who painted so much 
in this church, are surpassed by him in this department ; nor 
do they much exceed him in composition and colour. Benso 
left but few oil-paintingB in Genoa ; that of S. Domenico in 
the church of that saint is one of the best, and partakes more 
of the school of Bologna than that of Gbnoa. 

Oastellino Oastello possessed a sober style of composition, 
like that of Paggi his master, and, as far as we may judge 
from various pictures, was a correct and elegant artist. He 
highly distinguished himsdf in the picture of the Pentecost, 
placed on the great altar of the church of the Spirito Santo. 
He, however, like many others of this period, is indebted for 
his celebrity to his success in portrait-painting ; in confirma- 
tion of which it is sufilcient to state, that Yandyke was desirous 
of being commemorated by him, and painted him in return. 
This feet exalts his reputatioji even more than the commen- 
dations he received from contemporary poets, among whom 
were Chiabrera and Marino, whose features he also preserved 
for posterity. He was appointed portrait-painter to the 
court of Savoy, and in this department he had a rival in. 



GIO. CARLONE. '265 

his own familj, in Niocolo his son, who was in high repn-^ 
tation in Genoa when Soprani wrote. Some others of the 
achool of Paggi, distinguished in landscape or in other 
brandies of painting, are reserred for the conclusion of this 
epoch. 

Paggi had a rival in Sorri of Siena. His style is a mixture 
of Passignano and Paol Veronese ; and, if I err not in mj 
judgment, of Marco da Siena also, whose Deposition from the 
Cross in Araoeli was, in a manner, repeated hy Sorri at S. Siro 
in Ctenoa. He there instructed Carlone and Strozzi, two 
luminaries of this school. Gio. Oarlone repaired soon to 
Rome, and afterwards to Florence, where he was taught by 
Pasagnano, the father-in-law and master of Sorri. Fassig- 
nano was not so remarkable for his colouring as for his design 
and grandeur of composition ; but we have already observed, 
that the style of colour is that portion of the art least influ- 
enced by precept, and which is formed more than any other 
by the incQvidnal genius of the painter. Carione possessed as 
great talents for composition as any of his contemporaries ; 
correct and graceful in design, decided and intelfigent in 
expression ; and above all, he had an extraordinary brilliancy 
of colour in his frescos. In this branch he was anxious to 
distinguish himself; and although he saw eminent examples 
at Florence and in Rome, he did not adhere to them so much 
as, if I am not wrong in my conjecture, he attempted to 
follow, or rather to surpass and to i^uce to a more pleasing 
practice, the style exhibited by Tavarone, in the histories of 
S. Lorenzo. I have already described that style ; the vigonr, 
beauty, and fi^hness with which it prepossesses the q)ectator, 
and approximates the most distant objects. If) in respect of 
Giovanni, we wish to add any greater praise, it is that he 
surpassed Tavarone in these gi^s; and besides, he is more 
correct in his contours, and more varied and copious in 
composition. But in all these qualities they were both 
excelled by Gio. Batista Oarlone, a scholar also of Passignano, 
and a student in Rome, afterwards the associate of Giovanni, 
his elder brother, in principle and practice, whom he survived 
fiffcy years, as if to carry their style to the highest pitch of 
penection. 

The church of the Nunriata del Guastato, a splendid monu- 



264 QENOESB SCHOOL.— ^EPOCH HI. 

ment ofthe pietyand the riches of the noble family of Lomdlxm, 
and an edifice Tvhich confers honour on the city, which has 
enlarged and ornamented it as its cathedral, possesses no work 
more astonishing than the three naves, almost nearly the 
whole of which are decorated by the two brothers. In the 
middle one the elder brother represented the Epiphany of onr 
Lord, his Entrance into Jerusalem, the Prayer at Gethsemane, 
the Resurrection, the Ascension, the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, the Assumption of the Virgin, and other passages of 
the New Testament In one of the smaller naves, the 
younger brother painted St. Paul preaching to the Multitude, 
St. James baptizing the Neophytes, St. Simon and St. Jude 
in the metropolis of Persia ; and in the opposite nave three 
histories from the Old Testament, Moses striking the Rock, 
the Israelites passing the Jordan, and Joseph, on a high seat, 
giving Audience to his Brethren. All these stories seem to 
be adopted as giving scope to a fancy rich in invention, and 
capable of peopling these immense compositions with figures 
almost innumerable. It is not easy to mention a work on so 
vast a scale executed with so much zeal and care ; composi- 
tions so copious and novel, heads so varied and so animated, 
contours so well expressed and so strongly relieved, colours so 
enchanting, so lucid and fresh after such a lapse of years. 
The reds (which perhaps are too frequent) are as deep as 
puxple, the blues appear sapphires, and the green, above all, 
which is a wonder to artists, is bright as an emerald. In 
viewing the brilliancy of these colours we might almost mis- 
take them for paintings on glass or enamel ; nor do I recollect 
to have seen in any other artists of Italy so original, beautiful, 
and enchanting a style of colour. Some persons who have 
compared these colours with those of Raffaello, Correggio, or 
Andrea del Sarto, have thought them too near bordering on 
cnideness; but in matters of taste, where the sources of 
pleasing are so many, and where there are so many gradations 
in the merits of artists, who can possibly gratify all ? The 
similitude of style would lead the unskilled to believe them 
the works of the same master ; but the more experienced are 
able to ascertain the composition of Gio. Batista from a pecu- 
liar delicacy of tints and of chiaroscuro, and from a grander 
style of design. It has been attempted to ascertain more 



GIO. BATISTA. 265 

minutelj his xnethod of cokmring ; and it has been discoTered, 
^' that in decorating the ceilings and walls of rooms, he pre- 
yiously laid on the dry wall a colour ground, to protect his 
work from the action of the lime. These puntings were 
executed with the most delicate gradations, and the most sur- 
prising harmony ; hence his frescos have all the richness of oil- 
jcolours." These are the words of Ratti, and Mengs joins him 
in the encomium. 

I have only enumerated the paintings which these artists 
exhibited in the Guastato, but Giovanni left numerous works 
in the same style and on similar subjects, at the Ges^ and at 
S. Domenico in Genoa, and at S. Antonio Abate in Milan, 
where he died; without mentioning the many hhlea and 
iBtoiies with which he adorned various palaces in his native 
city. Of the other brother it is not equally easy to recount 
all that he painted in private houses, and in the before-men- 
tioned churches, and at S. Siro and elsewhere. The histories 
of the chapel in the Palazzo Reale are amongst his most origi- 
nal and delightful works ; Columbus discovering the Indies ; 
the Martyrdom of the Giustiniani at Scio ; the Remains of the 
Baptist brought to Genoa, and other Ligurian subjects. Nor 
is it easy to enumerate his many altar-pieces and oil-pictures 
to be found in the churches. I shall limit myself here to the 
three histones of S. Clemente Ancirano at the Guastato ; 
pictures, characterized by such congruity, such truth, and 
such a peculiar horror, as to force us to withdraw our eyes 
from the inhumanity of the scene. Some persons may^ 
perhaps, be indisposed to give full credit to all that I have 
written of Gio. Batista ; as it seems incredible that an artist 
should be so little known, whp united in himself the most 
x)pposite qualities ; a wonderful skill both in oil and fresco ; 
equal excellence in colour and design ; fiEu^ility and correctness ; 
an immense number of works, and a diligence shewn by few 
fresco-painters. But they who have viewed the works I have 
mentioned, with unprejudiced eyes, wiU not, I feel confident, 
differ far from me in opinion. He lived to the age of eighty- 
five, and lost neither his vigour of invention nor his genius for 
^rand composition ; nor the freedom of hand, and incompa- 
rably fine pencil with which he treated them. I shall allude, 
in another epoch, to his sons Andrea and Niccolo ; but I must 



208 GENOESE SCHOOL.— -BPOCn III. 

not neg^eet to observe, tbat both Pascoli and Oriandi haye 
written of this fiimilj with little aoeuracy. 

The other great coloarist and scholar of Sorri was Bezv 
nardo Strozzi, better known onder the name of the Capuchin of 
Genoa^ from his professing that order. He is also called il Prete 
Genavetty because he left the cloister, when a priest, to con- 
tribute to the snppwt of an aged motlver and a sister ; bnt the 
one dying and the other marrying, he refused to return to his 
order; and being afterwards forcibly recalled to it and sen- 
tenced to three years of imprisonment, he contrired to make his 
escape, fled to Yeniee, and there passed the remainder of his 
days as a secular priest. The largw compoations of this artist 
are only to be seen in C^oa, in tibe houses of the noMlity, and 
in San Domenico, where he executed the great picture of the 
Pandiso, which is one of the best eonceired that I have seen. 
Theie too, in NoTi and in Yoltri, are -various altar-pieces ; 
and above all, an admiraUe Madonna in Genoa, in a room of 
the Palaaso Beale. Some of his works are also to be seen in 
Venice, where Strozzi was preferred to evay otiier artist, to 
z^lace a Tondo, executed in the best age of Yenetian art, 
in the library of St Mark, and there panted a figure of 
Sculpture. 

He, however, left few public works. Whoever wishes to 
see admirable {ttoductiona^ must observe his pictures in 
eminent collections ; as the St. Thomas Incredtdous^ in the 
Palazzo Brignole. When placed in a room of exc^ent 
colourists, he edipses them all by the majesty, copiousness^ 
vigour, nature, and harmony of ms style. His design is not 
very oorrect, nor sufficiently select ; we there see a naturalist 
who follows neither Sorri nor any other master ; but one 
who, after the example of that ancient master, derives 
instruction from the multitude. There is a deep expression 
of force and energy in the heads of his men, and of piety in 
those of his saints. In the countenances of his women and 
his youths he has less merit ; and I have seen some of his 
Madonnas and angels vulgar and often repeated. He was 
accustomed to paint portraits, and in his compositions derived 
all his knowledge from the study of nature; and often 
painted half-figures in the style of Caravag^o. The royal 
gallery at Flormce has a Christ by him, called ddla Maneta ; 



OIGU AMDBSA. DB' FBBRARI. 267 

the fignres half-size, and exhibiting great vivacity. He is 
esteemed the most spirited artist of his own school ; and in 
strong impasto, in richness and vigour of colour, has few 
rivals in any other ; or rather, in this style of colonring he is 
original and without example. His remains were deposited 
at S. Fosca in Venice, with this inscription : *^ Bemardus 
Strozzitts Pictoram splendor, ligiirisB decus ;" and it is his great 
praise to have merited this encominm in the seat and near the 
ashes of the greatest coloarists. 

Gio. Andrea de' Ferrari perfected himself under this 
master, having been previously the scholar of Castelli, whose 
feeble style may be detected in the Theodoeius, painted by 
Ferrari as an altar-piece in the Clesu. In many works he is 
a respectable follower of Strozri ; as in the Nativity in the 
Daomo of G«noa, and in the Nativity of the Virgin, in a 
church of Voltri, full of figures which seem inspired with life. 
Although little known, and perhaps too little commended by 
Soprani, he is one of the first Genoese artists; and, to 
establish his reputation, it is sufficient to stated that he was the 
master of Gio. Bernardo Carbone, the chief of this school of 
portrait-painters. Even by the more experienced his portndts 
were often mistaken for those of Vandyke, or purchased at 
prices Httle inferior to those given for a true Vandyke. He 
also composed well, as nmy be seen in his picture of the King 
8. Louis at the Guastato. But this picture did not please the 
person who gave the commisrion, and a second was ordered 
in Paris, and afterwards a third, which successively super- 
seded each other on tibe altar. But they did not prove 
satisfEUitory, and that of Oaibone was restored to its place, 
and the other two were added as laterals, as if to attend on it. 

Another deserving scholar of Strozzi, resided a considerable 
time in Tuscany, and there distinguished himself; Clemento 
Bocdardo, from his great size called Olementone. He first 
studied in Rome, afterwards in Florence, and practising much 
with Oastiglione, he formed a style more correct and ideal 
than that of his master, to whom, however, he is inferior in 
truth of colour. Pisa was his theatre of art, where, in the 
Duomo and elsewhere, he left some highly respectable works ; 
over all of which, in his life, the preference is given to 
S. Sebastian, placed in the church of the Carthusians. He 



268 QENOESE SCHOOL.— *EPOCH UI. 

painted his own portrdt for the rojal gallery of Florence, 
which has had a better fate than those of many common 
.artists, and remains there to the present day. 

A third pupil of this school resided a considerable time in 

Venice, afterwards in Mirandola. This was Gio. Francesco 

Cassana, a soft and delicate colonrist, and master of Langetti. 

By the Venetians he was but little esteemed, and painted only 

for priTate collections. He afterwards repaired to the court 

of Mirandola, and painted a S. Jerome for the Duomo of that 

jcity, and other pictures in various churches, which enhanced 

his reputation. He was the founder of a &mily that 

4X>nferred honour on the art. Niccolo, his eldest son, who 

became one of the most celebrated portrait-painters of his age, 

.passed the chief part of his life at Florence, and died at the 

court of London. The grand duke possesses some of his 

historical compositions, and some portraits full of expression, 

in the royal gallery, amongst which are two half-figures of 

two court buffoons, admirably executed. It is said that his 

style, which nearly approaches to Strozzi, cost him great 

irouble, and that^ when painting, he was so intent on his 

work as not to hear a person addressing him ; and sometimes, 

in a rage, he would throw himself on the ground, exclaiming 

against his work as deficient both in colour and spirit, till, 

snatching his pencil again he brought it to his wishes. Gio. 

Agostino, called TAbate Cassana, from the clerical dress 

which he always wore, was a good portrait-painter, but 

distinguished himself more in the representation of animals. 

There are many of ids pictures in the collections of Florence^ 

Venice, and Genoa^ and Italy in general, and they often 

indeed pass under the name of Castiglione. The third 

brother was Gio. Batista, and excelled in flowers and fruits, 

which he painted with great effect. They bad also a sister, 

of the name of Maria Vittoria^ who painted sacred figures 

for private collections, and who died in Venice at the 

beginning of the last century. In all I have said of the 

Cassana fEimily I have adhered to Ratti, as to a native and 

correct author. Some who have written on the gallery of 

Florence, where the portraits of the three first are found, differ 

in some particulars, ascribing to the one works belonging 

to the other. Niccolo was in fact the one that there enjoyed 



GIO. ANDREA ANSAIiDO. 269^ 

the highest favour of Prince Ferdinand ; and he it is who is 
mentioned in the note to Borghini (p. 316), where it is said 
that the picture hy Raffaello, transferred from Pescia to the 
Pitti palace, was finished by Cassana. But with respect to 
this notice, and others regarding the Cassani, we may consult 
the Catalogo Yianelli, p. 97, where we find described a 
remarkable portrait of a young man studying, painted by 
Niccolo ; and it is succeeded by a long memoir, which throws 
additional light on the history of this £Eimily. 

I must now speak of another celebrated Ligarian, but 
neither a scholar of Paggi, nor of Sorri, nor indeed of any 
other considerable master, and almost self-instructed ; for the 
elements of the art, which he learned from Orazio Cambiaso, 
a painter of mediocrity, could not carry him far. He was 
born in Yoltri, his name Gio. Andrea Ansaldo. He is the 
only one of the school who contested precedency in perspec* 
tive with Giulio Benso, by whom, in a quarrel, prompted by 
jealous feelings of his talents, he was wounded : an attempt 
which was repeated by an unknown hand, after an interval of 
some years. Near the choir of the Nunziata, painted by 
Benso, we behold the cupola of Ansaldo, injured by damp, 
yet notwithstanding remarkable for a most beautiful division 
and grandeur of the architecture, and for many figures which 
remain uninjured. When we survey this fine work, we 
cannot refuse to this artist a great talent for the decoration of 
cupolas, which may be esteemed the summit of the art of 
painting, as the colossal is of sculpture. His other works in 
fresco, in churches and in private houses, are very numerous ; 
and he is particularlv admired for his works in. the palace 
Spinola at S. Pier d' Arena, where he has represented the 
military exploits in Flanders of the Marchese Federico, the 
boast of this family. Amongst his oil-pictures a St. Thomaa 
baptizing three Kings in a church, is celebrated. It is placed 
in the chapel of that saint, and exhibits much vigour of design, 
a brilliant decoration of sceneiy and persons, and a display of 
graceful and delightful harmony. Such is his prevailing 
character, which is in part his own, acquired by au unwearied 
application, and in part derived from the Venetians, and 
especially Paolo. Ansaldo is one of those masters who 
painted both much and well. 



270 GENOBgB SCHOOL.— BPOCH III. 

Of his soliolars, the one who followed him the closest was 
Orazio de' Fernjri, his countryman and kinsman. He painted 
well in fresco, bnt better in oil. We need only inspect the 
Last Supper in the oratory of S. Siro, to form a most fiiyourable 
idea of this young artist. Gioyacchino Assereto profited more 
from the design than the colour of Ansaldo ; in general he 
attempted his chiaroscuro in the manner of Borzone, his first 
master, as in the picture of S. Rosario at S. Brigida. Giuseppe 
Badaracco was ambitious of introducing a new style into his 
native place, and repaired to Florence, where he remained 
many years copying and imitating Andrea del Sarto. He 
left many works there in private collections, and I imagine 
they are there BtiU; bnt, as always happens to copyists 
and imitators, his name is never mentioned, and his works 
pass as belonging to the school of Andrea. In Genoa itself 
his name is almost lost. It is known that he in general 
painted for collections; but not for what houses. I found 
in the house of a gentleman of Novi an Achilles in Scyros^ 
with the name of Badaracco, and with the date of 1654. In 
this work the artist seems to have forgotten Andrea, and 
to have followed the naturalists of his own country. There is 
no public work by him except a S. Philip, which is preserved 
in the sacristy of S. Nicoolo in Yoltri. 

To the foregoing masters we may add Gio. Batista Baiardo, 
of I know not what school, but certainly commendable for the 
talents displayed in his pictures at the portico of S. Pietro, and 
in the convent of S. Agostino, painted with vigour, freedom, 
and grace. The inferior works in that convent are certainly 
by another hand. Baiardo, Badaracco, Oderico, Primi, Gre- 
gorio de' Ferrari, and others in this school, were carried off by 
the plague in 1657. Bat we have now spoken sufficiently of 
the higher dasB of works, and shall here pass to those of 
another kind, oompleting the notices which we have ocea- 
donally interspersed before. 

We have often spoken of portrait-painting, a lucrative 
branch of the art in every capital, and more cultivated in 
Genoa than in most cities. Besides the noble models of 
art left, as we have before mentioned, by the best Flemish 
artists, those of Bel Corte, a scholar of Titian, and of his 
son Cesare, were of great service. From the school of 



8INIBALD0 SCORZA. 271: 

this master arose a suocessum of noble portrait-painters, in- 
structed by Luciano Borzone^ who in the time of Oerano and 
Procaccini also studied in the Milanese school, and derived 
benefit from it; an artist highly esteemed by Guide Beni. He 
is entitled to a place in the higher walks of art for his nume- 
rous pointings for the churches and for collections; where 
however his greatest merit is the expression, which as a ^ood 
portrait-^painter, or rather naturalist, he gives to his h^ds, 
which partake more of natural truth than of select beauty. 
The folds of his drapery are true and simple, and his style on 
the whole is not so strong as that of Guercino, but sufficiently 
so as to please the eye. The Pres^itation at S. Domenico, 
and the B. Chiara at S. Sebastiano, are of this eharaust^r^ But 
his best works are at S. Spirito, where he painted six pictures, 
and amongst them the Baptism of Christ, which is much ex- 
tolled. He initiated in his own profession two sons, Gio. 
Batista and Carlo, who on his death finished some of his pic- 
tures in a manner not to be distinguished from Ms own hand. 
Carlo surpassed his brother in small portraits ; and with him 
Gio. Batista Mainero* Gio. Batista Monti, Silvestro Ghiesa, 
all scholars of Borzooie, all worthy of commemoration, and all 
of whom shared the same fate, being carried c^ by the pesti- 
lence of the year 1657. 

The first who distinguished himself in the loww branch of 
the art in the Genoese school was Sinibaldo Seorsa, bom in 
Yoltaggio, who, guided by a natural genius, and directed 
by Paggi, proved an excellent painter of landscapes enlivened 
by figures of men and anjifiafe in the style of Berghem. 
It would be difficult to name an artist in Italy who so suc- 
eessfuliy engrafted the Flemish style on his own. I have 
seen a picture of cattle passing a stream, in the collection 
ef the illustnbus Carlo Gambiaso, where the animals rival 
those of Berghem, and the human figures appear painted 
by a superior artist. Other collections possess specimens of 
him in sacred subjects and classical £i>bles; in which he rises 
fEur above the Flemish artists. He also painted in miniature, 
if indeed his oil-paintings, from the care bestowed on them, 
ought not themselves to be called miniatures. His works 
were celebrated by the poets of the age, particularly by Marini, 
who introduced him to the court of Savoy. He was engaged. 



272 GENOESE SCHOOL. — ^EPOCH III. 

and employed there until hostilities took place between the 
governments of Piedmont and Genoa, which obliged him to 
return home. He was then denounced to the goremment by 
some malicious rivals as a partisan of Savoy, and passed tTfa 
years in exile between Massa and Bome. From thenoe h» 
returned much improved, wheuce his latter pictures fsa exceed 
the first in invention and copious composition. 

A\itonio Travi, more commonly called II Sestri, or II Sordo 
di Sestri, from being a grinder of colours in the studio of 
Strozzi, and a friend of the Flemish artist Waals, soon emulated 
both the one and the other. He learned from the latter the 
art of painting landscape, with buildings in perspective, and 
ruins; and he afterwards copied from nature the beautiful 
country of the Riviera, with avenues of trees and rich orchards. 
But as Waals was a feeble painter of figures, Travi availed 
himself of the instructions of Strozzi to enliven his landscapes^ 
with beautiful and spirited figures, not so much. painted as 
sketched with a few strokes by a master's hand, to gratify thar 
eye when viewed at a distance. Thus, although his landscapes 
are not highly finished, they please us by their agreeable dis^ 
position, by their azure skies, the verdure of the trees, and- 
their freedom of touch.. . The state abounds with his pictures ; 
but a great proportion of those that bear his name are by hia 
sons, who succeeded him in his profession, but not with their 
father's talents. 

Ambrogio Samengo and Francesco Borzone deserve also to 
be enumerated among the landscape-painters. Ambrogio was* 
the scholar of Grio. Andrea Ferrari, a painter of flowers and 
fruit ; and his works are rare, in consequeuce of his early death. 
Francesco, after a miraculous escape from the plague,* applied* 
himself to the composition of marine subjects and landsc^>es. 
in the style of Claude and Dughet ; and his pictures, from* 
their clearness, sweetness, and fine effect, attracted the notice of 
Louis XIY., who invited him to his court, where he remained 
many years; and this is the reason of the scarcity of his 
works in Italy. We might here mention Raffaele Soprani, 
the biographer of the Genoese artists, and many noble Genoese- 
with him ; but in a work where the names of many painters 
themselves are omitted, it will not be expected that we should 
record all the amateurs of the art. 



BENEDETTO CASTIGLIONB. 273 

I may place in this class of artists Crio. Benedetto Casti^ 
glione : not that he wanted talents for larger worka^ as many 
altar-pieces in Genoa, and particularly the very beautifol 
Nativity in St. Luke, one of the most celehrated pictures in 
the city, sufficiently prove, but because the great reputation 
which he has acquired in Europe has been derived from his 
cabinet pictures, where he has represented in a wonderful 
manner animals, either alone or as accessories to the subject. 
In this department of the art he is, after Bossano, the first in 
Italy; and between these two the same difference exists as 
between Theocritus and Virgil; the first of whom is more 
true to nature and more simple, the second more learned and 
Inore finished. Castiglione, the scholar of those accomplished 
!irtists Paggi and Vandyke, ennobles the fields and woods by 
the fertility and novelty of his invention, by his classical allu- 
sions, and his correct and natural expression of the passions. 
He displays a freedom of design, a facility, grace, and gene- 
rally a fulness of colour ; but in some pictures a greater rich- 
ness is desired by Maratta. The general tone is cheerful, and 
often reddish. We find by him in collections large pictures of 
animals with figures, as in that belonging to his Excellency 
the Doge Agostino Lomellino ; at other times sacred subjects, 
among which the most celebrated are those from Genesis, the 
creation of animab, and their entry into the ark ; and the 
return of Jacob with a numerous body of servants and cattle, 
a stupendous performance in the Palazzo Brignole Sale, Some- 
times we find £a.bulous compositions, as the Transformations of 
Circe, in the collection of the Grand Duke of Tuscany ; at 
other times hunting-pieces, as that of the Bull in the collection 
of the Marchesi Riccardi at Florence ; often markets and shows 
of cattle in the Flemish manner, and always more finished and 
more gay when painted on a smaller scale. Such is a Tobias in 
the act of recovering his sight, a most elegant picture, which I 
saw in possession of the Gregori fi&mily at Foligno. It would 
require a volume, as Soprani observes, to describe all his pictures 
in Genoa ; but there is an abundance of them, not to mention 
those abroad, in every part of Italy, as he studied both at 
Rome and Venice, and a longer time at Mantua, where he 
died in the service of the court. He there, for the correctness 
and beauty of his colouring, obtained the name of Grechetto ; 

VOL. HI. T 



£74 GENOEBE SCHOOL^-— EPOCH HI. 

and, for bis peciili«r style of etchiBg, he was also called a 
second Bembrandt. In that city aie to be found some pictuzes 
in bis mannez by bis son Francesco and bis brother Salyatore^ 
in which they often make near approaches to him* Francesco 
repaired aftorwards to Genoe^ where he employed himself in 
painting animaJfl, which less experienced connoissenrs some- 
times ascribe to Gk). Benedetto. No Genoese^ except Fran- 
cesco, riyalled him in this branch ; for Gio. Lorenzo Bertolotti, 
who studied under him for some time, dedicated himself to the 
painting of altar-pieces ; and in that of the church of the 
Visitation he highly distinguished himself* Anton Maria 
Tassallo was a reputable painter of landscape, fiowers, fruits, 
and animals. His chief merit is in his colouring, which he 
learned from Mal^ the scholar of Rubens. He excdled also 
in figures; but his short life did not allow him to obtain a 
move exte&ded celebiity. 



275 



GENOESE SCHOOL. 

EPOCH IV. 



Hie Roman and Parmesan succeed to the Native Style. Establishment 

of an Academy. 

Many masters of this school being cut off bj the plague in the 
year 1657} others deceased in the conrse of nature, not a few 
incapacitated from a^, and some also turned to mannerism, 
the Grenoese school fell into such a state of decline, that most 
of the young artists had reconrse to other cities for instruction, 
and in most instances repaired to Rome. In consequence, from 
the beginning of this centuiy to our own days, the Boman 
style has predominated among these painters, varying, ac- 
cording to the schools from which it descended, and ac* 
cording to the scholani that practised it. Few of them have 
preserved the style unmixed ; and some have formed from 
the Roman and the Genoese a third manner, deserving of com- 
mendation. On this account my readers should be cautioned 
not to judge of these artists from works which some of them 
left when studying in Rom^ as I have known to be some- 
times the case. Artists ought to be estimated by their mature 
works, which, in this art, are like the corrected editions of a 
work in letters, by which eveiy author wishes to be judged. 

I noticed, in. a former volume, Gio. Batista GbLulli. This 
artist, after many years' practice under Luciano Borzone, 
unwilling to remain in a city depopulated by the plague, went 
to Rome ; and there by studying the best masters and by the 
direction of Bemino, made himself master of a new style, 
grand, vigorous, full of fire, his children gracefully drawn, and 
altogether, enchanting. He contributed some pupils to the 
Roman school, and two of them he educated for their native 
school ; Gio. Maria delle Plane, called, from his father s pro- 
fession, II Molinaretto, and Gio. Enrico Yaymer. Their 
pictures were composed in a good style, and iheze are some of 

T 2 



276 GENOESE SCHOOlu — ^BPOCH lY. 

their works in the churches of Genoa ; particularly of the first, 
by whom there is at Sestri di Ponente a Decollation of St. 
John the Baptist, highly celebrated. But they owed both 
their fame and their fortune to portrait-painting. The ac- 
complishments of their master in that respect, abore all other 
artists, insured them a reputation, whence they abounded in 
commissions, both in Genoa, which on that account is full of 
portraits painted by them, and also in foreign countries. 
Vaymer was three times called to Turin to paint the king and 
royal fi&mily ; and was invited by very considerable offers to 
remain there, which he, however, always rejected. Molina- 
retto, after several visits to Parma and Piaoenza, where he 
furnished the court with portraits, and left some pictures in 
the churches, was invited by King Charles of Bourbon to 
Naples, where he died, in a good old age, painter to the court. 

Pietro da Cortona also contributed some good scholars to 
Genoa. A doubtful celebrity remains to Francesco Bruno of 
Porto Maurizio, who left in his native country some altar- 
pieces in the style of Pietro, and a copy of one of the 
pictures of that master. He is an unequal painter, if, 
indeed, we may not conclude, with Sig. Ratti, that some 
inferior works are improperly ascribed to him by common 
report. -With still less foundation Francesco Rosa of Genoa 
is conjectured to have sprung from this school, who studied 
about the same time in Rome. The frescos and oil-picture» 
which he left in that city, at S. Carlo al Corso, and particu- 
larly at the churches of S. Yincenao and Anastasio, evince 
him a follower of a different style. He there approaches 
Tommaso Luini and the dark mannerists of that period. He 
painted in a much better style, at Frari in Venice, a Miracle 
wrought by 8. Antonio ; a large composition, in which besides 
a most beautiful architecture he displajrs much knowledge 
of the naked figure, good effect of chiaroscuro, great vivacity 
in the heads ; in the latter, however, little select, and in the 
general effect partaking more of Caracci than Cortona. 

There is no doubt that Gio. Maria Bottalla was instructed 
hy Cortona. The Cardinal Sacchetti, his patron, from his 
happy imitation of Raffaello sumamed him Raffii«llino ; an 
appellation which I am not sure was confirmed to him in 
Rome, and it certainly was refused to him in Genoa. la 



OIO. MARIA BOTTALLA. 277 

both those cities he left rery considerable works, in which he 
clid not go so &jr in his imitation of Pietro, as to neglect the 
style of Annibal Caracci. A large composition of Jacob, by 
his hand, is to be seen in the collection of the Campidoglio, 
formerly in the Sacchetti; and there exists in the Casa 
Negroni in Genoa, a picture in fresco by him. Both are very 
considerable works for a painter who had not passed his 
thirty-first year. Another undoubted scholar of Pietro was 
Oio. Batista Langetti, although in his colouring he adhered 
more to the elder Cassana, his second master. Langetti is 
one of the foreign painters who, after 1650, flourished in 
Yenice, and excited the poetic genius of Boschini. He 
extols him as an artist eminent in design and execution;^ 
luid this commendation is confirmed by Zanetti; with an 
understanding, however, that this extends only to his more 
studied pictures; as, for instance, bis Crucifixion in the 
church deUe Terese. As to the rest he generally painted for 
profit ; painting heads of old men, philosophers, and anchorets, 
for which he is very remarkable in Venetian and Lombard 
collections. It is said that he was accustomed to paint one a 
day; his portraits were always drawn with truth, without 
adding that ideal grandeur which we so much admire in the 
Oreek sculptures in similar subjects. He animated these 
countenances, however, with a strength of colour and with a 
vigour of pencil that caused them to be highly sought after ; 
often receiving for them not less than fifty ducats apiece. 
His name is not found in the Abbeccedario, which is not to be 
wondered at, for in so vast a work it is impossible to notice 
every individual artist. 

But* the greater number of scholars that C^noa sent to 
Rome attached themselves to Maratta^ Gio. Steiano Robatto 
of Savona repaired twice to his school, and remained in it 
several years. He matured his genius, by visiting other 
schools of Italy, and went also into Germany, and at a 
mature age settled in his own country. He there executed 

* L'opera con bon arte, e colpi franchi, 
L'osaerra el natural con bon giudizio, 
In Tatizar Tatende al bon ofizio, 
Che i moyimenti sia Tiyi e n6 stanchi. 

Carta del Navegcr PiiioretcOf p. 538. 



278 GBNOBBB SCHOOL.— -SPOCH IT. 

some works tbat confer honour on ber ; as ihe St. Francisr 
reoeiring the stigmatsi^ painted in fresco in the cloister of the 
Capuchins. Others of these, his first works, hare obtained 
unqnalified praise, especially for their colouring, which exdted 
even the admiration of the piofesBors of Genoa, acoostoraed 
to study the first works of art. But he afterwards gave 
himself up to gaming, and losing all desire of disdnetion, he 
degraded both his pencil and his name, producing, like a 
mechanic, works of medioority at a trifling price. H^ioe it 
may be said, that Sarona had not a better nor a worse 
painter than Bobatto. 

Gio. Raffiiello Badaracco, the son of Gius^pe, who is 
mentioned in a former ^odb, passed from the schcMd of his 
father to that of Maratta ; and afterwards, aspiring to a freer 
style, he became in a great measure Coitonesque, very Boii in 
execution, of a good impasto^ with an abundance of the 
finest uhramarine, which has conferred on his pictures both 
durability and celebrity. His historical subjects are yeiy 
numerous in collections ; the Certosa of PoloeTem possesses 
two of the largest, from the history of the patron saint. A 
Bolando Marchelfi was a fine scholar of Maratta; but^ 
attaching himself to merchandise, he left few works. 

The most remarkable in this band are tiie sons of three 
cdLebrated masters ; Andrea Oarlone, Pac^rolamo Piola, and 
Bomenico Parodi. The first was son of Giambatista, from 
whose style and that of Rome, and afterwards from that of 
Yenice, he formed a mixed manner, which, if I miHtakft not, 
is more pleasing in oil than in fresco. He painted much in 
Perugia and the neighbouring cities ; far from the finish and 
grace of his father, and less happy in composition ; but 
displaying a Venetian style <^ freedom, vigour, and spirit ; 
particularly in some histories of S. Feliciano, painted at 
Foligno, in the church of that saint. Returning to Rome, he 
improved his manner ; and his works after that period are 
much his best. Such are some passages from the Hfe of 
S. Xayier, at the Gesii in Rome ; and many poetical subjects 
at Genoa, in the palaces Biignole, Saluzso, and Durazzo. 
This painter affords an excellent admonition to writers on art^ 
not to form their judgment too hastily on the merit of artists^ 
without having first seen their best productions. Whoever 



BOMENICO PARODI. 27d 

jmdged of CSarJone from the picture he painted at the Gesii in 
Perugia, would not persuade himself that he oonld, in Grenoa, 
hare lefit 8o many fine waska as to be ranked, according tb 
Batti, among the painters of Genoa most worthy iji com^ 
memoration. Nieoolo, his brother, may be also added as his 
scholar, fie is the least celelwated of the family; not that 
he wanted talent, bat it was not of a transcendont kind. 

Pi(^ the son of Domenioo, as I have noticed in a fbrm^ 
place, is one of the most cultivated and finished painters of 
this school ; a true disciple of Maratta, as r^;ardB his method 
of carefully studying and deliberately executing his works^ 
but o&erwise not his close imitator. In this respect it should 
seem he attached himself more to the Oaracci, mhom he very 
mndi copied in Borne ; and traces of this style may be seen 
in his beautiful picture of S. Domenico and Ignazio, in the 
church of Garignano, and in every place where he painted. 
It is known that he was rebuked by his father &r slowness ; 
but by this he was not moved ; intent on a more exalted walk 
than his father, and exhibiting more selection, grandeur, 
tenderness, and truth, fie had singular merit in works in 
fresco ; and being a man of letters, he designed extremely 
well fables and historical sabjecte, in decorating many 
noblemen's houses, fiis Parnassus, painted for ^g. GKo. 
Filippo Duraszo, has been much praised ; and it is added, 
that that noUeman said, that he was glad he had not sent for 
Solimene from Naples, whilst Genoa possessed such an artist. 
fiad he painted less on watts and more on canvas, his merit 
would have become known also to fordgners. 

Domenico Parodi was, like his fether, a sculptor, and 
moreover an architect ; but he owed his reputation to painting; 
licss equal to himself than Piola, he enjoyed a greater hme ; 
as he had a more enlarged geniuc^ a more extended knowledge 
of letters and ilie arts, a more decided imitation of the Greek 
design, and a pencil more pliable to every siyle. He first 
studied in Yenice under Bombelli, and there remain, in acasa 
Dnrazso, some excellent copies of Venetian pictures made at 
that period ; nor did he forsake this style during the many 
succeeding years that he studied in Rome, fie painted, in a 
good Marattesque style, the noble picture of S. Francesco di 
Sales at the Filippini, and several other pictures ; but of him, 



280 OENOBBB SCHOOL. ^BPOCH IT. 

as well aa of the Guaeei, we find woiks partaking in an 
extiaordinary manner of the style of Tintoretto or Padio, and 
which are described in his life. £Bs most celebrated work is 
the Sala of the palace Negroni. Some professors faaye 
expressed their opinion, that there is not so fine a perlormanee 
in all Genoa ; and it is a fact, that Mengs's attention was 
there arrested for sereral honrs by a painter that he had never 
before heard of: A correct design, a vigour and hannonj of 
colour, a mode of decorating the walls peculiarly his own, 
attempted by nuiny, but not understood by any, render thia 
a most remarkable production ; nor is it a little aided by the 
poetical invention, and the beautifal distribution and grouping 
of the figures. The whole is devoted to the gloiy of this 
noble family, whose escutcheon is crowned by Pradrace, 
Continence, and other virtues, expressed by their several 
symbols; and there are also fables of Hereiues slaying the 
Lion, and Achilles instructed by Chiron, which incQeate the 
honours acquired by this fiunily in letters and in arms. 
Portraits are added to these decorations, and evei^ part is so 
well connected, and so well varied, and so enriched by ves- 
tures, drapery, and other omam^its, that, though many 
noble fiEunilies may boast of being more highly celebrated by 
the muse, few have obtained such distinguished honours from 
the sister art Other noble houses were also ornamented by 
him in fresco ; and the gallery of the Sig. Marcello Duraszo, 
decorated witib stories, and hklea^ and chiaroscuri, which 
might be taken for bassirilievi, is a work much resembling the 
one just described. In some pictures, as in the S. Camillo de' 
Lellis, he does not seem the same ; and probaby some of his 
scholars had the greater share in them. His most celebi«ted 
scholar was the priest An^olo Rossi, one of the best imitators, 
in humorous subjects, of Piovan Arlotto ; and in painting a 
good follower of Maratta, though he left but few works*. 
Batista Parodi was the brother of Domenioo, but not the 
scholar ; he partook of the Venetian school ; expeditious, free, 
fertile in invention, and brilliant in colouring, but not sufii* 
ciently select, nor equal to the better artists. He lived for 
some time in Milan and Bergamo. Pellegro, the son of 
Domenioo, resided in Lisbon, and was a celebrated portrait* 
painter in his day. 



BARTOLOMHEO GUIBOBOlfO. 2S1 

The Abate Lorenzo, the son of Gregorio Ferrari, though 
educated in Genoa, had mnch of the Roman style. He was 
one of the most elegant painters of this school, and an imitator 
of the foreshortenings and the graces of Correggio, as was 
his &ither, bat more correct than he, and a good master of 
design. In refining on delicacy he sometimes foils into 
languor; except when he painted in the vicinity of the 
Carloni (as in the palace Doria, at & Matteo), or some other 
lively oolourist He then invigorated his tints, so that they 
possess all the brilliancy of oil, and yield the palm to few. 
Ho excelled in fresco, like most of this school, and is almost 
unrivalled in his chiaroscuro ornaments. The diurches and 
palaces abound with them ; and in the palace of the noble £unily 
of Garega is a gallery, his last work, decorated with snbjeets 
from the ^neid, and ornamented with arabesques^ stuooos, 
and intaglios, by artists under his direction. He also painted 
historical subjects. In his first public works he painted from 
his fiither's designs ; afterwards, as in the picture of various 
saints of the Augustine order, at the church of the Visitation, 
he trusted to his own genius, and enriched his school with the 
best examples. He too was a painter whose reputation was 
not equal to his merits. 

Inmrtolommeo Gnidobono, or Prete di Savona, we find 
the delicate pencil of Ferrari, and an imitation of Goneggio, 
but with less freedom of style. This artist, who was in the 
habit of painting earthenware with his father, at that time in 
the employ of the royal court of Savoy, established the first 
rudiments <^ the art in Piedmont ; and I have seen, in Turin, 
some pictures by him partaking of the Neapolitan style of 
colour, which was at one time in fiivour there. He afterwards 
went to Parma and Venice, and by copying and practising 
became a very able painter, and had an abundance of commis- 
sions in Genoa and the state. He is not so much praised for 
correctness of design in his figures, as for his skill in the 
ornamental parts, as flowers, fruits, and animals; and this 
excellence is particularly seen in some fabulous subjects in the 
Palazzo Centurioni. He had diligently studied the style of 
Castiglione, and made many copies of him, which are with 
difliculty distinguished from the originals. He is not, how- 



282 GBNOBBE SCHOOL. — BPOOH lY. 

ever, a figarist to be despised ; and it is his peculiar pnuee to 
unite a great sweetness of pencil with a fine effect of ehiar- 
roscuro ; as in the Inebriation of Lot, and in three other sab^ 
jects in oil, in the palace Brignole Sale. In Piedmont, too, 
there remain many works by him, and by his brother Dome- 
nioo, also a delicate and gracefhl painter, by whom there is in 
the Duomo of Turin a glozy of angels, whidi might belong to 
the school of Goido. He wonld haye been preferred to Prete 
if he had always painted in this st^de ; bnt this he did not do, 
and in Genoa there remain of his, amongst a few good, many 
'verv' indi£forent pictures. 

Before I quit the followers of the sdiool of Parma, I shall 
retam to the Cav. Gio. Batista Draghi, to whom I allnded in 
the third book. He was a sdiolar of Dom^co Piohi) from 
whom he acquired his deepitch ; and was the inventor of a 
new style, wluch I know not where he formed, but which he 
practised reiy much in Panna, and more in Piacensa, where 
he loi^ lived and where he died. We may trace in it the 
■choois of Bologna and Parma ; bnt in the character of the 
heads and in the dispontion of the colours there is a novelty 
which distinguisiies and characterizes him. Though he painteni 
with extraordinary celerity, yet we cannot accuse him of 
negligence. To a vivacity and fimcy that delight us, he added 
an attention to his oontours and colouring, and a powerful 
relief particularly in his oil-pictures. There are many |mg- 
tures by him in Piaeenza^ and amongst them the DcAth ot 
St James in the church of the Franciscans ; in the Duomo, 
his St. Agnes ; in S. Lorenzo, his picture of the titular sunt, 
and the great jncture of the Religious Orders receiving their 
regulations from St. Augnstin, — a subject painted alrc»dy in 
the neighbouring town of Cremona by Massarotti, and well 
executed, but inferior to Draghi. The Sig. Ptoposto Caiasi 
particularly praises the picture he painted aA Busseto, in the 
palace Pallavicino. In Genoa he painted, I believe, only 
some pictures for private collections. 

Orlandi, who does not even notice this excellent painter, 
places among the first artists of Europe Gioseffo Palraieri, 
who, together with the preceding artist, flourished in the early 
part of the eighteenth century. This praise seems ezaggeratocl^ 



pnrmo paolo ragoi. 28^ 

and he probably lefera only to the merit which Palmieri ex* 
hibited in his pictures of animals, which he was employed to 
paint even for the conrt of Portngal. Still, in the human 
€gnre he is a painter of spirit, and of a magic and beautiful 
style of colour ; very harmonioos and pleasing in those pic~ 
tures where the shades do not predominate. He is, howerer, 
reprehended for his incorrect drawing, although he studied 
under a Florentine painter, who seems to hare initiated him 
wdl ; Ibr in the Resurrection at the church of St. Dominicy 
and in other pictures more carefully painted, judges of the 
art find little to reprore. 

A Pietro Paolo Itaggi obtained also celebrity in inventioii 
and colouring. I know not to what school to assign him, but 
he was certainly a follower of &e Caraoci in a S. Bonayentuia 
contemplating a Crucifix; a large picture in the Guastato, 
There are Bacdtaaal subjects by him in «(>me collections, 
which partake of the style of Ciustiglione, as Eatti has ob^ 
served, and also of that of Caipioni, as we read in one of the 
^ Lettore Pittoridie," inserted in the fifth volume. We there 
£&d him highly extolled. Nor is he anywhere better known 
than in Beargamo; where, amongst other works which he 
executed for the church of St. Martha, a Magdalen borne to 
Heaven by Angels is particularly esteemed. He is described 
as a man of a restless disposition, irascible, and dissatisfied 
with every place he inhabited. This truant disposition canied 
him to Turin, then to Savona, then afresh to Genoa, now to 
Lavagsa, now to Lombardy, and last to Bergamo, where 
death put an end to his wanderings. About this time died in 
Finale, his natire place. Pier Loi^ixo Spoleti, formerly a 
scholar of Domenico Piola. His feivonrite occupation was to 
copy in Madrid the pictures of MuriUo and Titian. By this 
practice he was pvevented £rom distinguishing himself by any 
works of invention ; but he became a very accomplished 
portrait-painter, and was employed in that branch of the art 
at the courts of Spain and PortugaL He had also the habit 
of copying the compositions of others, and of transferring 
them with remarkable ability from the engraving to the 
canvas, enlarging the proportioBS and expressing them with a 
colouring worthy of lus great originals. A copyist like this 
painter has a better claim to our regard than many mastei% 



284 IIBNOE8B BCHOOL. — BPOCB IT. 

whose original designs serve only to remind us of our ill for^ 
tune in meeting with them. 

Among these natire artists I may be allowed to eommemo- 
rate two foreigners, who came to G«noa and established them- 
selves there^ and succeeded to the chief artists of this epoch, 
or were their competitors. The one was Jacopo Boni of 
Bologna, who was carried to Genoa by his master Frances- 
chini as an assistant, when he painted the great hall of the 
Palazzo Publico. Boni from that time was esteemed and 
employed there, and established himself there in 1726. There 
are some fine works by him, especially in fresco, in the Palazzo 
Man and in many others ; and the most remarkaUe which he 
executed in the state is in the oratory of the Costa, at S. 
Remo ; but we have spoken sufficiently of him in the third 
book. 

The other, who repaired thither three years afterwards, was 
Sebastiano Cbleotti, a Florentine, and in his native dty a 
scholar of Ghilardini, in Bologna of Giangiosefib dal Sole, a 
man of an eccentric and facile genius ; a good designer whrn 
he pleased, a bold colonrist,. beautiful in the air of his heads, 
and fitted for large compositions in fresco, in which he was 
sometimes assisted in the ornamental parts by Natali of 
Cremona. He decorated the church of the Magdalen in 
Genoa ; and those frescos, which first made him known in the 
city, are among his most finished productions ; but he was 
obliged, after painting the first history, to soften his tones in 
some degree. He worked little in his native city, and that 
only in his early years ; whence he does not there enjoy so 
high a reputation as in Upper Italy. He traversed it almost 
all in the same manner as the Zuccheri, Peruzzini, Bicchi, 
and other adventurers of the art, whose lives were spent in 
travelling from place to place, and who repeated themselves 
in every city, giving the same figures, without any fresh de- 
sign, and often the same subject entire. Hence we still find 
the works of this painter, not only in many cities of Tuscany^ 
but also in Piacenza and Parma, where he executed many 
works for the court ; and also in Codogno, Lodi, Cremona, 
Milan^ Vicenza, Bergamo, and Turin, in which latter city he 
was appointed director of the academy. In this office he 
ended his days in 1746. Genoa was however. his home. 



BATIBTA CHIAPPE. 285 

trhere he was sncceeded by two sons, Giuseppe and Gio* 
Batista, who were liying in 1769, and are mentioned with 
commendation by Ratti as excellent painters. 

From the middle of the century to our own days, what from 
the evils of war in which Genoa was inrolved, and the^generai 
decline of the art in Italy, but few artists present themselves 
to our notice. Domenico Bocciardo of Finale, a scholar and 
follower of Morandi, possessed considerable merit in historical 
cabinet pictures ; a painter of not much genius, but correct, 
and a beautiful colourist. At S. Paolo in Genoa there is by 
him a S. GioTanni baptizing the Multitude; and although 
there are many better pictures by him in the state, still this is 
sufficient to render him respectable. Francesco Campora, a 
native of Polcevera, also possessed some reputation. He had 
studied in Naples under Solimene, from whose school came 
also Gio. Ste£ftno Maia, an excellent portrait-painter. A Batista 
Chiappe of Novi, who had spent much time in Rome in drawing, 
and had become a good colourist in Milan, gave great promise 
of excellence. In the church of S. Ignazio of Alessandria there 
is a large picture of the patron saint, one of his best perform- 
ances, well conceived and well composed ; a noble ground, a 
beautiful choir of angels, a fine character in the principal 
figure, except that the head does not present a true portrait. 
We should have seen still better works, but the author was 
arrested in his career by death ; and he is described by Ratti 
as the laat person of merit of the Genoese schooL 

This school was for some time scanty in good perspective 
painters. Although Padre Pozzi was in Gknoa, he did not 
form any scholars there. Bologna, more than any other place, 
supplied him with them. From thence came Colonna and 
Mitelli, at that time so much esteemed ; thither also repaired 
Aldovrandini and the two brothers Hafiner, Henry and An- 
tony. The latter joined the monks of the order of St. Philip 
in C^noa, and decorated the church of that saint and other 
places, and initiated in the profession Gio. Batista Revello^ 
called II Mustacchi. His works were also studied by Fran- 
cesco Oosta, who was an ornamental painter from the school 
of Gregorio de' Ferrari. These two young men, from the 
similarity of their psofession, one which combines in itself the 
greatest rivalry and the greatest friendship, became in process 



28< GENOESE flCHOOU-^BPOCH lY. 

of time msepanble. Tliey both oonjoiatly served, for neailj 
the space of twenty jean, the Tarious hiatoncal painteis men- 
tioned in this epoch, preparing for them the peispeotiyeB and 
ornaments, and whatever else the art required. They are both 
alike commended for their knowledge of perepective, their 
grace, brilliancy, and haimony of tints ; but Bevello, in the 
embellishment of fiowers, is piefened to his companion* Their 
best performance is conflidered to be at P^li, in the Palazzo 
Grille, where they ornamented a saloon and scmie ehambers. 
There are also many works which they conducted separately^ 
being considered as the Golonna and Mitelli of their conntry. 

The most justly celebrated landscape-painter of this epoch 
is Carlo Ant<Riio TaveUa, the scholar <^ Tempesta in Milan, 
and of Groenbrech, a German, who, from the fires he intro- 
duced into his landscapes, was called Sol£urolo. He at first 
emulated this artist ; he then softened his style, from studying 
the works of Castiglione and Foussin, and the best Flemish 
painters. Amongst the Crenoese landscape-painters he ranka 
the next after SestrL His works are easily dLstinguished 
in the collections of Genoa, particularly in the palace 
Franchi, which had more than three huiMred pictures by 
him, and acquired for him the reputation of one of the first 
artists of the age. We are there presented with warm skies, 
beautiful distances in the landscape, plea»ng effects of light ; 
the trees, flowers, and animals are gracefully touched, and with 
wonderful truth of nature. In his figures he was assisted by 
the two Pioli, father and son ; and oftener by Magnasco, with 
whom he was associated in work. He sometimes inserted 
them in his pictures himseli^ copying them indeed from the 
orginals designed by his comrades, but identifying them by a 
style peculiarly his own. Tavella had a daughter of the name 
of Angiola, of a feeble invention, but a good copyist of her 
father s designs. He had also many other imitators ; amongst 
whom one Niccolo Micone, or as he is commonly called by his 
fellow-citizens Lo Zoppo, most nearly resembles him. 

Alessandro Magnasco, called Lissandrino, was the son of 
one Stefano, who was instructed by Yalerio Castello, after- 
wards resided many years in Eome, and died young, leaving 
behind him few pictures, but extreme regret for the death of 
an artist of so much promise. His son was instructed by 



010. AGOSTHVO BATTI. Sd7 

Abbiati in Milan ; and that bold and simple stroke of tho 
pencil, which his master nsed in his larger pictures, he trans- 
ferred to his subjects of humour, diows, and popular meetings^ 
in which he may be called the Cerqnozzi of his school. His 
figures are scarcely more than a span large. Ceremonies of the 
church, schools of maids, and youths, chapters of friars, mili- 
tary exerdses, artists' shops, Jewish synagogues, are the sub- 
jects he painted with humour and delight. These eccentric 
pieces are not rare in Milan, and there are some in the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, where Magnasco resided some years, a great 
fATOurite with the Grand Duke Gk). G^astone and all his court 
When he accompanied other painters in their works, as often 
happened to him, he added yery apposite subjects ; this he did, 
not otdj in the landscapes of Tayella and others, but also in 
the ruins of demente Spera in Milan, and in other pictures of 
architecture. This artist was more esteemed by foreigners 
than by his own countrymen. His bold touch, though joined 
to a noble conception and to correct drawing, did not attract 
in Cknoa, because it is far remoyed irom the finish and union 
of tints which these masters ft^lowed ; hence Magnasco worked 
little in his natiye country, and left no scholar there. In the 
sdiool of Yenice he educated a celebrated scholar, Sebastian 
Bicci, of whom mention has been made more than once. 

Not many years since died Gio. Agostino Batti of Sayiwa, 
a painter of delightlul genius. He ornamented the theatres 
with beautiful scenes, and the cabinets with liyely caricatures, 
which he also engrayed. He was cleyer in church paintings^ 
as may be seen in the church of S. Gioyanni at Sayono, where, 
besides other subjects of the Baptist, there is a much praised 
Decollation. He painted also in the church of S. Teresa in 
QenoB,; and was always a follower of Luti, whose school he 
had frequented when in Bome. He was aUao a good fresco- 
painter ; and I haye seen his works in the choir of the Con- 
ventual church in Casale di Monferrato, where he added 
figures to the p er spe c tive of Natali of Cremona. But subjects 
of humour were his forte. In these he had an ezhaustless 
fancy, fertile and eyer creatiye. Nothing can be more amusing 
than his masks, representmg quarrels, daiices, and such scenes 
as form the subjects of comedy. Luti, who was his master in 
Bome, extolled him as one of the first artists in this line, and 



288 OEN0B8E SCHOOL.— EPOCH IT. 

•ren equalled him to Ghezzi. This informAtioii respecting Gio« 
Agostino was communicated to me by his son, the CaTaliere 
often mentioned in the coarse of this work,* and who died in 
1795. 

* He had prepared for the press some further information respecting 
this school, both ¥rith regard to ancient and modem times. Tiie MS. 
with which he favonred me to perfect this edition of my work, I have on- 
fortunately, and to the great detriment of my own work, mislaid. He 
was not a great painter, but certainly not desenring of the contempt with 
which he hu been treated. Gratitude, friendship, truth, and humanity 
itself call on me to say all the good I can of him ; every thing that 
malevolence oould dictate has be^ already recorded against him. We 
may therefore refer the reader to the perusal of the Defence of him before 
mentioned by us, and noticed afterwards with its true title, in our second 
index, under the head Raiti, There (whoever may be the Author of it), 
many works are enumerated, which, in our opinion, would confirm to him 
the title of a praiseworthy artist. But he derives peculiar honour icom 
the opinion of him expressed by Mengs, who propcHsed him as director to 
the academy of Milan ; and some historical and national subjects being 
required in the royal palace in Genoa, Ratti was recommended to this 
honourable commission both by Mengs and Batoni, and he executed them 
to the entire satisfaction of tiie public. The more experienced judges 
pretend to detect in these works somethmg more than an imitation of the 
great masters ; and it is acknowledged, indeed, that he willingly availed 
himself of the designs of others, either painted or engraved ; but how 
few are there of whom the same may not be said ? Afterwards in Rome, 
where he lived four years in the house of Mengs, he executed under his 
eye some excellent works ; as a Nativity, for which Mengs made the 
sketcn ; wiiich, when painted on a larger scale by Ratti, was placed in a 
church in Barcelona. Being called on to paint a St. Catherine of Genoa, 
afterwards placed there in the church of that saint, Mengs designed for 
him the &ce of the saint, of an enchanting expression, and afterwards 
retouched the picture, rendmng it a delightful performance. On this it 
may be observed, that great masters were not accustomed to shew such 
favours to their scholars and friends, except when tbey discovered in them 
considerable talent. As a copyist Ratti excelled, in the' opinion of Mengs 
the latter purchasing, at a considerable sum, a copy of the S. Jerome of 
Correggio, which Ratti had made in Parma. Another proof of the- 
esteem in which he held him was his instigating him to write on art ; for 
which they must have amassed great materials during the four years they 
lived together. In the before-mentioned Difeia-we read of the academies 
that elected him, the poets and men of letters that extolled him, the crosa 
of a cavalier that he obtained from Pius VI., the direction of the academy 
of Genoa, conferred on him for life if he had chosen to retain it ; finally, 
the numerous commissions for pictures he received from various places ; 
all these things have their weight, but the favourable opinion of Mengs is 
the strongest protection that this Defence affords to shield him from his. 
enemies. 



,GIO. AGOSTINO RATTI. 289 

The artists of this school, of our own day, will doubtless also 
receive their meed of praise from posterity. They are now 
industrionsly occupied in establishing their own &.me, and con-^ 
ferring honour on their country. The rising generation, who 
are entering upon the art, may look for increased support from 
the Genoese academy, recently founded for the promotion of 
the three sister arts. Within these few years the members of 
this academy hare been furnished with a splendid domicile, 
with an abundant collection of select casts and rare designs. 
With such masters and so many gratuitous sources of assistance 
to study, this institution may be already numbered amongst 
the most useful and ornamental of the city. This establish- 
ment owes its existence to the genius and liberality of a number 
of noblemen, who united together in its splendid foundation, 
and who continue to support it by their patronage. 

When the materials were prepared for the new edition, the Elogio of 
the Cay. Azara was published, where it is said that the MSS. of Mengs 
were given in a confused mass into the hands of Milizia, who took the 
liberty of modifying at his pleasure the opinions of Mengs respecting the 
great masters. This information, which comes from a very creditable 
qoarter, I have wished to insert here for many reasons. It takes away 
from Mengs the odium of some inconsiderate criticism, or at least lessens 
it. It confirms what the Difesa of Ratti says respecting the true author 
of the Life of Correggio, who was in fact Ratti ; but, witii some retouch- 
ing, it was published as the work of Mengs, without reflecting that the 
author was there placed in contradiction with himself. It also shews us 
that Mengs, for his great name, was indebted not only to his acknowledged 
merit, but also to his good fortune, which gave him greater patrons and 
friends than were perluips ever enjoyed before by any painter in the world. 



VOL. III. 



290 



BOOK VL 



XBE BISTORT OF PAXNTINO IN PIEDMONT AND THB ADJACXNIP 

TBRRITOBY. 

EPOCH I. 



Dawn of the Art, and Progress to the Sixteenth Centnrjr. 

Piedmont, like the other states of Italy, cannot boast of a 
series of ancient nmsteis ; bnt it does not on that aooonnt 
forfeit its claim to a place in the histoiy of painting. That 
enchanting art, tke daughter of peace and contemplation, 
shuns not only the sound but tiie yeiy rumour of war. 
Piedmont, from her natural position, is 'a warlike country; 
and if she enjoys the merit of having afforded to the other 
parts of Italy tlie protection necessary for the cultiyation of 
the fine arts, she is at the same time under the disadvantage 
of not being able to insure them safety in her own territory. 
Hence, though Turin has ever been fruitful in talent, to 
obtain the decorations suitable to a metropolis, she has been 
compelled to seek at a distance for painters, or at least for 
pictures ; and whatever we find excellent either in the palace 
or the royal villas, in the churches, in the public buildings, or 
in private collections,' will be found to be wholly the work of 
foreigners. I may be told that the artists of Novara and 
Yercelli, and others from the Lago Maggiore, are not 
strangers. That might be true after those communities were 
included in the dominions of the house of Savoy ; but they, 
who were the first in this epoch, were bom, lived, and died 
subjects of other states ; and after the new conquests, these 
artists no more became Piedmontese from that circumstance, 
than Parrhasius and Apelles became Romans from the 
moment that Greece was subjected to Rome. For this reason 



eiOBGIO DA FIRBNZB. 291 

I hare clamed these artists in the Miksese sehool ; to "which, 
thoQ^ thej had not belonged as subjects, they onght still to 
be assigned by education, lendenoe, or neighbourhood. This 
plan I hare lutherto perserezed in : the subject of my history 
being not the states of Italy, but her schools of painting. 
Nor on that account will the artists of Monferrato be 
ereluded from this plaee* This is also a recent addition to 
the house of Savoy, which first possessed it in 1706 ; but it 
is anterior to the other aeqnisitions, and its artists are scarcely 
erer named among the pupils of the Milanese school. We 
must also reeoBect that they either left many works in 
Piedmont, and that this is therefore the proper place to 
mentiGn them, or that they did not quit their native country ; 
and as it is impiaeticable to devote a separate book to that 
place^ I have judged it best to include it in this state, on the 
confines of which it is situated, and to which it eventually 
became subfect 

Confining ourselves therefore to the ancient state of 
Piedmont, and noticing also Savoy, and other neighbouring 
territories npt yet consideted, we shall find little written o^"** 
nor have we much to praise in the artist ; but the ruling 
family, who have been always distinguished by their love of 
the arts, and have used all their infinence to foster them, are 
entitled to our grateful recollections. ' At the time of their 
first revival Amadeus lY. invited to his court one Giorgio da 
Firenze, a scholar, I know not whether of Giotto or some 
other master: it is however certain that he painted in the 
castle of Ohambery in 1314, and we find remains of him to 
1825, in which year he worked at Pinarolo. That he from 
this time coloured in oil is doubted in Piedmont; and the 
Giomale of Pisa published a letter on that subject the last 
yemr. I know not that I can add any thing further to what 

* A catalogue of the painters of Piedmont, and their works, is given 
by the Count Durando in the notes to Bis " Ragionamento su le heQe 
Arti/' published in 1778. The P. M. della Talk has also written of 
them in bis prefaces to the tenth and deventfa Tolmaes of Vasari. Some 
▼ahiable information respecting them has also been contributed by the 
author of the ** Kotizie patrie/' and more is to be found in the New 
Guide of Turin of Sig. Derossi, and in the first volume of the ** Pitture 
d' Italia." And, lastly, further notices are to be gathered from tarious 
works on art, of which we sh^ afsdl ourselves ia tin proper place. 

U 2 



t92 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, BTC. — ^EPOCH I. 

I have already written oa this question in many places of this 
work. Giorgio da Firenze is unknown in his native place, 
like some others who are commemorated only in this hook, 
who lived much in Piedmont, or at least were better known 
there than elsewhere. In the same age there worked at 
S. Francesco di Chieri, quite in the Florentine style, an. artist 
who subscribed himself Johannes pintor pinxit 1343 ; and 
some feeble £resco-painters in the baptistery of the samo city. 
There are also some other anonymous artists in other parts, 
whose manners differ in some respects from the style of Giotto ; 
among whom I may mention ^e painter of the Consolata, 
a picture of the Virgin held in great yeneration at Turin. 

At a later period, that is, about the year 1414, Gregorio. 
Bono, a Venetian, was invited also to Chambery by Amadeus 
VIII., in order to paint his portrait. He executed it on 
panel ; nor is it prolubble that he ever returned to Venice, as 
we find no mention made of him there. A Nicolas Robert, 
a Frenchman, was painter to the duke from 1473 to 1477 ; 
but his works have either perished, or remain unknown ; and 
probably he was a miniature-painter, or an illuminator of 
books, as they were at that time designated, artists who from 
the proximity of their professions are called painters, as 
well as the nobler masters of the art. About the same 
time it appears that there worked in Piedmont Baimondo, 
a Neapolitan, who left his name on a picture of several 
compartments in S. Francesco di Chieri, a piece estimable 
from the vivacity of the countenances and the colouring, 
though the drapery is loaded with gold, a mark of the little 
refinement of the times. Of another painter of this period 
there remains an indication in the church of S. Agostino in 
that city, from this inscription on an ancient picture, ^' Per 
Martinum Simazotum, alias de Capanigo, 1488." I .find 
noticed also in the hospital of Vigevano a picture with a gold 
ground by Gio. Quirico da Tortona. 

But no territory at this period furnishes us with such 
interesting matter as Monferrato, then the feudal state of the 
Paleologhi. We learn from P. della Valle, that Bamaba da 
Modena was introduced into Alba in the fourteenth century, 
and he certainly was among the first artists that obtained 
applause in Piedmont We have cursorily noticed him in hia 



MACRINO. 2dS 

school ; for to judge from the way in which his works afe 
scattered, he must have lived at a distance. Two pictures 
remain hj him at the Conyentnals at Pisa; one in the 
church, the other in the convent ; hoth figures of the Virgin, 
of whom the second picture represents the coronation, where 
she is surrounded by S. Francis and other saints of his order. 
Sig. da Morrona praises the beautiful character of the heads, 
the drapery, and the colouring ; and prefers him to Giotto. 
And P. della Yalle speaks in the same terms of another 
picture of the Virgin, remaining in the possession of the 
Conventuals of Alba, which he says is in a grander style than 
any contemporary works; and he states that the year 1357 
is signed to it. As to his assertion that the art in Piedmont 
had derived from him much light and advancement, I know 
not how to confirm it, as I have never been in Alba, and as I 
find a great interval between him and his successors in that 
very city. Afterwards in the church of S. Domenico a 
Giorgio Tuncotto painted in 1473; and in that of S. Fran- 
cesco a M. Grandolfino in 1493. To these maybe added Gio. 
Peroxino and Pietro Grammorseo, well known for two 
pictures which they left at the Conventuals ; the one in Alba 
in 1517, the other in Casale in 1523. 

But the most distinguished artist in those parts, and in 
Turin itself, was Macrino, a native of Alladio, and a citizen 
of Alba ; whence, in a picture which ,is in the sacristy of 
the metropolitan church in Turin, he subscribes himself 
'^ Macrinus de Alba." His name was Gian Giacomo Fava, 
an excellent painter, of great truth in his countenances, 
careful and finished in every part, and sufficiently skilled in 
his colouring and shadowing. I am aware that the Sig. 
Piacenza has mentioned him in his notes to Baldinucci, a 
work which, to the loss of the history of art and just 
criticism, remains imperfect, and which I have not now at 
hand. I know not where Macrino studied; but in his 
picture at Turin, which is much in the style of Bramante and 
his Milanese contemporaries, he has placed as an ornament in 
his landscape the Flavian amphitheatre; whence yre may 
conclude that he had seen Rome ; or, if not Rome, at least 
the learned school of Da Vinci. I found by him in the 
Certosa of Pavia another picture, with S. Ugo and S. Siro ; 



294 SCHOOL OF PIEDMOHT, £TC. — ^EPOCH I. 

an inferior perfonnanoe with lespeet to the forms and ilie 
colouring, but yenr oarefullj painted in all its parts. Bat, 
wherever he studied, he is the first artist in these conniries 
who made advances to the modem style ; and he seems to 
have been held in esteeni, not only in Asti and in Alba^ 
which contain many of his large works and cabinet pictures, 
but in Turin, and in the palaee of the prince ; to whose 
family, as I conjeeture, belonged a cardinal, represented at 
the feet of the Virgin, and of the saints snrroonding ker, in 
the picture at the cathedral. I am persuaded that he left 
other pictures in Turin ; but that city, above all the other 
capitals of Italy, has perhaps been the most addicted to 
substitute modem pictures for the ancient Contemporary with 
Macrino was Brea of Nisea, whom I mentioned in the school of 
Genoa, together with three painters of Alessandria della Paglia, 
all having lived in that state. I shall here only add Borghes» 
of Nizza della Paglia, where, and in J^ussigniana, are 
pictures inscribed ^* SOieronymus Buxgensis Nici» Palearom 
pinxit." 

In the beginning <tf the eixteenth century, whether it was 
that the troubled state of Italy called the attention of the 
princes to more serious objects, or from some other cause, I d<^ 
not find any interesting records. About the middle of that 
century it is supposed that Antonio Parentani flourished, 
who at the Gonsolata painted within the chapter-house a Para-^ 
disc with numerous angels. I do not know his country, but 
he followed the Boman taste of that age, and in a certain 
way diminished it At this period the books of the public 
treasury stand in the place of history, and guide us to the 
knowledge of other artists. I am indebted for the informa* 
tion to the Baron Yemazza de Fresnois, secretary of state of 
his majesty, a gentleman not less rich in knowledge than 
obliging in communicating it. The before*mentioned books 
record a Yalentin LomdUino da Baconigi ; and after 1561, in 
which year he died, or relinquished his place, a Jacopo 
Argenta of Ferrara. Both the one and the other bore the 
title of painter to the duke ; but the world cannot judge of 
their talents, as no work by them is known either in Turin or 
elsewhere ; and it is probable they were rather illuminators 
than painters. A Giacomo Vighi is noticed by Malvasia and 



ALEfiSANDBO ABDBNTB. ^9^ 

by Orlandi, who pftinted for the eourt of Turin about 1567^ 
and was presented with the caetle of Casal Burgone. The 
works of this painter too are unknown to the public ; but not 
80 the works of those who foUow. 

Alessandro Ardente of Faenza, though some make him a 
Pisan, and others a Luechese,* Giorgio Soleri of Alessandria, 
and Agosto Decio, a Milanese miniaturist before mentioned 
by me, painted the portrait of Ghafles Emaauel, duke of Saroy, 
for which all three are praised by Lomaezo in his treatise, at 
p. 435. The two first were also appointed painters to the 
court. They excelled in historical oompositioBS as well as 
being celebrated portrait-painters. By Alessandro we see in 
Turin at the Monte della PietH the Fall of St Paul, in a style 
that would lead us to believe be had studied in Borne. More 
of his works remain in Lucca ; in one of whidi, a Baptism of 
Christ, painted at S. Giovanni by this Ardente, the subject is 
treated in a highly original manner {Ouida di Lueea^ p. 261). 
In the neighbourhood also of that city me many of his works. 
The Sig. da Morrona also names him in the second volume of 
his Piga illuttratOf and informing us thai he haa not a suffi- 
cient account of him, concludes that he Hved a long time out 
of Tuscany. I believe that he resided a considerable time in 
Piedmont, as I find some works by him out of Turin ; as an 
Epiphany in Moncalieri, inscribed with his name and the year 
1592 ; and knowing further, that on his dentil, in 1595, a pen- 
sion was assigned by the prince to his widow and sons ; a proof 
in my mind that Ardente must have served the eourt many 
years. 

Of Soleri, the son-in4aw of Bernardino Lanini, I have 
^ven some account in the Milanese aohool (vol. ii. p. 505). 
fie is also mentioned by Malvama, in torn. ii. p. 134, and 
compared with Passerotti, Arcimlxddi, Gaetaso, and with Del 
Monte of Crema, in portrait-painting. His professional edu^ 
cation however remains obscure, except as &x as we are able 

* We onght to credit his own testimony. He ptinted three pictures at 
S. Paolino di Lucca, and in that of S. Antonio Abate he snlmcribeB 
•himself Alexander Ardentine Faventiniu, 1565 ; so says Monsig. Mansi, 
Archbidiop of Lucca, in his Diario. He, however, in other places in 
that Uttle work, and Sig. Morrona in his PisOf call him a Pisan, and 
others a Lucchese. 



296 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, ETC. — EPOCH I. 

to conjectnie from his works. ' I haye only been able 
to find two of his performances ; and I am not aware that 
any other are known. The one is in Alessandria, and serves 
as an altar-pieoe to the domestic chapel of the Conventnals. 
It represents the Virgin and the saints Angostin and Francis 
recommending to her protection the city of Alessandria, which 
is represented in the back-gronnd. The landscape is in tlie 
style of Bril, as nsnal with onr painters before the Catacci ; 
the figures are painted with more labour than spirit ; the 
colour is languid ; and the whole presents the style of one desir- 
ous of imitating the best period of the Roman school, but who 
had not seen or studied it sufficiently. But there is a more 
authentic picture in the church of the Dominicans of Casale, 
with the inscription, Optu GeorgiiSoleriAlex. 1573. It repre- 
sents S. Lorenzo kneeling at the feet of the Yir^n, who has 
with her the holy infant ; near the sunt three angelic boys are 
playing with a huge gridiron, his customary symbol ; and are 
straining to raise it from the ground. Here we most distinctly 
trace the follower of Raffaello, in the chasteness of design, 
the beauty and grace of the countenances, and the finished 
expression ; if indeed the design of these angels is not taken 
from Correggio. To render the picture more engaging, there 
is represented a landscape, with a window, whence there 
appears in the distance a beautiful country, with fine build- 
ings ; nor are there many pictures remaining in the eity at 
this day to be compared widi it. If it had possessed a more 
yigorous colouring, and a stronger chiaroscuro, there would 
be nothing more to wish for. When I consider the style, I know 
not to what school to assign it ; for it is not that of Lanini, 
although his £a*ther-in-law ; nor that of any Milanese, although 
he was in Milan. Perhaps, like others of his day, he formed 
himself on the engravings after Raffaello ; or if he copied any 
other painter, it was Bernardino Campi, whom, if we except 
a certain timidity of touch, he resembles more than any other- 
Soleri had a son, a painter of mediocrity, as may be seen 
in Alessandria in the sacristy of S. Francesco. The father, to 
propitiate his success in the art to which he destined him, had 
given him the two most illustrious names of the profession, 
calling him Raffaele Angiolo. But these names served only 
to flatter parental fondness. 



IBIDORO CABACCA. 297 

With Alessandro Ardente and Giorgio Soleri we find men- 
tioned a Jacopo Rosignoli of Leghorn, who was at that time 
painter to the court. His character is described in an epitaph 
placed over him at S. Thomas in Turin, which thus extols 
him : quibtucumque naturce amcenitatibus eatprimendis ad 
omnigenam incruitationum vettutatem ; meaning grotesques, 
in which he imitated with success Berino del Yaga. We also 
find memorials of another painter to the court about the same 
time. The books of the treasury call him Isidore Caracca, 
and he seems to have succeeded to Ardente ; for in 1595 his 
name begins to be found, to which others may perhaps add, in 
progress of time, his country, school, and works. To me it seems 
that persons who have received such a mark of distinction, 
ought at least not to be placed among the vulgar ; nor should 
a notice of them be neglected when they fall in our way. 

We may add to these some others of doubtful schools, as 
Scipione Crispi of Tortona, who has derived celebrity from 
the Visitation, placed in S. Lorenzo in Yoghera ; and in Tor- 
tona itself there is a picture representing S. Francis and S. 
Dominick with the Yirgin, with his name, and the date 1592. 
Contemporary with Crispi was Cesare Arbasia, of Saluzzo, 
supposed by Palomino, but incorrectly so, to be a scholar of 
Yinci, as I mentioned when I spoke of him before.* He 
resided some time in Rome, and taught in the academy of St. 
iiuke, and is mentioned with. commendation by the P. Chiesa 
in his Life of Ancina, as one of the first of his age. He went 
also to Spain, where, in the cathedral of Malaga, there still 
exists his picture of the Incarnation, painted in 1579 ; and 
there is an entire chapel painted by him in fresco in the cathedral 
of Cordova. He painted too the vault of the church of the 

* Vol. ii. p. 491. One truth prepares the way for another. I have 
read in Sig. Conca, torn. iii. p. 164, that the style of Arbasia partakes of 
that of F^rigo Zuccaro ; an opinion I believe of Sig. Ponz, the prin- 
cipal guide of Conca. If Federigo about the same time was chief, and 
Arbasia master in the academy of Rome, the style of the first might be 
caught by the other. When we reflect that the style of Da Vinci is highly 
finiriied, correct, and strong, diametrically opposed to the &cility and 
popular style of Federigo, we cannot accord to Palomino that authority 
and veneration which Conca bestows on him. What should we think of 
a critic who should endeavour to palm on us, as the production of the 
time of Horace, an ode written in the style of Prudentius ? 



298 SCHOOL OF FIBDIIONT, ETC. — ^EPOCH I. 

Benediotiiies of 6«vi{|^iBiio ; in the public palace of his native 
pfaioe he executed also some works in fresco ; and he was held 
in esteem bj the oonrt, who granted him a pension in 1601. 

There is gionnd for believing that Solezi, who was married 
in Yezoelli, and who lired in Oaeale^ had a share in the 
instroction of the celdiratod Caeeia, snmamed H Moncairo, 
who gave to Monfomito its hnghtest days of art. We may 
with proprielj say a few words on this subject before we 
letom to Tnrin. Monferrato was some time nnder the Paleo- 
loghi ; afterwards nnder the Gonsaghi ; this is a sufficient 
reason £or ns to beliere that it was willing^ frequented bj 
excellent artists. Yasari relates that Gio. E^imcesco Carotto 
was consideiabl J em|do3red by Onglielmo, marquis of Mon- 
fenato, as well in his comt at Oasale as in the church of 
S. Domenico. After him other artists of merit resorted 
thither, whose works still remain to the public. We further 
know that these princes had a e(^ection of marbles and 
pictures, which were afterwards remored to Turin, where 
they contribated to the ornament <tf ^le palace and roval yillas. 
After what we haye stated we cannot be surprised that the 
arts should haye flonruAied in this part of Italy and liie adja- 
cent conntiy, and that we riionld there meet with painters 
decrying ioor »limnt««. 

Such an one was Moocalvo, so called from his long resi- 
dence in that place. He was however bom in Montabone, 
and his true name was Gugliebno Caocia. No name is more 
frequently beard by cnHzysted foreigners who pass through 
this higher part of Italy, fie commenced his career in 
Milan, where he paanted in mreoA ehurohes. He proceeded 
afterwards to Payia^ where he did the same, and where he wai^ 
presented with the freedom of the city. But he is still more 
frequently named in Novara, Yeroelli, Ca^e, Alessandria, 
and in the tract of countiy leading firom thence to Turin. 
Nor is this the whole itinerary of such as widi to see all his 
works. We must often deyiate from the beaten road, and 
visit in this district castles and villas, which frequently pre- 
sent us with excellent specimens, particularly in Monfenato* 
He there passed a great part of his life ; having been brought 
up in Moncalvo, says P. Oriandi, an estate of Monferrino, 
where he had both a home and school of painting. He seems 



MOirCALTO. 2W 

to iiftve begun his career in these parts : and as bis first works 
thejr point oat» in the Sacro Monte di Crea^ some small chapels 
with passages from the saoied writings. 

P. della Yalle describes bis style at Crea as that of the 
infiint Graces. He remarks that there are indications of hi« 
inexperience in fresoo-painting, and that by comparing his 
early works with his last we may trace the improyemoat in 
his style. He attained soch a degree of excellence as to be 
oonaidered as an example to firesco-painters for his great skill 
in this department. He is to be seen in Milan at S. Antonio 
Abate, by the side of the Carloni of Genoa : he there painted 
the titnlaf saint, with S. Panl, the first hermit ; and maintains 
himself in this dangerous contest His pieture in the cupola 
of S. Paul at NoTaia is a beautiful and vigorous painting, 
with a glory of angels, painted, as he generally did, in a 
delightfid maimer. In oils he was perhaps not so sncoessfnl. 
I baye seen few of his pictures painted with that strength 
with ^iHbieh he represented in Turin St. Peter in the pontifioal 
habit, in the church of 8. Croce. The pieture of S^ Teresa, 
in the church of that saint, is also well coloured ; and it is 
celebrated for its graceful design, in ^Hiich is represented the 
aaint between two angels, orerpowered at the appearance of 
the holy fiunily, which is reveaXed to her in her ecstasy. To 
this may be also added the Deposition from the Cross at 
S. Gaudenzio di Novara, which is there by some conddered 
his master-piece, and it is indeed a work of the highest merit. 
In general his tints are so delicate, that in our days at least 
he appears somewhat languid, the fault perhaps of not haying 
retouched his pictures sufficiently. 

His style of design does not accord with that of the Caracci, 
which leads me to question the opinion prevalent in Moncalyo, 
that he was a pupil of that school. One of the Oaracci school 
would have studied fresco in Bologna^ not in Crea ; nor would 
he have adopted in his landscape the style of Bril, as Men* 
calvo has done; nor have discovered a preference of the 
Roman st^le to that of Panna. Caccia's style of design seems 
derived from the elder schools, as we may observe in it a 
manner which partakes of Raffaello, of Andrea del Sario, and 
Parmigianino, the great masters of ideal beauty. And in his 
Madonnas, which are to be seen in many collections, he Bom&* 



300 SCHOOL OF PIBDMONT, ETC. — EPOCH I. 

times seemB the scholar of the one, and sometimes of the other; 
one of those in the royal palace of Torin seems designed bj 
Andrea. But the colouring, though accompanied by grace 
and delicacy, as I said before, is different, and eyen borders 
often on debility, in the manner of the Bolognese school which 
preceded the Caracci, and more especially of Sabhatini. He 
resembles that master also in the beauty of the heads and in 
grace ; and if it conld be satis£Bctorily proyed that Moncalvo 
studied in Bologna, we need not look further for a master than 
Sabhatini. But I hare before made the remark that two 
painters frequently fall into the same style, as two different 
writers sometimes adopt the same characters. And I have 
also obserred, in regaid to Moncalyo, that in Casale he had 
Soleri, a painter of a liyely and elegant style ; and that there, 
in Yercelli, and in other cities where he resided, there was 
not wanting to him the best examples of that graceful style to 
which his genius inclined. He did not howeyer shyn nobler 
subjects ; as his works in the church of the Oonyentuals at 
Moncalyo will shew, where there is a rich gallery of his pic- 
tures. Chieri also has specimens of him in two historical 
pictures in a chapel of S. Domenico. He there painted the 
two laterals of the altar ; in the one is the Resuscitation of 
Lazarus, in the other the Miracle of the Loayes in the desert ; 
works remarkable for their richness of fancy, their excellent 
disposition, the correctness of the drawing, the yiyacity 
of the action, and the first of which inspires both deyo- 
tion and awe. They would confer honour on the noblest 
churches. 

He executed many works, assisted by scholars of medio- 
crity; a thing which ought to be ayoided by eyery good 
master. In Casale I heard a Giorgio Alberino enumerated 
among his best scholars ; and on the relation of P. della Yalle 
I may add to them Sacchi, also of Casale, as his companion in 
Moncalyo ; who possessed a more energetic pencil perhaps, 
and more learning than Caccia. He\painted in S. Francesco 
a Drawing of Lots for Marriage Portions ; in which is seen a 
great assemblage of Others, mothers, and young daughters; 
and in the latter the sentiments are most yiyidly expressed, so 
that we read the £a,te of each in her countenance ; the face of 
one beaming with delight at the mention of her name, while 



IflCCOLO MUSSO. 301 

another stands wishful, yet fearing to hear herself called. 
And at S. Agostino di Casale is a standard, with the Virgin and 
saints, and certain portraits of the Gonzaghi princes ; a picture 
ascribed to Moncalyo ; but if we consult the style and the mode 
of colouring, I should rather attribute it to Saochi. 

Caccia taught, and was assisted in his labours by two 
daughters, who may be called the Crentilesche, or the Fontane 
of Monferrato, where they painted not only cabinet pictures 
but more altar-pieces than perhaps any other females. The 
contours of their figures are exactly copied from their father, 
but they are not so animated. It is said that their manner 
was so similar, that, in order to distinguish them, the younger, 
Francesca, adopted the symbol of a small bird ; and Ursula^ 
who founded the convent of Ursulines in Moncalyo, that of 
a flower. Of the latter her church and Casale also have some 
altar-pieces, and not a few cabinet pictures with landscapes 
touched in the style of Bril, and ornamented with flowers. A 
Holy Family by her in this style is in the rich collection of 
the Palazzo Natta. . 

Lastly I may record the name of Niccolb Musso, the boast 
of Casalmonferrato, where he lived, and left works which 
possess an originality of style. He is said by Orlandi to have 
been the scholar of Caravaggio for ten years in Rome ; and 
there is a tradition in his native place that he studied under 
the Caracci in Bologna. Musso leans to Caravaggio, but his 
chiaroscuro is more delicate and more transparent ; he is very 
select in his figures and in expression ; and is one of those 
admirable painters almost unknown to Italy itself. He did 
not live long, and generally painted for private individuals. 
He left however some works in public, and more than one in 
the church of S. Francis, representing that saint at the feet of 
Christ crucified, and angels partaking his lamentations and 
devotions. The portrait of this artist, painted by himself, is 
also in Casale, in the possession of the Marchese Mossi ; and 
some memoirs of him were published by the Canonico de' Gio- 
vanni, as I read in P. M. della Yalle.^ 

* Pref. al tomo xi. del Vasari, p. 20. 



802 



SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT AND THE 
ADJACENT TERRITORY. 

EPOCH II. 



Painters of the Seventeentli Century, and first Establiahment of the 

Academy. 

Bbtubning now to Turin and to the serenteenth oeotiiiy, 
in the esriy part of which the painters, whom we haye men- 
tioned with oommendationy were either still surviving, or only 
lately deceased, we meet with Federigo ZaocaiD, who, in hu 
journey through the various states of Italy (of which BagKone 
speaks), did not DeuI to visit Torin. He there painted some 
pictures in the churches, and commenced the decoration of » 
gallery for the duke ; a work whidi, from some cause or other^ 
was left unfinished. Bagiione does not inform as that this 
gallery was destined for the reception of works of art, hot it 
is highly profaahle thai it was 00 ; since at that time, a consi- 
derable collection of ancient marbles,*' designs, and cartoons 
was already formed, whidi has been since enhuged, and is now 
preserved m the Archivio Reale ; and a select cabinet of pic- 
tures, to which similar additions have been made, and which 
is now the principal ornament of the royal palace, and the 
villas of the sovereign. We there find tibe works of Bellini, 
Holbein, and the JBassani; the two large compositions of 
Paolo, executed for the J>ake Charles, and described by Ri- 
dolfi ; several pictures of the Caracci and their best scholars, 
amongst which are the Four Elements by Albano, an admi- 
rable production ; without mentioning others by Moncalvo and 
Gentileschi, both of whom resided for some time in Turin, and 
by other eminent Italian artists, or the best Flemish painters, 

* Galleria del Marini, p. 288. 



f 

BERNARDO ORLANDO. BOB 

49oine of whom remained a considerable tiine in that citj* 
Hence, in this class of pictures, the house of Savoy surpasses 
eyery single house in Italy, or even many taken together. 

But, to proceed in due course, we may obserye» that, at the 
commencement of the seventeenth century, there existed in 
Turin a rich collection of pictures and drawings, the ornament 
of the throne, and subservient to the instruction of young 
artiste, the care of which was intrusted to a painter of the 
court We first find one Bernardo Orlando invested with this 
charge, who was appointed painter to the duke in 1617. This 
honour, in succeeding years, was c<»iferTed on many others, 
whose pencils were employed in Turin and the castle of Rivoli ; 
where, however, many of their works were effaced in the pre- 
sent century, and others substituted by the two Yanloos. 
Some of these are unknown in the history of art, as Antonio 
Bocca and Giulio Mayno, the first a native of I know not 
what place, the Isttter of Asti. A delta Eovare is also an 
unknown attist, mentioned in the Registers from the year 
1626 ; nor can this be the some who left, in the convent of St. 
Francis, a picture of very original inventicm, the subject of 
which is Death. It expresses &e origin of death, in the trans- 
gression of Adam and Eve ; and the fulfilment of it, by the 
thread spun, wound, and severed, by the three Fates, with 
other fiuBcies in which profiuie and sacred ideas are confounded 
together. If the design of this picture cannot command our 
approbation, its other qualities are still prepossessing, and con- 
ciliate our esteem for the painter, who subscribes himself, 
Jo, Bcq>t. a Buere Tour, f. 1627. But the name of the court 
painter was Girolamo. Baglione acquaints us with another, 
called Marzio di Colantonio, a Roman by birth, who excelled 
in grotesques and landscapes. There are also some others in- 
cluded in the list of ducal painters, whom we have before 
mentioned in various schools ; as Yincenzo Conti in the Ro- 
man, Morazzone in the Milanese, and Sinibaldo Scorza in the 
Genoese. These and others, who painted in Turin and the 
neighbourhood about this time, will be found in the " Lettere" 
and the ^' Gralleria" of the Oav. Marini, who resided for some 
time at this court. We must, however, consult him with cau- 
tion, as he was a poet^ and very readily augmented his gallery, 
by devoting a sonnet to every picture and drawing, so that 



304 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, ETC. — ^EPOCH IL 

artists of mediocrity valued themselres more on his applause 
than painters of merit.* Thus Malvasia informs us, that ho 
had frequently heard Albano boast of having refused Marini's 
request, the gift of a picture, for fear the poet should make it 
the subject of a sonnet (tom. ii. p. 273). 

The painters whom I have just mentioned were, most pro- 
bably, the instructors of those artists of Turin and the etotes 
who flourished elsewhere ; as Bernaschi in Naples, Garoli in 
Rome, and others who are said to have been also taught by 
foreigners, and who distinguished themselves in Piedbnont. 
None of this number possess a stronger claim to our notice 
than Mulinari (or, as he is more frequently called, Mollineri), 
whether with regard to merit, or the order of time. Most 
writers have considered him a scholar of the Oaraooi in Rome ; 
from the imitation of whom he received the surname of Carac- 
cino from his own countrymen. But I apprehend that this 
supposed residence of his in Rome proceeds from the common 
source of such mistakes, the resemblance of style, true or sup- 
posed. Delia Yalle mentions him as being settled in his 
native place in 1621, and of forty years of age ; languid and 
feeble in his contours, and improving himself by the assistance 
of some masters, his friends ; to which we may perhaps add, 
the study of the prints of the Oaracci, and some of their 
paintings. My suspicions are confirmed by the Count Du- 
rando, a well-informed and cautious writer, who denies that 
positive proof can be given of the reported instruction of 
Mulinari, notwithstanding the surname of Oaraccino, a title 
not difficult to acquire from the vulgar, in a city so remote 

* The mediocrity of some who are extoUed in* Marini's work, which 
was published about the year 1610, appears from the silence obsenred 
towards them by contemporary writers, or the little applause with which 
they are named. I never elsewhere found mention, to the best of my 
recollection, of Lucilio Gentiloni, of Filatrava, nor of Giulio Donnabella, 
who there figure as eminent designers ; nor of Annibale Mancini, whence 
I know not, a painter of histories ; nor of the two equally renowned 
Frenchmen, M. Brandin and M. Flaminet, elsewhere transformed inta 
Fulminetto ; much less a Raffaele Rabbia, and a Giulio Maina, who 
painted the poet's portrait ; unless, indeed, the second be the Bolognese 
Giulio Morina, mutilated in his name, like not a few other artists of this 
truly ill-assorted Gallery. (This artist would rather appear to be the 
Ginlio Mayno, of Asti, the court painter, mentioned in p. 303, onfo.— 
Ed.) 



GIUSEPPE VERMIGLIO. 305 

from Bologna and Rome ; as in some countries which hare 
little knowledge of the true style of Cicero, a writer may pass 
for an elegant Latinist, while imitating Amohius. In other, 
respects, in the pictures which have acquired him celebrity, he 
is correct, energetic, and, if not dignified, yet animated and 
Taried in his nude heads ; for, as Durando himself confesses, 
his females are all deficient in grace. His colouring is also 
good, though not resembling the Caracci ; his tints being more 
clear, difierenily disposed, and sometimes feeble. At Turin, 
the Deposition from the Cross at 8. Dalmazio is classed 
amongst his best works ; but the composition is crowded, and 
rery difierent from the principles of the Bolognese. In Sa- 
rigliano, where Mulinari was bom, and where he lived many 
years, pictures by him are found in almost every church ; and 
his talent and merit are, in fsust, only known in that place. 
There, and in Turin, we find some worksby a worthy Flemish 
artist, named Gio. Claret, by some considered the scholar, by 
others the master of Gio. Antonio in colouring, but at all 
events his intimate friend. He is an artist of a free and spi- 
rited pencil, and painted in several churches in competition 
with Mulinari. 

Giulio Bruni, a Piedmontese, was a clever pupil of the 
Genoese school, first under Tavarone, then under Paggi, and 
remained painting in Genoa, until he was expelled by war. 
His works there, though not very finished, and too darkly 
coloured, were well designed, harmonious, and well composed. 
Such is, in the church of St. James, his St. Thomas of Villa- 
nova giving alms. History also mentions one Gio. Batista, 
his brother and scholar. 

Giuseppe Yermiglio, although bom in Turin, is not 
named in the Guide of that city. We find pictures by him 
in Piedmont, as at Novara and Alessandria; and beyond 
that dominion, in Mantua and Milan, in which last city is a 
work which is perhaps his master-piece. The subject is a 
Daniel amidst Lions, in the library of the Passione, a large 
composition, well disposed, with fine architectural decorations, 
in the Paolesque style. The king and people are seen on a 
balcony admiring the prophet, untouched by the ferocious 
animals, while his accusers are, at the same instant, precipi- 
tated amidst the ravenous beasts, and torn to pieces. In the 

VOL. in. X 



306 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, BTC«— ^BPOCH II. 

same compofiition is also lepresented tiie otber prophet^ Lonie 
thxougii the air by on angel, bj the hair of lus beacL We 
cannot exactly commend the design, which thus nmtes erents 
iseongmons in point of time. But with this eaxseption, this 
is one of the most Talnable pietures pointed in Miktn, after 
Gandensio, for correctness, beautifdl forms, esqpsession highly 
siadied, and eolonrs warm, varied, and lucid. From the 
imitatiye style of the heads, it is erident that he studied the 
Oaracci, and was not a stranger to Guido ; but in the colour* 
ing it seemed as if he had imitated the Flemish artists* It is 
tvpoited in Miian^ perhaps from the res^nbktnee of the styie, 
that he instracted Daniel Crespi ; a oircnmstaaoe yezy im-^ 
probable, since Yenmglio contiimed to work to the year 1675. 
For we find this date at tiie foot of a large pictare of the 
Woman of Samaria^ in the refectoiy of the PP« Oliretaoi, in 
Alessandria, which mnst be one of his last wtorks, deconlied 
with a beantifal laadseape, and a magnificent view of the 
city of Samaria in liie distance. I consider him the finest 
painter in ml that the aacient state of PiedBUHit can boadt, 
and as one of idie best Italian artists of Ms day* Why he 
painted so near Turin, and yet had no success in that eity^ 
and why he was not distinguished by his own sovereign, 
ihongh wdl received at die conrt of Mantoa^ I have net been 
able to discover. We find one Bnbiai, a Piedmontese, cer- 
tainly not of equal mexxt wkh the last artist, who, about the 
time of Yermiglio, worked in the diurch of S. Tito, in 
Trevigi, and whom we find mentioned in the MSS* of that 
city) or in the description of its pictoies. 

Giovenal Boetto, celebrated amongst iiie engsavers in 
Turin, deserves a pkoe'amongst superior artists, from a saloon 
painted by him in Fossano, his native place. It is in tii^ 
Gasa Garballi, and contains four pietores in fresca The sub* 
ject is the illustration of vairknis arts and sciences. Theology 
is represented by a dispute between the Thomists and Bcotists ; 
and in that pieoe^ and in the others, we must admire the tmtii 
of natuoce in the portruts, and the powerful chiaroscuro, as 
well as the design. little else of him remains. 

Gio» Moneri, seme of whose descendants were also painter^ 
was bom neat Acfui, and being instructed by Romandli, he 
brought with him him. Borne the style of that school. The 



GIO. MIEL. 307 

first proofs of his art were given in Aoqui, in 1657, where he 
painted in the cathedral the picture of the Assumption, be- 
sides a Paradise in fresco, much commended. He continued 
to advanoe in his art, as we see both in the Presentation in 
the church of the Capuchins, and in other pictures of him 
remaining in the neighbourhood, exhibiting a greater copious- 
ness, a finer expression, and a stronger relief. It is known 
that he worked in Genoa and Milan and their dependencies, 
and in several places in Piedmont ; but among these we cannot 
include Turin ; nor could it be easy for a provincial painter to 
find commissions, vdien the capital had artists in sufficient 
number to form an academy. 

Until the year 1652 the professors of the art in Turin did 
not possess the form of a society, much less the appearance 
of an academy. In the above year they first began to form 
themselves into a company, wiaeh had we name of St. Luke 
given to it ; and which, in a few years, grew into the academy 
of Turin. We may consult, on this subject, the *' Memorie 
Patrie," published by the Baron Yemazza. The court, in the 
mean time, continued their salaries to the foreign painters, 
who were the ornament and support of the academy. They 
were about this time engaged in embellishing the palace, and 
ttlterwards that delightful residence, which was built from the 
design of the same Duke Charles Emanuel II., and had the 
name of the Yeneria Beale. Their frescos, portraits, and 
other works, remain to the present day. After one Baldassar 
Matthieu of Antwerp, by whom there is a highly-prized 
Supper of our Lord in the refectoiy of the Eremo, Gio. Miel, 
also from the neighbourhood of Antwerp, a scholar, first of 
Yandyk, and afterwards of Sacchi, was appointed painter to 
the court ; a man of a delightful genius, extolled in Rome for 
his humorous, and in Piedmont for his serious subjects. In 
the soffitto of the great hall, where the body-guard of the 
king is stationed, are some pictures of Miel, in which, under 
the fitbulous chaiacters of the heathen divinities, are repre- 
sented the virtues of the royal house; he executed seme 
others, and perhaps more beautiful ones, in the above-named 
villa ; and there is an altar-piece by him at Chieri, with the 
date of 1654. We trace in all his works his study of the 
Italian school ; a grandeur and sublimity of ideas, an eleva- 

X2 



308 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, ETC.-^EPOCH II. 

tion beyond bis countrymen, an accurate knowledge of the 
sotto in 8u^ and a fine chiaroscuro, not unaccompanied by great 
delicacy of colour, particularly in his cabinet pictures. The 
talent which he possessed in an extraordinary .manner in 
figures of a smaller size, he exhibited more especially in the 
Yeneria Reale, where he painted a set of Huntings of wild 
Beasts, in eight pieces, which are amongst the finest of his 
works in this department of the art. After him we read of 
one Banier, a painter to the court ; in whose time, about the 
year 1678, the company of St. Luke, united since the year 
1675 to that of Rome, was, with the royal assent, erected 
into an academy ; and from this year may be dated the birth 
of that professional society so much enlarged in our own days. 
But of all who were at that time or. afterwards in the service 
of the royal house, the most celebrated was Daniel Saiter, or 
Seiter, of Yienna. I haye mentioned him as well as Miel in 
the Roman school, nor have I passed him over in the Yene- 
tian, in which he leamt his art, perfecting his style by the 
study of aU the schools of Italy. His works are found in the 
palace and in the villas ; nor has he occasion to fear the 
proximity of Miel himself. He yields to the latter, indeed, 
in grace and beauty, but is superior both to him and others 
in the force and magic of his colouring. Nor in Turin do we 
find in him that incorrect design which Pasooli attributes to 
him in Rome. But his oil pictures are by fer the most 
highly-finished of his works ; as for example, a Pietit in the 
court, which we should say was designed in the academy of 
the Caracci. He also painted the cupola of the great hos- 
pital, and it is one of the finest frescos of the capital. We 
also meet with him in the churches in various places in the 
state ; and we find his works in many private collections out 
of Piedmont, as he painted considerably in Yenice and inRome. 
Another foreigner. Carlo Delfino, a Frendbman, also flou- 
rished at this time; an artist of very considerable merit. 
From the registers of the archives we learn that he was painter 
to Prince Philibert ; and from an inspection of his ^rks we 
may conjecture that he was more employed in the churches 
than at the court, where we find him an animated and lively 
portrait painter and colourist. He painted some altar-pieces 
for the city, in which is displayed a genius more disposed to 



GIO. BATISTA BRAMBILLA. 309 

the natural than to the ideal, and a fire which gives life to 
the gestures and composition ; hut sometimes, if I do not esti- 
mate him wrongly, his ideas seem forced. Thus at the church 
of S. Carlo, wishing to paint a S. Agostino overpowered hy 
the love of God, he represented a S. Joseph holding in his 
arms the infiuat Christ, who from a cross4)ow directs an arrow 
against the hreast of the saint. The saint struck, falls into 
the arms of angels, who employ themselves in supporting and 
comforting him. - Delfino had a scholar in Gio. Batista Bram- 
biUa, who painted at S. Dalmaado a large picture on canvas, 
of the Martyrdom of that saint, and was an artist of a correct 
style and a good colourist. 

There were other painters employed by the court from the 
middle to the end of the century ; some as portrait painters, as 
Monsieur Spirito, the Cav. Mombasilio, Theodore Matham of 
Haerlem, and others employed in* larger works in oils and 
fresco. Giacinto Brandi, already mentioned among the 
schohurs of Lanfranc, painted in the palace a sfondo, in compe- 
tition with some others painted there by Salter. Agostino 
Scilla of Messina, whom we have elsewhere noticed, painted 
some Virtues there, conjointly with Saiter. He was asQne artist, 
of more talent than industry. Gio. Andrea Casella of Lugano, 
a scholar of Pietro da Cortona, and one of his best followers, 
and sometimes in design an imitator of Bemino, painted in 
the Yeneria Beale some fables, assisted by Giacomo his nephew. 
Gio. Paolo Recchi da Como worked there in the same way in 
fresco, with the assistance of his nephew Giannandrea. Gio. 
Peruzzini, of Ancona, a scholar of Simon da Pesaro, was 
also patronized by the court, and was created a cavalier, 
and contributed by his lectures to the instruction of youth. 

Casella, Recchi, and Peruzzini, repaired to Turin and united 
their talents in the embellishment of the churches of that city ; 
and we may observe that^ towards the close of the century, a 
great part of the commissions were executed by foreigners. 
To those already recorded we may add Triva, Legnani, Cairo, 
and also a Gio. Batista Pozzi, who not succeeding to his wishes 
in his own country, as I believe, decorated with frescos a vast 
number of walls in Turin, and through all the Piedmontese. 
He was a hasty practitioner, but sometimes produced a good 
general effect, as in the S. Cristoforo of Yercelli. We find 



310 BCHOOIi 07 FIBDIIONT, BTO* — BPOCH II. 

another and a better artist of tbe Mine name in P. Andrea, » 
Jesuit, who resided for a long time in Tnrin, where, in the 
Congregazione do' Mercanti, he left fonr histories £rom the 
life of the Savionr, painted in oil in his best manner, a manner 
derived from Rnbens, chequered by those beautiful and play- 
ful lights which may be said to irradiate the composition. He 
also painted in fresco, in the church of his inrder, but he was 
not satisfied with that work ; and baring afterwards also to 
ornament the vault of the church of his order at Mondovi, he 
repeated the subject, and executed it more to his satisfaction. 
There also we find II Qenovesino, so called from his native 
place, not so well known in Turin as in the state, particularly 
at Alessandria ; a painter by no means defidient in grace and 
colour, whence he is much esteemed in cabinets. The PP. 
Predicatori have a B. Domenico by him, and a S. lliomas in 
two altars of their church ; and the Sig. Marchese Ambrogio 
Ghilini, a Christ praying in the Garden ; the Marchese Carlo 
Guasco, two Madonnas, with the holy inlant sleeping, two 
difierent designs. The name of this artist was CKuseppe 
Calcia, who in consequence of living in a foreign country, is 
not noticed in his native history, and in the NoHzia ddU 
Pitture d' Italia^ he is confused with Marco Genovesini, a 
Milanese mentioBed by OrlandL This artist was a consider- 
able machinist, of whom there are no remains in Milan, except 
what he painted in the church of the Augastines ; the genea- 
lo^cal tree, or history of that order, in the gallery, and two 
grand lateral compositions, in which the figures are finely 
varied and coloured, but not disposed and put into action with 
equal art. It would occupy too much time to enumerate all 
the foreigners who worked at that time in Turin, or through- 
out the state ; and some of whom we have occasionally noHced 
in the various schools of Italy. 

The native painters of reputation were not numerous at 
this time ; and the most considerable, if I mistake not, were 
Caravoglia and Tarioco. Bartolommeo Caravoglia, a Pied- 
montese, was said to be the scholar of Guercino ; he followed 
his master's footsteps at a distance, affecting a contrast of light 
and shade : but his lights are much less clear than those of 
Guercino, and the shadows not so strong ; a thing which does 
not occur in the works of the genuine sclK>lars of that master. 



SEBAeruJxo tabicoo. 311 

Notwithstanding this feeblenesB, he pleases us by a obtain 
modest harmony which pervades his pictures, and governs 
also the invention, the design, the architeotnre, and the other 
decorative parts of his composition, lb Tnrin is to be seen 
the Miracle of the Encharist, painted in the church c( the 
Corpiu Domini^ which, to perpetuate the ooonrrence of that 
event in Turin in 1453, was erected in a sumptuous manner, 
and magnificently decorated. 

*•' Sebastiano Taricco was bom in Cherasco, a city of Pied- 
mont, in the year 1645 ; and it clearly appears from his works 
that he stu<ued with Guide and with Domenichino in the 
great school of the GaraccL" Thua fiu his historian. I have 
endeavoured, bnt in vain, to find any record of the residence 
of these two great masters in Bologna in the year 1645, when 
Taricco was bom ; they were at that time both dead. I 
therefore conjecture that the writer meant to say, that Taricco 
studied in Bologna the works of the Caracci, as Guide and 
Domenichino had done before him. That he acquired the 
principles of his art in that city is believed ib Piedm<mt ; and 
his manner does not contradict this snppomtioB. The trath is, 
that at that time all Italy, sa it were, waa turned to the 
imitation of the Bolognese ; and Turin, as I have previously 
observed, had already a few specimensi. Above all they pos-^ 
sessed specimens of Guide, and of his followers. Carlo Kuvo*- 
lone and Gio. Penuzini ; and all might influence the shrle of 
Sebastiano, which was select in the heads, and sufficiently 
pleasing in general, but of too great facility, and without that 
refinement which distinguishes the dassic painters. This I 
say after seeing the pioture of tiie Trinity, and others of his 
oil pictures at Tnrin ; but I have heard that the Sahi of the 
Sig. Gotti^ painted by him in fresco in his native |4aoe, and 
various other works by him interspersed through that vicinity, 
inspire a higher ojanion of his tal«tt& In the seventh volume 
of the Letters Pittoriche there la mention made of a picture of 
S. Martino Maggiore at Bdogna ; i^ere are represented the 
Saints Giovaechiao and Anna, and where there is subscribed 
the initials tar, probably Tarioco, as has been elsewhere con- 
jectured. But the style of this picture is like that of Sabba- 
tini, which is in fact a more ancient style than that which 
Taricco has exhibited in his authenticated works. 



812 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, ETC.-— EPOCH IL 

Alessandro Man, of Torin, resided only for a short time lit 
his native city, nor did he leave any pubUc works there. He 
changed both his country and his school, and studied first under 
Piola, next under Lih^ and again under Pasinelli ; always 
uniting the practice of painting with the cultivation of poetry. 
He ultimately became a celebrated copyist, and a successful 
designer of capricci and symbolical representations, by which 
he established a reputation in Milan, and afterwards in Spain, 
where he died. 

We find the name of Isabella dal Pozzo inscribed at the 
foot of a picture at S. Francis, which represents the Virgin, 
together with S. Biagio and other saints. The birth-place of 
this fair artist is unknown to me ; but I may observe that, in 
1666, when she painted^ there were not many better artists in 
Turin. Somewhat later flourished Gio. Antonio Mareni, a 
scholar of Baciccio, by whom there is a beautiful picture 
noticed in the. ''Guide." Towards the beginning of the 
eighteenth century were employed in those churches, and 
sometimes in competition with each other, Antonio Mari and 
Tarquinio Grassi, whether of the family of Niccol5 Grassi of 
Venice, who painted at S. Carlo, I cannot say, but certainly 
the &>ther of a Gio. Batista Tarquinio is well Known in Turin, 
and seems to have derived some portion of his style from 
Cignani and the Bolognese of that age. 

Monferrato was not deficient in good artists in the seven- 
teenth century. Some of these I have mentioned in the train 
of Lanini ; others in that of Moncalvo. I shall here mention 
only Evangelista Martinotti, the scholar of Salvator Rosa, of 
great excellence in landscapes, small figures, and animals, as 
Orlandi informs us. I may add, that he succeeded also in 
nobler subjects ; a Baptism of our Lord, in the Duomo of Ca- 
sale, is shewn as his,, and is a highly finished performance. 
There are two works there in public by a Raviglione di 
Casale, than whom, after Musso, I do not think that Mon- 
ferrato has produced a more commendable artist ; but we are 
nevertheless ignorant of his name, his age, and his school. 
Ferdinando Cairo was a respectable disciple of Franceschini 
in Bologna; he afterwards established himself at Brescia, 
where he continued, with Boni and others, to profess that easy 
style, and the latter city possesses his best works. 



813 



SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT AND THE 
ADJACENT TERRITORY. 

EPOCH III. 



School of Beaumont, and Restoration of the Academy. 

The eighteenth century was graced by the reign of three suc- 
cessive princes, all lovers of the fine arts, and was consequently 
rich in patronage ; but from the decline of painting it was not 
equally rich in the production of great works. Saiter, who 
lived some years in this century, was succeeded at the court 
by Agnelli, a Roman, whose style was a mixture of those of 
Cortona and Maratta. He painted a large hall, which is filled 
with select pictures, and which now bears his name. Agnelli 
was in his turn succeeded by Claudio Beaumont of Turin, who 
after having studied in his native place, repaired to Rome, 
where he employed himself for a considerable time in copying 
the works of Rafiaello, the Caracci, and Guide. He did not 
much regard the masters of the Roman school of that day, con- 
sidering them feeble ; he deferred to Trevisani, and aimed at 
emulating his execution and the vigour of his colouring : he 
was also desirous of studying the works of the old masters at 
Venice, but was preventea by his domestic circumstances. On 
his return to Turin, he became distinguished for the noble 
style he had acquired in Rome. To appreciate him correctly 
we must inspect the works of his best time : as the Deposition 
from the Cross in the church of the S. Croce, or the pictures 
in fresco in the royal library, where, under various symbols, 
he has celebrated the ruling family ; adding to it a Genius 
with a cross of a cavaliere, which was the reward he was am- 
bitious 0^ and which he obtained. He decorated also other 



314 SCHOOL OF PIBDMONT9 BTC.— *-EPOCH in. 

rooms with pictnres in £resco ; the Bape of Helen in one cabi- 
net, and the Judgment of Paris in another, are his prodactions^ 
alike happy in their general effect and in their separate parts. 

The court gave an additional stimulus to his industry by 
employing, in competition with him, many eminent foreigners, 
particularly in the reign of King Charles, to embellish the 
palace, the villas, and the churches of royal foundation ; 
among the latter of which the most remarkable is the church 
of the Soppeiga, erected by Victor II., which contains the 
family monitments. Beaumont was in consequence brought 
into competition with Sebastiano Bicci, Giaquinto, Gnidoboni, 
De Mura, Galeotti, and Gio, Batista Yanloo, the celebrated 
scholar of Luti. 

Yanloo in Turin disttsgnished himself both in the frescos 
of the villas, and in church pictnres; and had with him 
Carlo, his brotiier and his scholar, who was his assistant, 
and exeented even more works than he. He painted the 
beautiful decorations of a cabinet in the Palazzo, consisting 
of subjects from the Jerasalem of Tasso. These princes were 
moreover aocnstomed to send commissions to the most distin* 
guished foreign piunters, such as Solimene, Trevisani, Masucci, 
and Pittoni; which gave a stimulus to Beaumont to rival 
them, or at least to endeavour not to be left too far behind. 
And thus in his best works he sustains his hme in a commend- 
able manner; at one time excelling in design those who con- 
quer him in colour ; at another time surpassing in spirit of 
execution those who excel him in design. It is the general 
opinion that his genius dedined as he advanced in years ; and 
this is attributed to his superintendence of the working of 
tapestry, for which, while he made the cartoons, he gradually 
degenerated into negligence of design, vulgarity in his heads^ 
and above all, crudeness and want of harmony in his colours ; 
a defect not uncommon in those who survivea him. 

His memofy is deservedly held in veneration in his native 
place. He was the first to form the Turin academy on the 
model of the greater institutions of that kind: so that it 
seemed to date a new birth from his time, in 1736 (for it was 
not before extended to all branches of the art) under the ap- 
pellation of the Royal Academy ; as appears from the Ora- 
zione of Ta^liazucchi, and the poetry annexed, in a little 



CLAUPXO BEAUMONT. 815 

Tolnme edited in Turin in 1736, intituled, ^Oraiione e Poesie 
per la Instituadone dell' Aocademia del disegno," in 8yo. 
Beaumont educated not only many painters of merit, but also 
engrayers, tapestry-workers, and modellers and statuaries; 
from wbich epoch the national cultiyation of the fine arts has 
increased, far beyond the example of former times. Some of 
those who were uie scholars of Beaumont in painting still sur- 
yiye. Some are deceased, (and these alone hold a place in this 
work,) of similar style, though not of equal talents with their 
master. Yittorio Blanseri was considered the best amongst 
them, and was on that account chosen by the court to succeed 
Beaumont. The three pictures by him at S. Pelagia, and par^ 
ticularly a S. Luigi fsinting in the anns of an angel, are much 
esteemed in Turin ; and if I err not» he is superior to his 
master in the distribution of light and shade. A more correct 
designer than Blanseri, but inferior in poetical inyention, and 
in knowledge of haimcmy and colouring, was Gio. Molinari, 
who painted some pictures in the churches ; one of which is at 
8. Bernardo di YeroeUi, a composition of saints, well disposed, 
with good action, and conducted with great care. In Turin 
there is an Addolorata by him at the Regio Albergo delle 
Yirtii ; others in (rarious places in the state ; amongst which 
in the abbey of 8. Benigno is a St. John the Baptist, with a 
landscape by Cignaroli. In priyate collections we meet with 
his historical pieces and his portraits ; he painted one of the 
king, which was highly applauded, and has been yery fre- 
quently copied. 

Owing to his character, which was naturally timid, re- 
senred, and modest, he painted history less than he ought to 
haye done. This artist was honoured by the Baron Yer- 
nazsa with an elegant enlogium, which will caifer a lasting 
honour on his memoiy. He died nearly at the same time as 
another eminent Piecunontese of the name of Tesio. Whether 
or not Tesio was instructed in the art by Beaumont, or by 
others, I cannot state ; but I know that he repaired to Bome, 
and there became one of the best scholars of Mengs ; and 
at MoncaJieri, a delightful residence of the royal family, 
are to be seen some of the finest specimens of his talents. 
Felice Ceryetti and Mattia Franceschini worked sometimes 
alone, sometimes in competition, with more fe«ility but less 



316 SCHOOL OF PIEDMONT, ETC. — ^EPOCH III. 

finish, and are pretty frequently met with in Turin. But in 
Turin, and throughout the state, Antonio Milocco is better 
known than these, or perhaps any other painter. He was not 
the schoLir, but for some time the companion of the Cavalier 
Beaumont ; more dry than he in design, less cultiyated, and 
inferior to him in all the qualities of a painter : but from a 
peculiar facility he was often employed by private individuals, 
and sometimes by the court 

About the same period Giancarlo Aliberti flourished in 
Asti, his native city, which he adorned with many large com- 
positions. The best of these are at S. Agostino, wh^re, in 
the cupola of the church he has represented the titular saint 
borne to heaven by a band of angels ; and in the presbytery, 
the same saint baptizing the newly-converted in the church 
of his town of Ippona. The subject is well conceived ; the 
perspective, which the vaulting of the edifice rendered diffi- 
cult, is correctly preserved ; the architecture is magnificent ; 
the expression of the figures is in unison with the august 
ceremony : the style participates of the Roman and Bolognese 
of those times. He would probably have left some works of 
a higher order in the cathedral, a 'fine church, which was 
intended to have been wholly decorated by him ; but in con- 
sequence of demanding fifteen years for the completion of his 
work, he was deprived of the commission ; nor was it difficult 
to find one to execute it quickly enough, without exciting the 
jealousy of Aliberti. P. della Valle found in his style a 
mixture of Maratta, of Gio. da S. Giovanni, and of Correggio ; 
heads and feet which one should attribute to Guide or Domeni- 
chino; forms peculiar to the Caracci; drapery of Paolo, 
colours of Guercino, a Sacrifice of Abiuham, imitated from 
Mecherino. I had not myself time to form so many compa- 
risons. 

The Abate Aliberti, his son, painted in many of the above- 
named cities, and (which I have not found in the father) in 
the capital. There is a Holy Family, of fine effect, painted 
by him in the church of the Carmine, though in the colouring 
it is not exempt from that greenish tinge which was then in 
vogue in Italy, and which still predominates in the works of 
some of our artists. 

Francesco Antonio Cuniberti, of Savigliano, a fresco-painter 



DOMENIGO OLITIEBI. 317 

of some reputation in the decoration of cupolas and ceilings, 
worked in his native place and its neighbourhood. Pietro 
Gualla di Casalmonferrato also employed himself in fresco, 
and likewise painted in oil in many places of the state, and 
in the metropolis. Although he applied himself late to the 
study of his art, he became a portrait^painter of great spirit. 
Nor ought he to have gone beyond this province, neither pos- 
sessing a knowledge of design, nor genius equal to greater 
attempts. When verging on age, he assumed the habit of a 
friar of S. Paul, and in Milan undertook to ornament a 
cupola of the church of that order ; but he died before he had 
finished his work. 

Another department of the art was cultivated in a distin- 
guished manner by Domenico Olivieri of Turin, a man born 
to amuse by his singular personal appearance, his lively con- 
versation, and the humorous productions of his pencil. His 
cabinet pictures of spirited caricatures in the style of Laer, 
and other eminent Flemish artists, are well known in the col- 
lections of Piedmont. In his time the royal collection, by the 
death of Prince Eugene, was enriched by the addition of 
nearly four hundred Flemish pictures ; which are still distin- 
guishable from others by the highly-finished carving and fine 
taste of the frames. No one profited more than Olivieri 
from the imitation of these works. If he had possessed the 
lucid clearness of their tints, he would have passed for a 
Flemish artist. He is happy in his subject, strong in his 
colours, and free in his touch. The court has two large pic- 
tures of his, crowded with figures of a span in size : one of 
which is a market scene, with charlatans, drawers of teeth, 
villagers quarrelling, and the variety of incident usually 
furnished by a busy assemblage of the vulgar. It might in- 
deed, from its humour, be called a little Bemesque poem. 
He occasionally employed his talents in sacred subjects, as in 
the Miracle of the Sacrament, which he represented by a 
number of small figures in two pictures, which are preserved 
in the sacristy of the Corpus Domini. His style was in- 
herited by one Graneri, who imitated him successfully, and 
died only a few years since. 

The court had also a painter from Prague, of the name of 
Francesco Antonio Meyerle, commonly called Monsieur Meyer, 



L 



dl8 SCHOOL OF PXEDMOKT, BTC.— 4BP0CH III, 

who did not a43qaire so mnch fame from his larger works as 
from his small pietores in the Flemish style : in the latter he 
was indeed exoellent He was also a fine painter of portraits. 
The Bishop of Yeroelli possesses one of an old man, scniti- 
nizing some ohjeet or other with an eye-glass, executed with 
great troth and hnmour ; and in the same city, where he 
spent his latter days, his works are frequently met with, and 
the more prised the smaller they are found in sise. In land^ 
scapes and other ornamental pictures, painted in a bold 
Tenetian style, and for distant effect, a Piedmontese, of the 
name of Paolo Foco, distinguished himself, who lived for a 
long time in Casale, where the greater number of his works 
are to he found. He, too, attempted figures on a larger scale, 
but with little success. 

In portraits, in the time of Oriandi, a lady of the name of 
Anna Metrana, whose mother also was a painter, was much 
esteemed. In our days a similar reputation was obtained in 
Bologna, by Maroantonio Birerditi, of Alessandria, a very 
good follower of that school. He painted also in tiiiO churches 
in a clear chaste style, far removed from mannerism; and 
amongst other pictures which he punted for the church of ilie 
monks of Canuildoli, is a Gonception, in which he manifested 
his predilection for Guido Beni. He died in the same city 
in the year 1774. 

I have found, in the course of my reading, one Miohela, 
whether or not of Piedmont I cannot determine, who, in the 
Toya.1 castle, painted perspectives, ornamented with figures by 
Olivieri ; a work executed in competition with Lucatelli, 
Marco Bicci, and Gian Paolo Pannini, celebrated artists of 
those times. 

For the more extensive decorations of the churches 
and the theatres we find two artists often employed ,* Delia- 
mano, of Modena, mentioned by us in the second chapter of 
the Lombard schools*, and Gio. Batista Crosato, of Venice^ 
whose genius and fine taste are extolled by Big, ^netti. He 
has not, however, been able to adduce more than one public 
picture, in which branch, and in every other of a figurist, he 
was less admired than in perspective. He is one of those 

* See Yol. ii. p. 368. 



BSRNAHDINO OALUABI. 319 

pftinters who deceire the eye by a strong relief and he thus 
gives the semblance of reality to his imitations. He has left 
proofs of this (][uality in various parts of Piedmont, where he 
generally resided ; and the works which do the most honour 
to his memory are at the Yigna della Begina. He conferred 
a benefit on the school of Piedmont, from his instruction of 
Bernardino Galliari, a celebrated perspective painter, particu- 
larly for the theatres, and of great £une in Milan, in Berlin, 
and in other places beyond the mountains. To this respected 
professor his scholars are indebted for their accurate taste in 
art. 

The state has also produced other painters in figures 
and in landscape ; nor will any impartial person blame me 
for not having particularized every individual of them. On 
the contrary, I fear that several names here inserted by me 
may appear to some of my readers scarcely worthy of admis- 
sion. Such persons ought however to consider, that the 
mediocrity of the times compels the historian to notice artists 
of mediocrity. 

The rules of the academy, introduced in Turin in 1778, 
have not subsisted sujQiciently long to allow us to judge of 
their result, as I have done with regard to older establish- 
.ments. They were given to the public the same year, from 
the royal press ;* and do honour as well to the good taste as 
to the munificence of Victor Amadeus III. His august 
father had, indeed, already prepared a domicile for the fine 
arts in the halls of the university, and had founded the new 
academy of design, under the direction of the first painter of 
the court. It has since received fresh lustre from the 
patronage of the present king, and has been enlarged by 
professorships, stipends, and laws, and aids of all kinds for 
studious youth. Turin has, in the present day, exhibited 
productions in painting, such as, except in Rome, are to be 
found in few capitals of Italy ; and in architecture, statuary, 
and bronze, stands almost unrivalled. I do not particularize 
the living artists, as they may easily be found in the New 
City Guide, or in the preface to volume xi. of Yasari, printed 

* There is annexed to them a learned Treatise, by the Count Felice 
Durando di Villa, with very erudite and copious notes. 



320 0CHOOL OF PIEDMONT, BTC.— BPOCH m. 

in Siena ; asd some of iheir names hare become better 
known from the Toice of public applanse than from the pens 
of writers. 

I liere close mj History of the Art of Painting. The 
Indexes, the first, containing the nomendatnre and the 
different ages of the artists ; the second, a list of the writers 
from whom I hare derived my information ; and the third, 
a reference to some things more particularly deserring of 
notice, complete the work. 



d2t 



FIRST INDEX, 

ArtiiU rtferred to in this toori, noting the periods of their Birth and 
Death and the authorities fir the dates. 



A. 

Abatb (V) Ciodo, v. Solimene. 

Abati, or dell' Abate, Niccolo, a Modenese, b. 1509 or 1518, d. 1571. 

THraboschi, ii. 352, 354. 
'■ Giovaimi, his father, d. 1559. Tirahoschi, ii. 354. 

— -^ Fietro Paolo, brother of Niccolo. Tlrabosehi, tb, 
. Giulio Camillo, son of Niccolo. Tirabosehi. ib. 

■ Ercole, son of Oinlio, d. 1613. THraboseki* ib, 

■ Fietro Paolo, son of Ercole, d. 1630, aged 38. Tirabosehi. 
ii. 355. 

Abatini, Guido Ubaldo, of Cittk d! Castello, d. 1656, aged 56. Passert, 

i. 423. 
Abbiati, Filippo, a Milanese, d. 1715, aged 75. Orlandi. ii. 529. 
Adda, d^ Conte Francesco, a Milanese, d. 1550. MS. ii. 491. 
Agabiti, Fietro Paolo, of Sassoferrato, painted in 1531. Colucei, i. 352. 
Agellio, Giuseppe, of Sorento, pnpil to Cav. Roncalli. BagUone, i. 470. 
Agnelli, N., a Roman artist of this age. M8. iii. 313. 
Agostino dalle Prospettive, painted at Bologna in 1525. Masim, ii. 473, 

—iii. 52. 
Agresti, Liyio da Forli, painted in 1551. Vasari. d, ubout 1580. 

Orlandi. 1. 406, —iii. 57. 
Alabardi, Giuseppe, called Schioppi, flourished towards the end of the 

sixteenth century. Zanetti. ii. 291. 
Alamanni, Fietro, of Asoola, painted in 1489. Guida d'Ascoii, i. 336. 
AOmuu, Francesco, Bologn., b. 1578, d. 1660. Mahasia, i. 229, 462,— 

iii. 89. 
Alberegno, flourished in the fifteenth century, ii. 74. 
Alberelli, or Albarelli, Giacomo, a Venetian, pupil to Falma. Zanetti, 

ii. 244. 

TOL. IU« T 



322 iimEx. 

Albermo, Giorgio, di Caaale, pupil to Moncalvi. MS. iii. 300. 
Albertiy Chembiiio da Borgo S. Sepolcro, d. 1615, aged 63. Baglione. 

i. 204. 

Gio., his brother, d. 1601, aged 43. BagUtme. ib. 

Diunate da Borgo S. Sepolcro, d. 1613, aged 75. Baglume. ib. 

■ ■ Others of the same family^ i. 205. 

' Franoesco, a Venetiazi, of whom is cited a single work, and fliis 

doabtfbl. He must have painted about 1550. v, Zanetti in the Guida^ 

and in the greater work, p. 288. u. 210. 
— — Michele, a Florentme, pupil to Daniele di Volterra. Gvida di 



Roma. i. 149. 
AlbertineDi, Mariotto, a Florentine, d. about 1512, aged 45. Vascari, 

i. 152. 
Albertoni, Paolo, Rom., a follower of Maratta, d. shortly after 1695. 

Orlandi, L 506. 
Albini, Alessigndro, a Bologoese, pupil to the Caracci. Maivana, iii. 128. 
Alboni, Paolo, a Bolognese, d. old in 1730. Cre^pi, Oretti, in his 

Memorie M88. caUs him Paolo Antonio, d. Sept. 5th, 1734, and 

bwied at S. Proeolo. 
Albored, Giaoomo, a Bolognese, d. 1677, aged 45. Crespi. iii. 138. 
Aldiovindiiil (moce eommonlj AUUrmndini), Mauro, from Rovigo, b. at 

Bologna, d. 1680, aged 31. Guida di Bologna, iii. 176. 
' Pompeo, ton of Maura, b. 1677, d. at Rome, 1739. MS. 

in. 177. 

Tommasa, cousm of Pompeo, b. 1653, d. 1736. ZaneiH. id. 



ABy EgMio, di lieger flourished the latter half of the seventeenth 

century. See Cftuda di Roma. L 522. 
Alenagna, di« Givurto, painted at Genoa, 1451. Soprani, iii. 234. 

Zuan, V. Grio. Tedesoo. 

Aleni, TontiosadO, of Cremona* painted in 1515. Zaisi. ii. 426. 
Alessi, Matteo Perez di, a Roman, painted in Spain, in the time of Vargas* 

i. 145* See Matteo da Lecce. 
' Pier Antonio da S. Vito, a pupil of Amatteo. Cetarini. ii. 154. 

Akssiis, dB, Ftancesco, an Udinese, painted in 1494. RewUdis. ii. 94. 
Alfimi, Domenico di Paris of Perugia, b. 1483. Paseoli. Was living in 

1536. MarioUi. i. 347. 

Orazio di Paris of Perugia, b. 1510, d. 1583. Marioiti* ih. 

AHberti, Gio. Carlo d'Aati, b. 1680, died about 1740. J>. VdOe. iiL 316. 
Ab. Aliberti, his son. ih. 



INDEX. 393 

AUbrandi, Girel., of Mesosa, b. 1470, d. 1&24. ffack. u. 18. 

Aliense, Me Vftssihcchi. 

AHprando, Midielaiigelo, a VeroDese, pupil to Pftolo Caliiun. P^zjso, 

il. 223. 
Allegretti, Carlo di Monte Brandeqe^ a oetide im tiMt didtiictt ^ Aacoli ; 

he painted in 1608. Ortini, i. 431. 
Allegri (also signing himself Lieto), Antonio, from. )u9 native place 

called Correggio, b. 1494, d. 1534. Tirabo*eM. ii. 348, 374. 
' Lorenzo, his imde, was living in 159?. Tinbmth^^ ii. 348. 

' Pomponio, sen of Antonio, b. about 1^0. Tktakoaehu Painted 

ml593. AJTb. fi. 996. 
AUegrini, Francesco, ofGubblo,d« 1063, aged 76k Qfimiu i 423, 433. 
— — — Flaminio, son to Francesco. 7\Ma. i. 424. 
Allori, Alessandro, ealled alto Bronzluo, a Florentiae, b. 1535, d. 1607. 
BaldmHcci. i. 193. 

Cristoforo, his son, b. 1577, d. 1631. Baidmueei. i. 216, 238, 240. 

Aloisi, 9ee Galanino. 

Altissimo, dell', Cristotoo, a FtorentiBe, scholar of Broosiuo, living in 

1568. Vatari. i. 197. 
Alunno, Nicoolb, of Foligno; his works appeared between 1458 and 

1492. XtaiiotH. 1.340. 
Amadei, Stefano, of Perugia, b. 1589, d. 1644. Pmc^U. L 467. 
Amalteo, Fomponio, from S. Vito in the Frioul, b. 1505, d. about 1588. 
Renaidis, In Motta, in the district of Trev^, ift found inserlbed on 
an altar-piece, Mottte cms H incolo; whieh I tiikik proves his 
connexion with that pkee. Fednriei. ii. 152. 
■ Girohuno, his brother, d. young. MmtUig ^ ii^ Ij^. 

Quintilia, his daughter. Renaidh^ ii. 154. 

Amato, d% Gio. Antcmto, a NeapoHtan, b. about 1475, d^ about 1555. 

i>omtmct. ii. 15, 27. 
Amatrice,den',CoU(Filotesio), painted in 1533. QmOad'JseoH. ii. 27. 
Ambrogi, Domen., called Memchino del Brialo, % Bologueye, living in 

1678. Malvaaia. iii. 126. 
Ambrogio, a Greek monk, lived about 1500. MS. i. 71. 
Amerighi, or Morigi Cav. Michelangelo da Caravaggio, b. 1569, d. 1609. 

Baldinucei. i. 438, 451, --4t. 32. 
Am!co, Mastro, see Aspertiid. 

Amidano, Pomponio, of Parma, Uved i» 1595. 3C8. ii. 408. 
Amigazzi, Gio. Batista, a Veronese, pupil to Eidolii. Foxzo. ii. 872. 

Y 2 



S24 INDEX. 

Amigoiu, Ottavio, a Brescian, d. 1661, aged 56. Orkmdi, ii. 280. 

Jacopo, a Tenetian, d. 1752, aged 77. Zanetti, ii. 296. 

Amorosi, Antonio, of the Commune in the diatrict of Ascoli. Colueeif 

in vol. xzi. lived in 1736. PascoU. i. 538. 
Anastasi, of Sinigaglia, lived in the beguming of this century. M8. 1.524. 
Ancinelli, dagli, tee Torre. 
Ancona, d', see Lilio. 
Anconitano, 1', tee Bonini. 

Andreaai, Ippolito, a Mantnan, pupil to Giolio. MS. ii. 334. 
Andreasso, or Andreani, Andrea, a Mantuan. Lett. Pitt. i. 296. 
Andria, di, Tuzio, painted in Savona in 1487. Guida di Crenoa. iii. 235. 
Anesi, Paolo, a painter of landicape, flourished the besginning of this 

century. MS. i. 262, 535. 
Angarano, Co. Ottanano, a Tenetian, painted - about 1650. Zanetti, 

ii. 250. 
Ange, 1', Franc, di Annecy, b. 1675, d. 1756. Cretpi. iii. 165. 
Angeli, d', Filippo, a Roman, called II Napolitano, d. young in the 

pontificate of Urban VIII. Baglione. i. 238, 433. 
Giulio Cesare, of Perugia, b. about 1570, d. about 1630. PascoU. 

i. 466. 
Angelini, Giuseppe, of Ascoli, pupil to Tassi. Qwda d^ Ascoli. i. 509. 

> Scipione, of Perugia, d. 1729, aged 68. PascoU. i. 539. 

Angelico, see Da Fiesole. 

Angelo, pupil to Claude Lorenese. PasSeri, i. 483. 

' d', Batista, see Del Moro. 

Angussola, or Angosdola, Sofonisba, a Cremonese, d. old at Genoa about 

1620« ItatH. Aged about 90. M8. u. 445. 
■ Lucia, and other sisters. Zaist. ib. 

Anna, d', Baldassare, a YenetiBn, pupil to Corona. Zanetti. ii. 240. 
Annunzio, see Nonzio. 
Ans, or Hans, see Ausse. 
Ansaldo, Gio. Andrea, b. at Voltri, in the Genovese territory, 1584,. 

d. 1638. Soprani, iii. 269. 
Ansaloni, VincenziOi a Bolognese, a pupil of the Caracd. Malwuia, 

iU. 128. 
Anselmi, Giorgio, a Veronese, d. 1797, aged 74. ii. 314. 

Michelang., of Parma, called Michelangelo da Lucca, «bid 

more commonly Da Siena, 1591. Ratti. Died in 1554. Affb^ 

i. 295,— ^u. 399. 



INDEX. 825 

Antelami, or Antelmi, BenedettOi of Panna, a sculptor, his works, 1178 

and 1196. Affh. ii. 371. 
Antoniy degli, or d' Antonio, set Da Messina. 

Antoniano, Antonio, of Urhino, painted at Genoa after the year 1595. 
Soprani, ii. 189. It seems we onght to read Antonio Viyiani. 
Lazzari, iii. 254. 
Anversa, d', Ugo, flourished in the sixteenth century. Vatmn. ii. 97. 
Apollodoro, Francesco, called Porda of Friuli, living in 1606. Statuto 

MS, de Pitiori di Padova. U. 261. 
ApoUonio, Agostino, di S. Angelo in Yado, nephew and'lieir to Luzio 

Dolce. Colueei, i. 429. 
-— ^— . Greco Maestro del Sail. Vatari, i. 49. 
— ^— - Jacopo, da fiassano, d. 1654, aged 70. Verei, Or aged 68. 

Mehhiori, ii. 205. 
Appiani, Franc, of Ancona, b. 1702, d. at Perugia, aged 90. MS, i. 524. 
Appiano, Niccola, sc. del Vinci in MUano. Laituada, ii. 491. 
Aquila, Pietro, a priest of Marseilles, ¥ras living at the dose of the last 

century. See Orlandi, ii. 49. 
M l ■ dell', Pompeo. Orlandi. Flourished in the sixteenth century. 

ii. 27. 
Aragonese, Sebasdano, or Luca Sebastiano da Brescia, flourished about 

1567. Orlandi. ii. 180. 
Araldi, Alessandro, of Parma, d. about 1528. Affh. ii. 372. 
Arbasia, Cesare, of Saluzzo. Notices of him from 1589 to 1601. Delia 

Voile, i. 451,— ii. 491,— iu. 297. 
Arcimboldi, Giuseppe, a Milanese, d. 1593, aged 60. MS, ii. 505. 
Ardone, Daniele, of Milan. See MoreUi NoUx.f p. 205. L 100. 
Ardente, Alessandro, of Faenza {Diario Saero di Lucca), more commonly 
supposed to be from Pisa, and by some from Lucca, d. 1595. MS. 
iii. 295. 
Aretino, Andrea, lived in 1615. JBofflione. L 202. 

Spinello, b. 1328, d. 1400. BoitaH, Noteejo Vagari. i. 70. 

Aretusi, or Munari degli Aretusi, Cesare, a Bolognese citizen, perhaps 
bom at Modena, painted in 1606. IHraboschi. d. 1612. Necrologio dt 
S. Tommaso, in Mercato di Bologna. Oretti. ii. 350, 410, — ^iii. 44, 50. 
Argenta, Jacopo, a Ferrarese, was living in 1561. MS. iii. 294. 
Aristotile, see Da S. Gallo. 

Armani, Piermartire, da Reggio, b. 1613, d. 1669. THraboachi, ii. 
364. 



S2S INDEX. 



Aniiaiiiio,TiiiotecbfOfFIaiidcri»4.1$40,«gedil>(n^ PatwH, i.479. 

Annenini, GKo. Batista, of Faenza, Uying in 1567. ik4tmdi. i& ^. 

Amolfo, a Florentine Bcnlptor and arobiteet, cL 1300. Bo/Amien. i. 82. 

Afoinatari^ Dorotea, « VcnetlHi l«dy» liv«d 111 16M. BmnMnA. ft. 507. 

Azpino, d\ Me Gesari. 

Arrighiy pupil of Franoeschini. Gvida di Volterra, i. 224. 

Anigoniy Mt LMDrentaa. 

Anera, daa% Stif., « 3PiidaUi» fivid MMMt lS6(k Jli^ 

ii. 178. 
Afloani, Pdbgrkidi da€«pi, u paiBler«f te Jut cetfttty. 

ii. 367. 
Asciano, d% Gio., eduoflted by Bcvoa da Siemt, i. 12SS. 
A^MHani, Mastro Amio^ a Bologftese, paiMCd In l%lt« AfoAmftr. d. 

1552, aged 78. Oretti, Mem. iii. 3, 22. 

Qnido, his brotiwr, ptfSntodin 1491. Vkami. iiL«3* 

Assereto, Gi&vacchiiio, » €i«noeM» d. i649» i^ 49^ StiprtHU, vL 270. 
Afl^ di, Andrea^ cdfed i'lngvgno, b. abMit \4^^ d. ISSO. C^alferiir 

Imperiale, i. 347. 
' Tlbeno,he«abicnbes loft name SHitoHttfMiligllrav, wttliTifi|^ln 



1521. MarioUo. 1.349. 
Aata, deU% AnA-ea, a Neapditai, d. 1721> ag^ iSwittt 48. 

ii. 63. 
Attavante, gee Voite. 

Ayanzi, Giiuep^ a Fct«tfese» d. 1 718, i^ 73. Bm^ffisOii. Hi. ^l , 2^7. 
— — Jaoopo, a Bolognese, flourisbed 13?6. MthfUriu, Or Davioiko, 

a Paduan, Yeroneae, «r Bdogne^t. JMMi MorM. His woit in 

Pftdna, dated 1376. iiLlS. 
Avansini, Pierant., of I^aeensa, 4 1733, GtiHto ii Pieman, %. 415. 
At<d]inO| Oiolio, caUed the MeMineiBb, d. in 1700. Vretpi. ^. 226. 

OnoMo, a Neapolitan, d. 1741, aged 67. Dominici. lii.'Oi. 

Ayerara, Gio. Bat., a Be^fameae, d. 1S48. 'S^uat. ii. 107. 
Avena, d', Mercbrio, apnpil to Caraooield. DomhUH. ii. 34. 
Augusta, Cri«toforo, fivai Casal MaggiOM, pupil of libilosso, d. yoOB^, 

Zaui. His altar-piece at S. Domeinco 4i Cremona, %ear8 his name 

and date (^ 1590. OretHy MenwHe. fi. 448. 
•Aviani, of Vioensa, eee Ouida di Vioema. M«lt have ^flourished ribont 

1630. ii. 290. 
Avogadro, Fietro, a Bresdan, iourudied about 1730. See Ihe IPfmmHHt 

Dictionary, ii. 307. 



IKDEX. 827 

AvasBt a "Ekmad, pnpSl to Rnggieri. Vmmri, MoBre eonoBonljr onfied 

Ans, or HanSt or Gunes da Bmggia. u« 9T. 
Aut^iy Jacopo, a monic pawter to the fi. Dike of IPvcanj, ^Ssvtd m 

1649. AriUimieet. L 243. 
Azsolim, or MazEofiiii, Ifio. BemaidiDD, .a NgapuBtoi, iovriAed mbm/t 

1510, ii. 27. 



Baccarmi. Jacopo da Reggio, d. 1682. Tirabosehi. ii. 364. 

JBaoerra, (Foanrt,) or Becerra, (A rf— tw,) Gn^iue fli Baen, in Anda- 

lBaia«d. 1570, aged olxNit 50. i^oibmno. i. 144,402. 
Bacherelli, Yincenzio, a Florentine, b. 1672, d. 1745. JlBy. GW7. L252. 
BachJBCBay Me Ubertino. 
Bacd, Antonio, a Mantnan, mentioned in the Travels of P. Corandili, as 

an^ artist then Hving, toL L p. 81, ibaridhed n M6S. "GiKiAi <i( 

Bomgo. ii. 289. 
Badedo, Me€bnlli. 
Badaloodii, or Soot Sirto di Ftona. He .wu-fnagin 1409. JiBftwtiit. 

U. 412,— iii. 116. 
BadHVooQ, €&aBppe, a^lenoese, b. stent 1568; d. 16&7. Snpimt i L m. 

270. 
---------ato. Biflbea«,fak«<Hi,d.l726,«9ed:78.JKa^ fi. 27B. 

Badema, Bartolommeo, of Piacenza, lived in 1680. Ouida di Pmeenza, 

iu 413. 
SadiH Ant., a Veranase, b. 1480, d. 1580. iVs»a. £.£06,^08. 
Bagazoti, Camillo, of Camerinow a fi»Uoimr df F. Sebastian). Oriint, 

Risp, L 404. 
Bagliene^ Cav. GfiovaUB, a RoaHii, b. about 1573, iMuatod in 1642. See 

his Life, at the close of the Giomate, written by jbiHi. i. 470. 

iL,Ceawe,aBo]lignflBe,'d.atPaima,aboiitlSi00. Makmkt. iu. 53. 



Bagnaia, da, Don Pietro, see Guida di Ravenna, appears to ks?e flou- 
rished about 1550. I have since £Dund in One^', I3iat 4ine of his -pic- 
tures, bearing daffce 1579, is in the dmxvh of the PassioBe at MHan, a 
fadt iiMch makes it difficidt to sBppose liim ikn pi^H of BaSaBQo. 'i.40] . 

Bagnatore, Hermaria, a Bresdan, painted in 1594. MSL He wasfUimg 
in 1611. ^mOmiu S. 182. 

Bagnoli, Gio. Francesco, a Florentine, b. 1678^ d. 1713. Jtoy. 4jfaa. 
i. 252. 



828 INDBX* 

Baitrdo, Gto. Batiste* ft GcMfveie, d« 1657» Tery young. SoprmtL iti. 270« 
Balud, Mario, a Florentine^ b. 1604, d. 1667. Jloy. GaU, L 227. 
Baldaiaari, Yakrio da Paada, pnpQ to Pier DandinL M8. L 249. 
Baldelli, Franoeaoo, nephew and pupil to Barooca. Cri^polH. i. 444. 
BaUi, Lanaxo, of Fiatoia, b. 1624, d. 1703. P^iBeoU. Or b. 1623, April 

19th. OrUmdi, Caritggio, and OretH, i. 256. 
BaldineDi, Baldino, pnpil to Domenicfaino del Gbirlandaio, i. 90. 
Baldini, Baocio, a Ilorentme, flonriahed in the time of Botticelli. Foiort. 

i. 101, 115. 

Giovanni, a Horantine, lived about 1500. BanifaUli, iii. 202. 

— »— Gioaeppe, a Florentine, popil to Gabbiani. Strim qflihuirimiM 

Pamten. i. 251. 
-»-~— Pietro Paolo, pupil to Pietro da Cortona. Guidm di Bmme, 

i. 495. 

Taddeo, pnpil to Salvator Rosa, i. 238. 



Baldino, Tiburzio, a Bolognese, iiL 49. 

Baldorinetti, Alessio, a Florentme, b. 1425, d. 1499. BoUari. i. 80. 

Baldrii^, Givaeppe, a Pkveae, aettkd at Parma, d. 1802, aged 80. M8. 

u. 415. 
.Baldoeciy or Goad, Gio., a Ftorentine, d. in the Pontificate of ClenieDt 

Vni.SagUone. i. 196. 
■ GSq. Piaano. Hia MemorU of 1339 and 1347. Da dforram. 

i. 33. 
Baleatra, Antonio, of Verona, b. 1666, d. abont 1734. Ouarieniit or 

1740, ZanetH, and Orttti, who in hia MemarU atetea the exact day, 

2l8t April, i. 508,— ii. 309,— in. 144. 
Baleatrieri, Domenico del Piceno. His painting of 1463, i. 336. 
Baleatriero, Gioaeppe of Messina, d. 1709, aged 77. Hack. ii. 44. 
Ballerino, §ee Bittonte. 

Belli, Simone, a Florentine, piqpil to Anrelio Lomi. Sopram, iiL 254. 
Ballini, Camillo, painted in Venice in the age of the mannerists. ZametiL 

ii. 244. 
*-— — — Cav. Niccolo, Ven., d. 1736, aged 85. Zaneiti, ii. 296. 
' Gio. and Stefimo, his sons. Zanettit Chdda di Vmezia. ib. 

Bambini, Jacopo, a Ferrarese, d. yonng, 1629. Baruffaldi* iiL 211. 
Bambocdo, 9ee Laer. 
Bandiera, Benedetto, of Pemgia, lived abont 1650. Oriandi, Or rather 

b. 1557, d. 1634. PateolL i. 449. 
Bandinelli, Baccio, a Florentine, b. 1487, d. aged 72. Vatari, L 137. 



INDEX. 329 

Banier, Lnigi, a Frenefaman, lived at Turin in 1675. JDelia VtUle. 

iii. 308. 
Barabbino, Simone iiklla Talle di Polcevera in th« Genovese, namely of 

Bernardo CasteUo. SopfwU. iii. 251. 
Barbalunga, otherwise Antonio Ricd of Messina, b. 1690, d. 1649. 

PascoU. u 456. 
Barbarelli, see Giorgione. 

' «eePoccetti. 
Barbello, Jacopo di Crema, painted in 1646. Guida di Bergamo* d. 

1656. Zihdldone Cremateo for the year 1795. ii. 285. 
Barbiani, Gio. Batista, of Ravenna. See Orlandu d. at Ravenna in 

Sept. 1650. Orettit Mem. iii. 130. 
Barbieri» dell% Domenioo, a Florentine, and assistant of Rosso. Vatari* 

i. 163. 
— — Alessandro, see Fei. 
— — Car. Gio. Franceseo, called II Guercino da Cento, b. 1590, d. 

1666. Malvatia. i. 439,— iii. 108. 

Paolo, Antonio, his brother, d. 1649. Malvaaia. iii. 134. 

Francesco, called U Legnano, b. 1623, d. at Verona, 1698. 



Orlandi. ii. 309. 

— -— Pier Antonio, a Pavese, b. 1663, painted in 1704. Orlandu 



ii. 535. 
Barca, Cav. Gio. Batista, a Mantoan, flourished at Verona about 1650. 

Guarientu iL 277. 
BardeJIi, Alessandro di Pescia, a pnpil of Cav. Conado. M8, i. 231. 
Barent, Dieterico, scholar of Titian. Baldmi»ieci. ii. 174. 
Bargone, Giacomo, pupil of Lazzaro Calvu Soprani, iii. 243. 
Barile, Gio., a Florentine, flourished in the time of Raffaello. Vatari. 

I 154. 
Barili, Aurelio Parmigiano, painted in 1588. Jjfh. ii. 408. 
Barocd (more recently called Barocdo) or Fiore Federigo of Urbiao, b. 

1528, d. 1612. Baldinucci. i. 209, 441. 

Giacomo, da Vignola, d. 1573, aged 66. Orlandi. L 432. 

Barri, Giacomo, a Venetian, b. soon after 1630 ; was living in 1682 ; no 

farther account of him. MS. Mekhiori. ii. 258. 
Bartoli, Franc, da Reggio, d. 1779. Tiraboschi. ii. 368. 

Pier Santi, of Perugia, d. 1700, aged about 65. Orlandi. i. 504. 

Bartolini, Giosefib Maria, of Imola, b. 1657, was living in 1718. 



330 

OrkmdL d. 1725. Hb tmA^tam st tk» CHVte m Inda. OrdU, 

Memorie, iii. 168. 
Bartoli»,di,9MU, of Siena, fifed nilfte. D.VmUe. i. 285. 
di, Taddeo, of Siena, prated In HhL D. ViOk. 4. Htd ^9. 



Viuan. i. 285,-^ ». 

. Domenioo, nephew of Taddeo, painted la 1436. Vamtri, 



1. 286. 
Bortolommeo, Biaestro, painted at Florence in 1296. Lm m, u 36. 
Baruooo, GiaocNaoy a BreiciaB, pabted witfa Gaa£^, aad widi Bands. 

Chiida a Brmtia. iL 28ft. 
BaiBiti, Mareo del Brhdi, ]iv]]« In 1580. JToiMl/i. m. 106. 
Bascbraiis, D. Syaristo, of Bergamo, K 1617, d. I>677. 2bM». & t91. 
Baifll, Fienogiolo, of CMMio, Mvdl to 16M. ll oa y J W t ci . i. 428. 
Bassano, da, Martinello, a painter of the thirteenth century. Ffrei. 

ii. 73. 

tt, iwDa PoMli. SM'oIio T«aien. 

Baaaetti, Marcantonio, a Veronese, td. l^M, aged 42. SSMfL i 473, 

--n. 276. 
BaMn, IVancesco, a CSiciiiunese, called ll Oremoneae da nesiy i>. 1642, 

d. the b^iinning of 1700. ZaiMt. ii. 454. 
>-— — another of tke inaie mame and cooiitry. K. 
— another Franoeaoo Bassi, a Bolognese, pupil to Pasinelli, d. aged 

29. CretjpL Perhaps a ftbe report -gaire ine to tUs aceonait, for 

Oretti calls him a scholar of Barhieri, and next of Geimari, and that he 

died in 1732, aged 80 ; iSS&Skg tiie -anfiiority of VHippo Bam, aon of 

FranceseOj and pariah priest df S. 9€&!at, in. 113. 
Bassini, Tommaso, a Modenese, flovnsfaed m tiie fe ittl g e uth oentiiiy. 

TirttbastM. u. 345. 
Bassotti, Gio. Francesco, of Perugia, flourished ahout 1665. Orkmdi. 

i. 508. 
Bastamok), U, or Filippo Mazznoliy « Fmanaie , d. dd in 1569. 

BanffMu iii. 209. 
Bastiaiu, Giuseppe of Maoeia, fiainted in YSH* MiS, i. 430. 
Batiatieno, gee Caracdolo. 
Batoni, Cav. Pompeo, b. at Lucca 1708, d. 1787. Eh^ tUH Oiv. Bow. 

i. 260, 529. 
Bettagiia, IMonisio, a Veronese, flourished in 1547. Pozzo. n. 142. 
Battag^, delle, or defle Bamfaioccnfte, Mididangelo, we Cerquozsd. 



Batarese, Francesco Ignuia, schdar«f Orittoote. CtJonNft ^ada&^wt. 

i. 536*. 
BaTir» Gio. Ottglielmo, d. 1640. Sandrari. i. 487. 
Bazzacoo, or Braxzaeeo, «ee Pondiiiio. 
Bazzini, Gaspero da Reggio, b. 1701, d. 1790. TirtAnekL u. 3i&. 

Giuseppe ealled hf mHrtalBe In tb» tsKt Gio. Maator., 4M 



director «f liie tOTal aeadtnty of palstidg in 1769. VolUu iL ^1. 
Beaumont, Cay. Claudio Franocaco, of Tnna, b. 16H» d« 1766. JMla 

VaUe. iii. 313. 
BeocaAuul, or Meebetmo Bomenioo, Sneae^ d. 15t9, agfsd ^ VmmL 

Or rather Uved in 1551. X>e«B Vdtk. i. 99, 29ft, Se5,*~in. 240. 
Beocamzzi, IVan^. da Gon»gliano, MDords.of him In l\«n|^ ftom 1527 

to 1540. Federiei. ii. 151, 
Beoeri, DoAucnico^ a HoRntine, pmpilfif Migo. f'^MBH*. I« Ifl, 
Beduschi, Antonio, a Cremonese, b. 1576, nainted in 1607. QmS» di 

PuKma^ II. 443. 
Begarelli, Ant. da Modena, b. abont 1498, d. 1565. JirdlmehL ii. 348. 
degni, Ginlio OfesaK, « Pesareae, d. ahortfy brflw 168A. CkAda M 

Pesaro. I. 446. 
Bemascfai, or Benaada, Gar. Oio. fiadjfta» of Tmm, b. 1€S6. Ploaeali. 

d. 1688. Domimei. Or 1690. OrUmdi. i. 468,'-fi. 46,«^-iii. 304. 

^ Angela, bla ^bnglfter, V 1666> waa living ia 1717. & 46. 

Bellavia, Marcantonio, a Sicilian, perhapa a scbOlH' «f Corfeoaa. Guida 

di Soma, B. 64. 
BeOaTita, Ai^lo, a Cremoneae, liv«d in I4!20. £aiii* £. 421. 
Belliboni, Gio. Batista, a Cremonese, piqail t» Antonio Caaarpi. ^mat 

ii. 442. 
Bellini, Bellin, flourished about 1500. See lUdof/i. n. liff. 

Faippod'Urbiiie,pamtad1nl594. Cbtecc<, vqI. xzm. i.445. 

Gentile, a Tenetian, b. 1421, d. 1501. JRtd^. i. 334,— 

ii. 102. 

Gio. his brother, d. soon after 1516, aged 90. Rtdolft, i. 334, 



— u. 101. 

Jaoopo, &tiier of the tiro ynetiSB^y painted abcmt 1456. M8. 



From an inscription dted by Polidoro, it would aeam that Jaoopo and 
his two aoau pafaitod «a eariy aa 146(9. This cannot be credited, we 
should read 1459. 1. 334,— ii. 85« 

BellinianD, Vlttote, a Venetian, painted in 1526. JRid9lJl. u. 111. 

Bellis, de, Antcmio, a Neapdiitaa, d. yoimg in 1656. JkmdiUci, a. 39. 



832 IN^EX, 

Bello Marco. One of hu pictarei» with the initials M: B,, formerly in 

Argenta, the natiTe place of the artist, is now in the Obizzi Muteumf 

bearing date 1548. ii. 112. 
Bellotti, Pietro, da Volzano on the lake of Garda, b. 1625, d. 1700 

Guida di Rovigo. ii. 253. 
Bellotto, Bernardo, a Venetisn, lived in 1718. Orkmdi, ii. 318. 
Bellacci, Ant., b. 1654, in the Piere di SoUgo in the Trevisano, d. there 

1726. Melehion. ii. 295. 
— — — Gio. Batista> his son. Federid, tb, 
Bellnnello, Andrea, da S. Vito, painted in 1476. In a punting of 1490| 

he signs himself Andrea Bellone. Benaldu, ii. 94. 
Bellunese, Giorgio, da S. Vlto, flourished about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. See Cesarini. ii. 229. 
Beltraf&o, Gio. Antonio, a Milanese, d. 1516, aged 49. New Guide of 

MOan, JL488. 
Beltrano, Agostino, a Neapolitan, painted in 1646, d. about 1665. JDomi- 

Mtci. ii.40. 
Belvedere, Ab. Andrea, a Neapolitan, b. 1646, d. 1732. DonUnid 

ii. 52. 
Bembo, Bonifazio, or Fazio, da Valdamo, a Cremonese, painted in 1461 

Lomazzo, ii. 422. 
■ Gio. Francesco, his brother^ daHed II Vetraro, was painting in 

1524. Zaiti. ii. 427. 
Bend, Domenico, assistant of Vasari, lived in 1567. i. 201. 
Bencovich, Federigo, called also Federighetto di Dalmazia, lived in 1753. 

Guarienti. ii 296,— iii. 166. 
Benedetti, Mattia and Lodovico, of Reggio, flourished about 1720. Tira- 

boachi. ii. 364. 
Benefial, Cav. Marco, b. at Borne 1684, d. 1764. Lettere Pittoriche, 

vol. v. }. 511. 

Benfatto, Luigi, called dal Friso, of Verona, d. 1611, aged 60. Ridoljf. 

U. 222. 
Benini, Sigismondo, a Cremonese, pupU to Massarotti. Zaist. ii. 454. 
Benso, Giulio, b. in the Genovese, about 1601, d. 1668. Soprani, iii. 262. 
Benvenuto, see Ortolano. 

Benzi, Giulio, a fiolognese, d. 1681, aged 34. Guida di Bologna, iii. 166. 
Bergamasco, II, eee Gio. Batiste Castello. 
Bergamo, da, F. Damiano Domenicano, d. 1549. Thsei, ii. 127. 
' Gugliehno, Maestro, lived in 1296. Taai. ii. 81. 



iNDEs:. 333 

Berlinghieri, Camillo, called II Ferraresino, d. 1635, aged 39. Baruffaldu 

iii. 217. 
■ Bonaventara, da Lacca, painted in 1235. BetHneUL i. 37t 

275— u. 343. 
Bernabei, Pier Antonio, of Parma, called della Casa, li^ed about 1550« 

MS. ii. 408. 
I Tommaso, a Cortonese, pupil to Luca Signorelli. Vasori^ 

lived in 1540. Mariotti, i. 92. 
Bemardi, Franc, called II Bigolaro, a Veronese, pupil to Feti* Pozzo, 

ii. 277. 
Bemasconi, Laura, a Roman lady, and disciple of Mario Kuzzi, Pofcolu 

i. 490. 
Bemazzano, a Milanese, flourished in 1536. Orlandi. ii. 487. 
Bemetz, Cristiano, of Hamburgh, b. 1658, d. 1722. Pascolu i. 539.. 
Bemieri, Ant., da Correggio, b. 1516, d. 1563. Tirahosehi. ii. 397. 
Bernini, Car. Gio. Lorenzo, b. at Naples of Florentine parentage, in 1598, 

d. 1680. Baldiwucci. i. 493. 
Berrettini, Cav. Pietro, of Cortona, b. 1596, d. 1669. Paseoli. i. 245, 504, 
Berrettoni, Piccolo, di Montefeltro, b. 1637, d. 1682. Pascolu 1. 504* 
Berrugese, or Berruguete, Alonzo, a Spaniard, b. 1545. Ptdom. Or 

rather at Toledo, yery old, in 1561. Conea, i. 144. 
Bersotti, Carlo Girolamo, of Pavia, b. 1645. Orlandi. ii. 535. 
Bertani, Gio. Batista, a Mantuan, lived in 1568. Vasari. ii. 335. 
»— Domenico, his brother. Volta, ib, 
Berto, di, Gio., called also Bertiu Joannia Marcij of Perugia, painted as 

early as 1497, was living in 1523, and perhaps later. Mariotti. 

i. 348. 
Bertoia, or Bertogla, Jacopo, Pftrmigiano, lived in 1574. Affb. ii. 407. 
Bertoli, a Venetian, painted in 157... MS. ii. 196. 
Bertolotti, Gio. Lorenzo, a Genovese, b. 1640. d. 1721. Ratti. iii. 274, 
Bertucd, Lodovico, da Modena, flourished in the seventeenth century. 

Tirabosehi. ii. 367. 
' Jacopo, iee Da Faenza. 

Bertuno, Gio. Batista, a Bolognese, was living about 1643. Malvana.. 

d. 1644. OretH, Mem. iii. 48. 
Bertuzzi, Porino, of the school of Barocd. MS. 1.444. 
Besenzi, Ptolo Emilio, of Reggio, d. 1666, aged 421 Tirahosehi. ii. 364. 
Besozzi, Ambrogio, a Milanese, b. 1648, d. 1706. Orlandi. ii. 533, 
Betti, Niccob, a Florentine, and assistant to Vasari, i. 201. 



334 INDEX. 

Betti,P. Biae^aFSstoiBM'nieatiiie,d.l615»aged70. BagUone. I 20^. 

See abo Pintiiriccfaio. 

Bcttiai, AiakUL SebaiCiaBO, b. at Flareaoe in 1707, d. ^ Boy. GaU. 

1*252. 
■■ ■ ■■ ■ Bonenioo^ a Fioreotiiie, b. 1644, d. 1705, at Bologna. OrkatdL 

In. 174. 
BBvcpeafle, Juitonio* ii. 248. 

Beyflacqna, Ambrogio, a Mflanese, painted in 1486. OrlaM, ii. 468. 
■ ■■ ■ Fifippo, his brother^ Jjtmazxo. ib, 

' Cav., see Salembeni Ventnra. 
Bessi, Gio. Ftanc., a BoiognMe* called H NosadeUa, d. 1571. Makasia, 

ill. 41. 
BezzicahiYa, Eroole, a Piaan, fioarisbed abont 1640. Momma, i. 234. 
Biagio, Mastio, eee PaptnL 
Biancbi, Baldaaaare, a Bolognese, b. 1614, was Uving in 1660. Cree^, 

d. at Modma, 1679, aged 65. OrHH^ Memorie. in. 139. 

Carlantonio, a Pavese, lived 1754. Pitture d* ItaUa. ii. 535« 

CaT. Sodnrigo, a HilaaBBe, painted in 1718. (HandL vl 525. 

^Fi]ippo,ayeBfllten,UTQdinl660. Boseiim. ii.244. 

—— «- Prancesco, a Milaneaft painter of Qua centory, MS, ii. 525. 
Cav. Isidoroy da Caaqpume, in the Milane8e» waa living in 1626. 

Orlandi, iL 531. 

' • Fietro, caHed finatittt, lived in the eighteenth centaury. QrUndi. ib. 

• Hetro, a Roman, b. 1694. Flore»H»e JHdunuay. d. 1740. 



MS. 1.499. 

Bonavita Franc, a Florentine, d. 1658. Baldrnwd. i. 214. 

Gio., his fiither, a Milanese, d. 1616. Baldmueci. i. 243. 

Feriari, called U Fvaii Franoesoo, a Modeneae, painted in 1481, 



d. 1510. TiraboadU. H. 346. 
Bjanchini, Vine., a Ycnettan mosaic painter in 1517, until 1552. Zanetti. 

11.232. 
_^— Domenico, his brother, called Rosso. Notice of him from 

1537 until beyond 1563. Zanetti. ib. 

■ Gio. Antooio> son of Vinoenzio, flourished in 1563. Zttneiti. ib. 



Bianco, del, Baccio, a Fbrentine, b. 1604, d. 1656. BaidiMucci. U 241. 
Biancuoci, Paolot a Lucchese, pupil to Guidou MS, d. about 1553, 

aged 70. Orettir Memarie. i. 235. 
Bibieaa, or GaOi da Bibiena, Gio. Maria, b. 1625, d. 1665. Creepi. 

iii.177. 



BibieBa, Frane., his wm, a Bo]ogIlege^ b. 1656, d. 1729. Crt^» iu. 178. 
— — — Ferdinand, anotiier 8on, b. 1657, d. 1743» Crespi. ii, 
' Alesssndra, son of Fterdmand, d. at Yiemia abost 176Q. Cretpi, ib. 



— '• Antonio, another son, b. 1700, d. 1774. Gwda M Bohgtui, Or 
d. 1769. FretUfy. ib. 

— Giuseppe, another son, b. 1696, d. 1756. Cre^, 11. 
Carlo, son of Giuseppe lived in 1769. Creqri, Si, 179. 



Bicchierai, Antonio, padated at Rome in I73(K GttitUt di Moma, i. &20. 
Bicd, di, Lorenzo, a Florentine, d. about 1450. VasarL i. 70. 
"*— Neri, his son. Viuari, t6. 
Bigari, Yittorio, a Bolognese, b. 1692, d. 1776. GmU di JMogna, 

m, 179. 
Bigatti, Galeazzi, Minelli, scholars of Cignaw. Creqri, uL 165. 
Bigi, Felice, of P&naa ; aceordBng to Orfandi, a Raman* tavgfat at Verona 

about 1680. Orlandi. n. 318. 
Bigio, Marco, a Sienese, flooriahed about 1530. Jklla ITaOr. i. 309. 
— 9ee Brazze. 
Bigolaro, «ee Bemardi. 
Bifia, ddBi, Gio. Batbta, of Cifcti di CasteUo, Hyed toward the middle of 

tiie sixteenth eentury. Vateri, i. 429. 
BiUvert, Gio., a Florentine, b. 1576, d. 1644. BMmwxL i 212. 
Bimbi, Bartolom., a Florentine, b. 1648, d. about 1725. May, Gall. 

i. 237. 
Bissolo, Franc., a Venetian, flottrisbed about 1520. ZemtitK ii. 109. 
Bissoni, Gio. Bat., a Paduan, d. 1636, aged 60. Ridolfi, ii. 261. 
Bitmo, painted at Rimini in 1407. MS, M. 27. 
Bittonte, or H BaUeruiOY Gio., of Vicenza, d. 1678, aged 45. Melehiori, 

u. 271. 
Bizzelli, Gio., a Florentine, pupil to Aleasandro AUori. Borghini, b. 

1556. Orlandi, i. 193. 
Blaceo, Bernardino, of Frioli, painted ia 15r40. Smutldit. His work at 

S. Luda di Udine bearing date 1553. MS. U. 156. 
Blanaeri, Vittorio, of Turin, d. 1775, aged about 40. MS. iii. 315. 
Bles, de, tee Ciretta. 
Boocaccino, Boccacdo, oi Cremona, painted about 1496, d. aged 58. 

Vasari, About 1518. Zaist. At S. Vineouo ia one of his paintings, 

bearing date 1516. Oreiti, Memorie. it. 423. 
■ Cannllo, las son, painted in 1527, d. 1546. Zaist, ii. 429. 

■ Franc, d. old, about 1750. Zaist. ii. 451, 



d3<( INDEX. 

Boedu, Fanftmo, a Bresdaii, b. 1659, living in 1718. Orlandi. d. about 

1742. MS. Carbone preuo r Oretti, ii 289. 
Bocciardo, Clemente, a Genoese, called Cleuentone, d. at Piia about 1658 

aged 36. Soprani, iii. 267. 

■ Domenioo, di Finale, in the Genovese, d. 1746, aged about 60. 

Raiti. m. 285. 
Bocatis, Gio. di Camerino, painted in 1447. Mariotti. i. 336. 
Boetto, GioTenal, di Fossano. Notices of him from 1642 to 1682. Dellit 

VaUe. iii. 306. 
Bologhino, or rather Bolgarino, Bartolommeo, a Siennese, scholar of Pietro 

Laurati. Vatari. i. 284. 
Bologna, da, or Bolognese, M. Domenico, painted in Cremona about 1537. 

Omda di Cfrernona. iii. 35. 
m Eroole, flourished about 1450. Maivana. iii. 15. 

.— — Franco, painted in 1313. MS. iii. 9. 
»— da, Ghdante, pupil to Lippo Dalmasio. Vaaari. iii. 15. 
•— ^— Guido, painted in 1280. Malvasia. iii. 5. 

■ Giovanni, an ancient painter. ZanetH, iii. 13. 
— Jaoopo di Paolo, or Ayanzi, painted in 1384. Malvaaia. In the 

OretH Memorie is cited the register of S. Prooolo, where he painted in 

1418. iii. 12. See Avanzi. 
— — Lattansio, tee Mainardi. 
■ Lorenzino, see Sabbatini. 

Lorenzo, perhaps a Venetian, painted in 1368. ErcolmU CtUa' 



logue, iii. 11. 

— Maso, painted in 1404. OrUmH. iii. 14. 

Orazio, and Pietro di Jaoopo. The first flourished in 1445. 



Guida di Bolopna. iii. 13. 

Pell^grino, $ee Tibaldi. 

-^— Serero, painted about 1460. Malwuia, iii. 15. 
— ^ Simone, called da'Crodfissi, painted in 1377. Malvasia. iii. 12. 
—.^ Ventura. His paintings from 1197 until 1217. Malvasia. iii. 5. 
— - Vitale, called daUe Madonne, painted in 1345. Mahasia. iii. 9. 
Ursone. His notices from 1226 until 1248. Malvasia, iii. 5. 



Bologmni, Gio. Batista, a Bolognese, b. 1612, d. 1689. Crespi. iii. 102. 

■ Giacomo, his nephew, b. 1651, d. 1734. Crtyri. ib. 
Bombelli, Sebastiano da Udine, b. 1635. Aigarotti Catalogue, d. 1685. 

JUnaldis, Or rather was living in 1716. Lett. Pitt* voL v. 

u. 258, 260. 



zzTDSx. 837 

BombeUi, Raffaelle, his brother. Benaldtt. li. 261. 

Bombologno, a Bolognese, lived about the middle of the fifteenth century. 

Mahfosia. iii. 16. 
Bona, Tommaso, a Bresdan, was still painting In 1591. ZamitmL ii. 230. 
Bonaccorsi, see Del Vaga. 

Bonacossa, Ettore, da Ferrara, lived in 1448. Ban^aldi, iii. 188* 
Bonagrazia, Gio., ofTreviso, b. 1654, pupil of Zanehi. Federiei. ii. 294. 
Bonarruoti, or rather Buonarroti {Vaeari) ; or Buonarotti {Varehi) ; 

Michelang., a Florentine, b. 1474, d. 1563. Vaeari. i. 133, 366, and 

elsewhere. 
Bonasia, Bartolommeo, a Modenese, d. old, 1527. Tirabaaeki, ii. 346. 
Bonasone, (xiulio, aBolognese, an engraver from the year 1544. Malvatia, 

Was employed In 1572, as appears from a picture in Casa Branchetta. 

OretHf MeiMrie. iH. 44. 
Bonati, PaseoUt more correctly Bonatti, Gio.y a Ferrarese, b. 1635, 

d. 1681. Ban^Mi. i. 463,~iu. 221. 
Bonoonsigli, or Boni Consilii, Gio., called II Marescalco da Yicenza, 

painted in 1497. Bidolfi, In the cathedral of Montagnana, are two of 

hU altar-pieces, dated 1511 and 1514. MS. ii. 117. 
Bonoonti, Gio. Paolo, a Bolognese, a pupil of the Caracd» d. young. 

MdhttM. d. 1605, aged 42. OretHf Memorie, iii. 82. 
Boncuore, (Mo. Batista, b. in Abmuo a Campli, In 1643, d. 1699. Pat" 

colt, i. 463. 
Bondi, Andrea and Filippo, of Forli, pupils of Cignant ChuarimH, iiL 

168. 
Bonechi, Matteo, a Florentine, pabted in 1726. Serie ^ PiUori lUtuiri. 

i. 252. 
BoneUi, Aurelio, a Bolognese, pupil to the Caracd. Malvatia, Was living 

in 1640. Moreni. iii. 128. 
Boned, Gio. Girolamo, a Bolognese, b. 1653, d. 1725. ZanotH, iiL 156. 
Bonfigli, Benedetto, di Perugia, b. about 1420. PatcoU^ Was living still 

in 1496. MttriotH. L 291, 341, 353. 
Bongi, Domemco, di Pietrasanta, punted in 1582. Morfima, \, 235. 
Boni, Giac., a Bolognieae, b. 1688, d. 1766. Cretpi. iii. 284. 
Boni&sio, — Orbndi writes it Boni&cio,— Francesco, of Viterbo, b. 1637^ 

was pupil to Pietro da Cortona. Orlandi, i, 495. 
■ Veneziano. Tot. Bid, Zanet, But are all in mistake, as this 

artist was a Veronese. See MoreUi, Notma, S(c, p. 196. He died 1553. 

ZanetH. Aged 62. lUdolfl, u. 171. 

VOL. III. Z 



299 uiBBX* 

fionlfbrti, Girolamo, ofMaoera, painted ui-tiiftaeTeiiteeiitlLceiitDrf. MS* 
Or ratfagr liraiioflsco, i4io was Hniig». aged 77> ml671. Catiej^ (kmtiu 
i. 466. 

fionim, Gio»d*A«ifli,pai]]tfsdml32l. BtUaValk. i. 333. 

Girolamo, caUed at Bologna L' Anconituiffy wtB, Imng in 1660. 



Orttmdi. t463v— iii. 92. 
BoBonOf €H»paiera.GreBio]iese, floiuddied. abotit 146(K ^tau/. u, 421. 
Boniaoliy AgoaCfara, aXrcmaaeae^ d.. 170<H aged 67. 2it8l.. ii 452. 
BoBito, Gft^; Gins., o^CastdT « Mais> H. 1705. iF%ii*. DhUonary, d. 

1789. JZoy. Go//, u. 63. 
Bono, Ambragio^ aebbl. of Lolii. Zam^ti,. xL 2S7. 
— ^— €kegori0> a 'Vcneluoi, pamted in 1414. M&, Hi, 292; 
■■ N. pvpH off StfoarnoDe.. Guciiir <it Padufok From the Nbdsia 

MoreOi we learn he was either aBologneae or. a Fkrarese.. ii. 115. 
Btmomo, di, Jaoofeellov a« VenetiaiH lived in 13fi5w MottHi. tL 7B. 
Bonone, Carlo, a Ferrarese, b. 1569, d. 1632. Ban^PMU iii. 214. 
»^— lioneUb^ hiff nephew, lived in 1£49. J&iiii^faU». ni. 217. 
Btooni, Barlctommeo, a Pftveaev painted in. ISflf . FUtmr^. d! Uatia, 

ii. 476. 
BonTionO) MeawDdro^ called II Mocetto da Brescia^, b; 15Jsi. GHtmdu 

Not correct, as Ke was painliing in 151^. Waa linng^in 1547. ^4111116. 

ii. 18(K 
Bonzi, , aee Gobbo da Cortona. 

Borbone^ Jaoepo, da NiyfeUaray pa&ited, in 16Jt4<. nraktuM^ ii* 357. 
Bordone, Cav. Paris, of Treviso, d. 1570, aged 70. Necrohgio Vmeto, 

att^hj ZanHtSi. m I45v 167. 

N., son of P&ris, ii. 146. 

Benrgfmiv Vnns^y aKntnanvfived tiU after tiiftniddie of theasventfeeath 

century. MS. ii. 340. 
B^yi^iese, Ijppoi.-, a HeapoIltaD, paiotediiiE ISOS^ GrtedL iiv 23.. 

Gi»?anni» daMesfflna, pupil t^Coatia. Vaauru, ii 29v^iiL 191.. 

■ Girolamo, da Nizza d^ia Pag^ painted afimt 150IK MS, 
iir. 294. 

■ — Pietro, 9ee Defla^ Francesca. 



Borgfiest, 6id. A^ntnni, of CittS[ di Caatefliov d. I7t8. Otimdt, k 494. 
Borgianni, Orazio, a Roman, d. in the pontzfieate of FeuiI T^ ag^ 36. 

BoffUont, r. 474'. 
Bbrgo, da, Francesco, painted in 1446, GuttUr e^ Mhmm, iii. 27. 
■ del Gio. Paolo, painted abont 1545. Vmaru i. 203. 



^reQgoone» Ambrogio, a Milaiteset flotuished about 1500. /S^ee I^omazzo, 

ii. 474. 

■ ■ ■ a, fee Cocted. 

BbCTO^ Bati«te^ Aretino^ Ihred in 15&7. Vanm,. L 174. 
Bosrwii^ Cftv. Qio. ABgdo» a Cremoaesc, b.. 1684, d. 1772. ZauL 

ii. 425, 453. 
Borsati, Carlo,. FontosRi Franc^, Setti CaiwUo^ aU. ]fe«Bai!efl9>. mad supposed 
. pupUataCattwuK iii. 221. 
Bovtone^. Lncjano^ a Gieiu^flsa, b. 150iK.. SopfwtL. iiU 27 U 

Gicb Batista, his son, d. abi9itt Ifi^* Sk^tmrn^ id. 

■■■■ -^ Qtcki, aaothev son, d. yovaag,, ia 16i57. i^qpofML H* 

' — FniM6BQQ» MH o£ LuffiaKio, bi.. 1026, d. 1679. BOO. ut 272. 

Bosch (as hor ng^s bknawe), oallsd bj Ocbadi Bosco^ or Boss da Boldnch, 

extolled by Mazzolari for his Capricci in the Escurial. He painted at 

Yenioe, Zane^i and ai^fmr^mfely toward» the yctm: liOC ii 268.. 
Boschi, Fabrizio, a Florentine, b. about 1570, d. 1642. jBo^dttttcccz. 

i. 216. 

FisDcesoo, a Florentine^ b* 1019, d. 1675^ Saldinuooi^ 1 227. 

1" AlfioDso,. his bcotiieff, d. young. BMinntecL t>. 

— ~-— Benedetto, another brother. Baldkmeci, lA. 
Boschini, Marco, a Venetian, d. 1678, aged 65. M^hwri^ See Index 

Second, .ii^ 236. 
Boscoli, Andrea,, a Floiwrtbie, d. abomi 1606. JBaidmMieeL L 195. 
BoaelU» Antonio, a Bergamesflk His notioaB from 1500 to^ l}536u Taeei. 

ii. 123, 153. 
-^— Felice, di Piaoenza, b. 1350, d. aged 82« Giuida eH> Pioisenza. 

ii. 416. 
BottaUa^ Gaa. Maria^ a Genoese,. csUed BaffikrilinA, d. 1644, aged 3l. 

Soprani, i. 497, — ^iii. 276. 
Bottaiii, Qioseppe^ a Csemonsse^ b. 1717, d. 1784. MS. ii. 341, 454. 
Botti, Rinaldo, a Florentine, lived in 1718. Orlandu i. 239. 
Bofetio^, Sandro Fiiippu Tata, Ox rather HUpepi, a Florentino, b. 

1437, d. 1515. Vasari. i. 87, 115. 
Boulanger, Gxo.., of TM>.yes, pi^ to Goido. JHrc^hecM, d. 1660, aged 

94. Lettera Scritta da Modena al P. Orlandi Cart. Oretti. ii. 363. 
Homi, Ant., a Mssmaese, d. 1711, aged 70. ffaiert. ii. 45. 
Bozza, Bartol., a Venetian, when yonng a mosaic-worker, ^out 1542, d. 

old. ZofteiH^ ii. 232. 
Bozzato, see Ponchino. 

z 2 



340 INDEX. 

Bnodoli, 6io. Franoesco, a Femurese, b. 1697. Baruffaldi, d, I762,r 
Creepi, iu. 224. ^ 

Bramante, Lazsari, of Caatd Durante, now Urbania, in the state of 
Urbino, called also Bramante of Urbino, b. 1444, d. 1514. Vasari. 
Docomenti shewing him to have been of Durante, are inserted in the^ 
27th Tol. of Sig. Coluod. According to others, Bramante's fieunily was 
of Castel Durante ; but he was bom in Monte Asdmaldo, a villa of 
Fermignano, four miles from Urlnno. Hence he is called A»druvaldinu9, 
The surname of Lazzari is merely fogned. Said to have been bom 
1450. See Colueei, torn. zii. and xzxi. i. 364, 374,— ii. 470. 

Bramantino, di, Agostino, a Milanese, flourished about 1450, Pagaoe, 
Or rather was a disciple of Suardi. Lomazzo, in the Index, ii. 463. 

-< or Bartol. Suardi, a Milanese, living in 1529. Paganfe^ 

iL472. 

Brambilla, Oio. Bat, living in Turin in 1770. N. Cfmda di Turmo, 
iii. 309. 

Brandani, Federigo, di Urbino, d. 1575. Lazzari, i. 434. 

Brandi, Dom., a Neapolitan, d. 1736, aged 53. J)ominiei, ii. 66. 

Giacinto, b. at Poll, 1623, d. 1691. Paecott. Others make him 

from Gaeta. i. 460,~iii. 309. 

— — di, see Ottini. 



Brandimarte, Benedetto, a Lucchese, living in 1592. Orlandi. i. 207. 
Brandine, and Flaminet, lived about 1610. Marino, iii. 304. 
Brandino, Ottaviano, called in the Notizia Ottaviano da Brescia, and 

companion of Alticchiero. ii. 88. 
Bravo, Cecco, eee Montelatici. 

Giacomo, of Trevisi, lived in 1638. Federici, ii. 245. 

Brazze, Gio. Batista, called U Bigio, a Florentine, pupil to EmpoU* 

Baldinucci, i. 242. 
Brea, Lodovico, da Nizza. His notices in Genoa from 1483 to 1513. 

Soprani, iii. 235. 
Brentana, Simone, a Venetian, b. 1656, was living in 1718. Orlandi, 

u. 308. 
Brescia, da, Gio. Maria and Gio. Antonio, ancient engravers. Orlandi, 

i. 107. 
■I F. Gio. Maria, a Carmelite monk, painted in Brescia about 1500. 

OrUmdi, iii. 235. 
■' . F. Girolamo, a Carmelite monk, painted at Savona in 1519. 



Guida di Genoa, ib. 



INDEX. d4;t 

Brescia, da, F. Raffadlo. See Guida di Bologna, d. 1539, aged 60. 

GaUetti, Ineeript Venet^e RonuB exttmtes. In the inscription be is 

called Roberti ; whether his surname or a second name. ii. 126. 
-^— Iieonardo, a Ferrarese, flourished in 1530. Orkmdi. d. 1598. 

Baruffaldi. m, 200. 
Bresdanino, delle Battaglie, see Monti. 
— — -~— - del, Andrea, a Sienese, flourished along with his hrother 

about 1520. Delia Voile, i. 291. 
Bresdano, Tincenzo, see Foppa. 
Brill, Matteo, of Antwerp, b. 1550, d. 1584. BaJdmucci. Date to be 

corrected on the authority of the inscription, which says he died aged 

37. Galletti, Inse. Ronuaue, torn. ii. p. 406. i. 432. 
— Paolo, his brother, b. 1554, d. 1626. Baldinueci. ib. 
Brini, Francesco, a painter of the seventeenth century. MS. i. 231. 
Briziano, see Mantovano, Gio. Batista. 

Brizio, Franc., a Bolognese, d. 1623, aged 49. Malvasia. iii. 125. 
-— Filippo, his son, d. 1675, aged 72. Oretti dal Neerologio di 

S. GiuHano di Bologna, iii. 126. 

del, Menichino, see DegH Ambrogi. 



Brizzi, Serafino, a Bolognese, b. 1684, d. 1737. Zanotti, iii. 179. 
Bronzino, An^olo, a Florentine, was living in 1567, aged 65. Vasari, 

d. aged 69. Borgkini. i. 191. 

— Alessandro, see Allori. 

Bruggia, da, or da Brugges, see Van Eych, see Ausse. 

Bmghel, Abramo, a Flamand, died at Naples about 1690. DomimcU 

ii. 52. 
« dall' Inferno. He signed himself P. Breughel, as I read it on a 

little picture in Pftlazzo Lante at Rome, dated 1660. He is also called 

Pietro Bmghel the younger, to distinguish him from his father, who 

had the same name. ii. 288. 

Gio., brother of the preceding, b. at Brussels about 1589. 



Desean^. d. 1642. FUibien. ii. 509. 
Brughi, thus called in the Guida da Roma, Gio. Batista, a Roman, pupil 

to Gaum, d. about 1730. RaUi. i. 517. 
Brugieri, Gio. Domenico, a Luechese, b. 1678, d. 17 44. Flor. Dictionary. 

i. 259. 
Brugno, Innocento, a Udinese, lived in 1610. Renaldis. ii. 259. 
Brun, le, Charles, a Parisian, b. 1619, d. 1690. Royal Gallery qf 

Florence, i. 521. 



342 INDEX. 

Bmiielteschi, Filippo, a FLorentme, d. 1446, aged 69. Vasari, i, 74. 

<3iolio, a Udineac, b. 1551, painted in 160B. MS. u. 259. 

Bnmetti, Sebastiano, pupil to Guido. Mdlvaria. d. 1649. OrHtif Me- 

morie, ffi. 102. 
Bnmi, Domenioo, a Bresdan, d. 1666, aged 75. OrUmdi. ii. -291. 
— — Lucio. His work of 1584. Ouida Si Vieenza. ii. 268. 
'■ Girolttno, a pupil ef Borgognone. CoUmna Catalogue, i. 4S7. 

Bnino, Nello, Calandrino, friends of Bifffalmacco, i. 6B. 

Antonio, pupil to Correggio. MS, li. 398. 

■ Francesco, da Porto Mauritio, in the Oenovese, d. 1726, aged 78. 

naiU. iii. 276. 

Ginlio, a Piedmontese, pupil to "P&ggi. "Soprani, (Called Bruni 



bjOrkmdi,) iiL d65. 

-*'— 6io. Btftista, faisliTother, ^aiid pupfl. tS. 

il, Silvestro Morvillo, a Neapofitan. W& works from 1571 te 



1597. Doinnmi. ii. 27. 
Bronori, or Bnaioiiii, Pedei%^, •«€ Gubbio, pupfl to Damiaai. Sanght- 

a9ci, i. 428. 
Brusaferro, Girolamo, aVeneitibm, ttyisdlnlS^ iShdSa Si ^tmiffo. it 

297. 
Brusaaorci, jee Ricdb. 
Budrio, da, see lippi. 
Buffalmacoo, Buonamico, of Cristofano, a ^orentin%, was Ihritig in 1351. 

Baldinueei, i. 62. 
Bugtardini, Ondiuio, a Horenliino, d. 15SI6, ageft 75. Vtisart, i. 160, 

—iii. 34. 
Buonamid, eee TMli. 
Buon&nti, Antonio, a Penarese, caEed H Tofriciflla, a mppc^stA pupil of 

Guido. CUtadetta. iU. 22:L 
Buoni, de', Buono, a Neapolitan, d. about 1465. ^tfominici, ii. 13. 
-— -- SUvestro, a Keap<^taik, d. abotit 1484. 2>omJ»t«». ib, 
Buontalenti, Bernardo, a Florentine, ladled delle 'Girandole, "b. 1536, d» 

1608. BotUxri. i. 190. 
Buratti, Girolamo, pupil to Pomavanci. '&utdiB Si AeVoH, i. 470. 
Burrini, Gio. Ant., a Bologntte, b. 1656, d. 1727. ^martH. iii. 147. 
Busca, Antonio, a Milanese, d. 1686, aged 61. Orlandi, ii. 524. 
Buso, or Busso, Auietto, of Crema, pupil to Polidoro da tlarav^;^ 

Skg^md. d. about 1520. MS, ii. 188, 505,'-'iii. 24'7. 
Bustini, see Crespi and Biancbi. 



JNfiiBX. 343 

Buti, LodoTico, aHoFentmey^onrulied about 15d0. MaidinuQei, i, 19%. 
Butmone, Bernardo, or Bemardinoi da TreriliOy painted in 1484, d. aibont 

1520. MS. ii.4;7Q. 
Bntteri, Gio. Maria,. a Florentma, jpaanted In 1567. VmopL d. MMQ. 

BaidimioeL i 197. 

C. 



CabuBi, Marg^MBita,«U Gagpi, 4. 17M, agdin. aSraAMcit. H. 367. 
Caocaa, GngMdmOy^odlQd a aionoiflro,tb.^m^ft ifewwwie , tS68. 9rkmdi, 

d. about 1625. 2>e//a VaOe. iii. 298. 
QndaMadddena, Jib .aB]^itfic,d. 1078. Qrtetft. in. 96!1. 

■ Fnmcesca, anoOer dangbter, A. ag«d 57. lOnfcMMit. i&, 
— -— Bampeo,ASaBian,3ivedanl6& JfiS. d.-25I. 
Caccianiga, Franc., li. 17M at Mibm, d. 1781,, Mmwve iMU B^A. 

torn. iL i. ;N2. 

■ Paolo, Formenti, Pozzi (Gio. Batista), Milanese artists of lacent 
timeo, ii* 532. 

Cacdanimiai, Aranc, a BoleigiieBe, a ^in^de «f Urianttieno, ^d. 1:542. 

Guidu di BBiofmu ML 3ft. 
Tinoenzio, a Bolognese, lived about (^30. Sm 'GvUki di 

Bologna^ in. tl. * 

Caocieli, Gift. Batiste da BnOrio, in te Salofaess, Jb. 1623, d. f 676. 

Cfrespi, iii. 139. 
Cades, Gtins., a Itottan ^ Fvendi :&m%, d. •a^fed 49. JK9. 4. 532. 
Cadioli, Gio., a founder in tbe eighteenth century of theMaotaan aoafleiny, 

MSL liBfi. 
Caf|,'la,a|iaiiitrentiffloiHenu GvUk di Bimeto. ^,'fm. 
Cagnacd, Guida da S. Arcangdto, b. %691, 4. 1661. fQmda iH EomffO. 

iii., 102. 
Cairo, Cav. Emne. ^ Vareie, iniihe li^Biiese, d. 1674, aged 76. t)r%nuii. 

ii. 530,— iii. 309. 
FerdinanADdi'OiRbBionf.,4. r746,«ged77. <karboni. MS.preu9 

r OreOu in. Jȣ. 
Calabme, Me PMlyaR Caoffiioo, ««e Kiooluedio. 
Calandra, Gio. Batista, ^ YesodU, d. 1644. PaacdU. Or d. 1648, 

aged 72 or 73u PaaterL 1 542. 
Calandmod, fiiacittte, !». 1646, at Piflenno, d. 17^. Patetili, i. 505. 
OoBMBico, In "braffiher, and Gio. Italtiata, bis nej^bev. P^ 

eoH. ib. 



344 nnoEZ. 



Calcar, or CaOcer, Gio., of Fluiden, died yomq; in 1546. Stmdrtart. 

ii. 174. 
Calda, Gins.y called H GenoYennO) lived in the kit century. M8, iii. 310. 
Caldena, Ant. d'Anoona. Ouida di Moma, i. 524. 
Caldara, Polidoro, or Polidoro da CaniTaggio, d. in 1543. Vamni, i. 396, 

— ii. 19. 
Calderari, Gio. Maria di Pordenoney wbo in an altar-piece ligned himself 

/. M. P. lo. Maria Pwrhauntk, omittin; the snmame ; an exceUent 

pupil of Pordenime, but little known. He died aboat 1564. Benaldiu. 

ii. 151. 
Caletti, Ginaeppe, called II Cremoneae, b. about 1600, at Ferrara. CU" 

tadella. d. abont 1660. Ban^aUi. iii. 219. 
Caliari, Paolo, a Venmeae, d. 1588, aged 58. ItUU^ Or rather aged 

60. Beguitr eiM hy ZmetH. ii. 206, 213, 335. 
* Carlo, his son, d. 1596, aged 26. Bidolfl, Or 24, aaya Zmeiiu 

iL 219. 
■ Gabriele, another son, d. 1631, aged 63. Mio^. ii. 220. 

Benedetto, brother of Pknl, d. 1598, aged 60. BiMji. ih. 



Caligarino, II, or Gabriele CappeUini, a Ferrarese, floorished in 1520. 
Bart^aidi. iii. 200. 

Calimberg, or Calimperg, a German, d. about 1570. ChutrieiUi. u. 227. 

Calomato, BartoL, ot the VeDetian school^ an artist of the seventeentii 
century, MS. ii. 287. 

Coloii, Raffaello, a Modeneae. His leoords from 1452 till 1474. Tlra- 
biuehi. u. 346. 

CalTart, Dionisio, of Antwerp, or Dionisio of Flanders, d. at Bologna in 
1619. Malvoiia. b. about 1565, d. 1619. OretH, who citea the in- 
scription on his tomb at the Servi. iii. 47. 

Cahetti, Alberto, a Venetian, pupU to Cdesti. ZmtetH. ii. 294. 

Calvi, Lazsaro, a Genoese, b. 1502, d. aged 105. ScpnoU. m, 242. 

Ftotaleo, his brother, d. 1595. ScpnaU. ib. 

— Agostino, their &ther, lived in 1528. Scprani. ii. 

Giulio, called 11 Ck>ronaro, a Cremonese, d. 1596. Zaitt, ii. 448. 

Calza, Ant., a Veronese, b. 1653, d. 1714. GuariemH. Or rather b. 

1636, d. Jan. 27, 1738. OretH, Mem. ii. 287. 
Camassei, Andrea, da Bevagna, d. 1648, aged 47, Paueri. i. 456. 
Cambiaso, Gio., a Genoese, b. 1495, d. old. Soprani, iii. 244. 
Luca, or Luchetto, his son, d. 1580. Pahmmo. Or 1585, 

aged 58. Baiti. b. 1527, d. about 1585. Mariet. Deseript. ib. 



INDEX. 345 

Camlnaso, Onao, fton of Lnca. fiSoproni. iii. 248. 
Camerata, GiuB., a Venetiaiiy d. 1762, aged 94. Longhi. ii. 297. 
Camerino, da, F. Giacomo, painted in 1321. Delia VaSe, i. 274, 333* 
CamiUo, aooording to aome, of the noble bonie of Incontri di Volterra, 

papil to Goido, H^ed in 1634. Guida di Volterra, iii. 102. 
Campagnola, Girolamo, a Padnan, in mistake referred to the Marca Tre- 

Yigiana by GuanenH ; floniiahed in the fifteenth century. Vaaari. 

ii. 177. 
— — Giulio, his son, flourished about 1500. Guida di Padova. 

i. 107,— ii. 177. 

Domenico, supposed son of Giulio, but only his pupil and a 



Venetian, not a Paduan. Morelli, NotiziOf p. ii. p. 110. lived in 

1543. M8. i. 99,~ii. 177. 
Campana, Andrea, a Modenese, lived in the fifteenth century. Tirabowhi, 

u. 345. 
■ Tommaso, a Bolognese, pupil to the Caraod. Malvoiia, 

iii. 128. 
Campanna, Pletro, of Flanders, d. decrepit > in 1570. Palomino. 

i. 401. 
Campi, Gakasso, a Cremonese, d. 1536, aged 61. Zaist. ii. 425. 

Giulio, his son, b. about 1500, d. 1572. Zaist. ii. 432. 

. Antonio, Cav., another son, living in 1586. Zaiit. Made his 

wiUinl591. GretH, Memor, iL 435. 
— ^— Vincenao, another son, d. 1591. Zaitt. See what is said re- 



lating to the epochs of thie three brothers, ii. 436 

BeraardiDO, b. 1522, was living in 1584. Zaitt, Some autogn^h 



letters of Bernardino, copied from Oretti, bear date 1588, 89, and 90. 

ii. 437, 510. 
CampidogUo, da, Michelangiolo, a Roman, flourished about 1600. Patcolu 

i. 490. 
Campiglia, Gio. Domenioo, a Lucchese, b. 1692. R, GaU. di Firenze. 

i. 259. 
Campino, Gio. da Camerino, a painter of the seventeenth century. Or- 

landi. i, 455. 
Campo, da, libenOe, painted in 1418. JWIertct. ii. 93. 
Campolo, Pladdo, a Messinese, d. in the plague of 1743, aged 50. Hakert. 

ii. 63. 
Campora, Francesco, deUa Polcevera, in the Genovese, d. 1763. Raiti. 

u. 285. 



846 

Canal, Antomo, a VanBtiaii, caDadllCaiulBttD, 0. U«8,«bqA71. Em m ifi . 

iL 317. 

Ftebio, a VnwtiM, 1. 17«. JMngkL d.lim. Fom/^s. a. 302. 

Cane, Carlo, of Tmo, paintad m I26OO, aa m Jeatn iftaiii fiio. 

Irico, in faia aoooimt -tf Trim, <«Ai» tdtas twD ahBr^eoeB dated flie - 

year mWti the name oj aSimiaiM. QrianiBi aiiatriPBa in aaymg^^waa 

lioni in tbo Mflanne, lfll8v<d.agad W. j(&. 5SD, fiST. 
Caneti, F. Franoeacantonio, da Cremona, a Capnchin, b. 1652, <d. 1721. 

i2««l. 11. 4&3L 
Canneri, Anselmo, a Veronese, flonrished in 1575. CfumieniL iL 22^ 
Camni, €Ho. dki^veto, m UaaBan, A. UM6,«gad49. Banali and Paaaeri. 

i. 457. 
Canozio, Me Da Lendinara. 
OantBrini, SJaume, or SSoBaaat da I^aaro, KKIS, d. 1648. OrlmdSi. 

ill. 103. 
CiWtiOio., orBniim,4.17J6. 9>b2la. iL 341. 
Cantdna, Caterina, a Milanese, lived in 1591. Lomazzo. Skeis called 

bf JfeiVM,Ba]AMiSE,aBddiedyoanginlM5, ii. MI7. 
Cannti, Domenloo Maria, a Bolognese, d. 1684, aged 64, Me Crespi, 

F^lxma PUtrimf p. LIT, -vvfaere'lie icomota JOiOmUKy .and also La Obt- 

to»a di JBob^ffna, p. 14 , ivSure he again allndoB to 1dm. *fii. 1180. 
CannanL Gio. Satista, « \%raBn», Ihrad laotit 171& OrkmUL -n. 315. 
Capanna, Pncdo, a Florentine, pafaitad in 1884. T^nart. 9!Ked ■early in 

liib. Vatmi, IfoMn and eflnn road ^Okm^miia. L'SSS. 
il, a Sienese, Hoiirisbed abimt 110D. BoMm. 1 298. 



Cqdtaid, di% Giaiini^ or ^CSidio di Lett, pupil of Bwimnllm» €ampL 

Lmm^, iL -^ll. 
Capitdli, Bernardino, a Sienese, lived in 1626. Lett. PHtwieke, r6L L 

L S18. 
Capodiferro, Gtanfranoesco, a Bergameae, d. about 1533. Tasri, ii. 127. 

Pietro, brodier of Gianfifrac. Zti^no, ins sea, ti. 

Caporali, Bartol. da Femgia. His works from 1442 to 1487. Atartolft'. 

L34L 
-— Giambatista, or Bitti, his son, a painter and anfldteet, -b. iboat 

1476; madebis will m 1558. MartatH. d. about 1680. Fiueolt. L346. 
^GinliR, son of GiaittbatiitB, lived in 1582. MarUmi. ^. 



Cappella, Sdpione, a Neapolitan, lived in 1743. 2>omtmet. ii.*6S. 
CappelU, Fnoic. di Saasuoloyimoe a-fiof oftiie boine of Pio, lived m 1568. 
Tiraboaehi. ii. 397. 



IHIXEX. 347 

CappelU, Gio. Ant., a BrMcuo, h, 1669, d. 1741. §^k>r. JHcL H. 280. 
Cappellini, see Zapelli, see II Caligtaiao. 

CappeUino, Gio. D4>ineidco, aGmoetie, b. 1580|'d. lifiSt. Soprani, iii. 260. 
Caprioli, Francesco, di Reggio, painted in 1^82, 'd, 1&05* Tirabwehu 

ii. 346. 
Capngnano, da, in the Bolognete, >Gi&. er Zuoiih&o, lived in the ttmea of 

the Caracci. Malvasia, m, 140. 
Capuro, FraaceBco, <cif the district «f tireitDay fM^il to Fiunflft. Sopram'. 

iii. 258. 
Caracca, Isidoro, painted in 1595. MS. iii. 297. 
Caiacd (more propedy Canaooi), LodoPvioBb, « Solngieie, ^. 1S5&, d. 

1619. Malvasia. i. 216, 438,— ii. 513,-4&. 70. 

Paolo» his brother. -Midwina. iii. ^4, 

< Agostino, his cousia, b. 155S^ d. ^<60L. J&gB Inser^. in the-ca" 

thedral at Parma, i. 109, 4B8,-Hii. 41^— iii. H. 

.Annibal, brother of Agostino, d. 1609, 1^-4^. SOiari. A. 438^ 



— n. 412,— iii. 74, 

FraacescQ, their broths, 4. JL622,4|g«d 27. MOoMia. m. Bl. 

— Antonio, son of Agostino, d. 1618, aged 35. MdhmUi. ii. 



Caracdno, iee Mnlinari. 

Caracdolo, Gio. Batista, f rilnd BaHstMlo, a Neapokitai^ 4.1641. itoari. 

nici. ii. 34. 
Caradosso, a Milanese, worksr in nidhk Vatari, Or/peduyiis CawtdMSo 

Foppa da Pftyia, otherwise called a Milanese. MoineiL N(Mix, Rkm- 

rished abont 1500. i. 100« 
Caravaggio, da, MeAmeqghi, see 4Secchi, Me Caldara. 
Carsvoglia, Bartolommeo, a Piedmontese, lived in 1673. AT. OtiMb di 

Torrino. iii. 310. 
Carbondno, Gio., a Venetian knight. His jreoor^ «p tol08O \ ivhen the 

went to Rome. MS. MelckioH. He alterwfods awfajmsfliwl pmiited 

much in his native place. Cluarimtii* u. 241, 
Carbone, Gio. di S. Sevenno, Acad, ^f S. linca in 1666. I^mcoU. i.Abf. 
Gis. Bernardo, « Genoeso, d. 1683, «^ 68. JMK. 4ii. 267. 

Seenbo Scacdani. 
Cardi, see Da CigoU. 
Cardiscoy called Morce Calabrese, AonrisbBd itan 1508 to 1542. Vasari. 

U.20. 
Cardncdy or, as he jsigns himself, in Cmw, Cardocho, Bartolommeo, m 

Florentine, b. about 1560, d. 1610. SaUUnueeL i. 200. 



d48 INDEX. 

Cwducci, '\^cenzio, hit brother, d. 1638, aged 60. Conea. i 200. 
Cariani, Gio., a Bergamese. His notices to 1519. Tom. ii. 144. 
Carigliano, da, Biagio, pnpil to Ricdarelli. Veuarif who mistook his 

country. Read Cutigliano. i. 206. 
Carleraris, Luca, of Udine, b. 1665, living in 1718. Orlandi. d. I73I. 

M8. He was called di Ca Zenobrio, and commonly Casanobrio, from 

the noble family who patronised him. ii. 315. 
Carlieri, Alberto, b. at Rome in 1672, living in 1718. Orlandi, i. 541. 
Carlini, P. Alberigo da Peacia, Minore Osservante. d. 1775, aged 70. 

i. 249. 
Carlone, orCarloni, Orlandi, Gio., a Genoese, d. 1630, at Milan, aged 39. 

Batti, u. 517,— iii. 263. 

Gio. Batista, his brother, d. 1680, aged abont 86. RatH. ib, 

Andrea, or Gio. Andrea, son of the preceding, b. 1626. PascoU. 

Or rather 1639, d. 1697. SaiH. iii. 278. 

Niccolo, brother of Andrea, and pnpil of the same, iii. 279. 



Camevale, Fra., or F. Bartol. Corradini, a Dominican, from Urbino, 

lived in 1474; appears to have been deceased in 1478. Lazzari, 

i. 337, 357. 
— ■■ ■ ■ Domenico, da Modena, painted in 1654. T^rabosehi, iL 356. 
Camio, Antonio del Frinli, was living in 1680. Cfuarientu ii. 259. 
-*— — Giaoomo, survived the year 1680. Benaldis, ii. 260. 
Camuli, da, in the Genoese, F. Simone Francescano, painted in 1519. 

Scprani. m, 238. 
Caroselli, Angiolo, a Roman, b. 1585, d. 1653. Pasteri. i. 454. 
Carotto, Gio. Franc, a Veronese, b. 1470, d. aged 76. Pozzo, ii. 329, 

—iii. 298. 
— ^ Gio., his brother, d. aged about 60. Pozzo, ii. 122, 330. 
Carpaccio, Vittore, a Venetian. His works up to 1520. Zanetii, On 

his portrait, executed by himself, in possession of the Giustiniani alle 

Zattere, he inscribed the year 1522. MS, ii. 104. 

" - Benedetto, also a Venetian, although claimed by the people of 

Istria, like the preceding. His notices up to 1541. MS. ih. 
Carpi and Testa, Ferrarese artists of the fifteenth century. Cittadella, 

iii. 195. 
—— or de' Carpi, Girolamo da Ferrara, b. 1501, d. aged 55. Vaaari, 

Or aged 68. BaruffaXdi, iii. 204. 
-'— da, Alessandro, pupil of Costa. Malvana, Lived about the middle 

of the sixteenth century. Oretti Cart, ii. 347. 



IKDEX, 349 

Carpi, UgOi flourished in 1500. Orlmdu i. 99,— ii. 358. 

Carpioni, Ginlio, a Venetian, b. 1611, A. 1674. Orlandi. ii. 264, 270, 288. 

Carlo, his son. MS, u. 270. 

Carradori, Jac. Filippo da Faenza. His altar-piece at S. Cecilia di 

Faenza, with name and date of 1582. Oretti^ Mem, iii. 31. 
Carrari, Baldaasare, and Matteo hit son, of Ravenna, living about 1511. 

Guida di Baveima, iii. 26. 
Carrega, b. a Sicilian, flourished during the last century. MS, ii. 50. 
Carriera, Rosalba, a Venetian, b. 1675, d. 1757. Zanetti, According 

to F)reddyy b. at Vienna in 1672. u. 314. 
Carrucd, Me Da Pontormo. 

' Cartissani, Niocolo, a Messinese, b. 1670, d. 1742. Fhrent, Diet, ii. 66. 
Casa, Gio. Martino, di Vercelli, lived about 1654. MS, ii. 505. 

della, 9ee Bemabei. 

Casalini, tee Torelli. 

Casanobrio, ought to be written Ca Zenobrio, see Carlevaris. 

Casella, Gio. Andrea da Lugano, painted at Turin in 1658. Nuova 

Ouida di Torino, iii. 309. 

■ Giacomo. ib, 

— ^— Francesco, a Cremonese, lived in 1517. Zaiat. ii. 426. 

■ PoUdoro, a Cremonese, flourished in 1345. Zaiet, ii. 421. 
Caselli, Cristoforo, called Cristoforo da Parma, and also II TempereUo^ 

painted in 1499. Aff6, ii. 372. 
Casembrot, Abramo, of Holland, a painter of the seventeenth centurj, in 

Messina. Hakert. ii. 53. 
Casentino, di, Jacopo, died old in 1380. Vaaari, i. 67, 70. 
Casini, Gio. da Varlungo in the Flor. territory, b. 1689, d. 1748. R, Gall, 

qfFlar, i. 252. 
— ^— Valore and Domenico, Florentine pupils of Passignano. Batdi^ 

wueei, i. 240. 
— Vittore, a Florentine, assistant to Vasari, i. 201. 



Casolani, Aleasandro, a Sienese, b. 1552, d. 1606. Baldinucci, i. 311, 470. 
■ Cristoforo, or Ilario, his son, called by mistake Consolano, 

deceased in the pontif. of Urban VIII. Baglione, i. 312, 470. 
Casoli, Ippolito,a Ferrarese,tivedin 1577, d. 1622. Bart^aldi, iii. 205. 
Casone, Gio. Batista, b. in Sarzana, lived in 1668. Scprani, iii. 257. 
Cassana, Gio. Francesco, b. in the Genoese, d. at Mirandola, about 1700, 

aged 80. Ratti, Orb. 1611, d. 1691. Roy. Gall, qf FJorence, tjid 

Oretti Cart, iU. 268, 



350 

Ctanna, Niooolo, aon of Gio. Fnaoe^oo, K aft YciKe m l%b9^ d. at 
London, in 1713. JZoMi. Or ratfaer 1714. Gio. <4jrwfmft Oiwfffw^ 
his brotheri in a letter of the Car. OrettL ill. 268v 

— ^ Gio. Agoatino, anodier son, caliBd Ab. Ciiwmna, d. at Genoa ia 
1720, aged 62. RaUi. t». 

Gio. Batista, a third son, d. at liGrandola, shortiy after 1700. 



Batti. ib, 

Maiia Vittoria, dang^iter of Gio. Franc., d^ aft VeDioe in 1711. 



Bam. ib. 
Cassiani, P. Stefano, called H Certoiino, a LnodMie, painftedin like Cortosa 

of Siena, in 1660. Delia Voile. Lett. 8eu. torn. ilL p. 323. i 259. 
Cassino, di, Bartolommeo, a Bifilanese. HIa altar-pieaa of the Imaaaoo^ 

lata, dated 1513. MS. n. 470. 
Castagno, del (in the Florentine atate), Andrea, d. about 1477^ aged 74. 

Baldinucci. L 80. 
Castagnoli, Ceaare and Bartolommeo, of Caatal Fk«Doo^ the. fMrmer painted 

in 1570. Fedenei. n. 222. 
Caatelfranco, da, Orazio, flourished in the time of Til&Bn. ZametH. Off in 

1600. Meleh. ; who calls him also, Orazio dal PanadiMO^ m»B»aTio> pbr. 

p.A.D.M.n.LXTiii. i» read on a large Titianeaqae paSb e€ S« Antonio 

Ab., in the chnrdiof the DomisieaDa, at Capod'Iaftria; MSJS» ii. 174. 
CaateOacci, Agoatino, da Fieaaro, pupil of Ctgnani, b^ 1670. Cohteei^ 

tom. viii. iii. 168. 
Caatellani, Ant., a Bofognese, acholarof the Caracciv Mthaaku iii. 129^ 

Lionardo, a Neapolitan, painted in 1568. Feaert. ii. 21. 

Castellini, Giacomo, aBologne8e,KTingin 1679. JCslmnML m. 98. 
Castellino, il, da Monza, or Gioaeffo Antonio CastdUt Unng u 1718. 

Orlandi. ii. 536. 
Caatello, da, Francesco, of Flanders, d. in the peatJteate ef Clement 

YIII., aged 80. Baglione. i. 426. 
Giacomo, a painter of animala at Yewtoe, abeiut 1609. MS. 

il. 290. 
Bernardo, a Genoese, d. 1629> aged 72. Sopram. i. 43S,~ 



iu. 250. 

Yalerio, his son, d. 1659, aged 34. S9prmd. vL 259. 

Caatellmo, theilr relation, d. aft Torki, 1649, aged 70, iii. 862. 

Kiccol5, his son, filing m 1^68. Sopnmi. iii. 263. 

Gio. Batista, called H B erg an aaco, d. 1570. Pulom. I&Z9. 



aged 70. Soprani. Or 80 by Orlandi. i. 144,— iii. 246. 



i2n>E3u 351 



CastellOy Fabrizio and Granelloy his sons. Ari^ iii. 248. 
CosteUucci, Salvi d'Arezzo, b. 1609> d. 1672. J£Sr. i. 2&6, 494;. 
■ Fietro, his son. OrJandi, u 494. 

CastigUone, Gio. Benedetto^ a Genoese, caOfid HGseobetto^ b. 1616, d* 

at Mantua, 1670. Soprani, iii. 273. 
— — — ^~ Francesco, his son, d. at Genoa, at an advanced ag^, in 1716% 

BaiH, iii. 274. 
— Salvatore, a brother of Gio. Benedetto. RatH. ib. 



Castiglioni, da, Bartolommeov » pnpil of QAvXLo Roznana. Vatari. 

U. 331. 
Catalan!, Antonio, caUed at Bolo8;na H Eontano, pnpil of Albani. i. 463, 

—iii. 92. 

two others, named Anton! Catalan!, «f Messina,, the ficst termed 

VAntieo, b. 1560, d. 1630, the second, called the Younger, b. 1585, d. 
1666. Hakert, 1.470. 

Catelani, F. Bernardo, a Capnchin of UrbinOk i. 400* 

Catena, Vincenzio, a Venetian, d. 1530b Zane^ u, 107. 

Caterino and Angelo, artists of the tMrteoBth. csntiu;, of the Venetian 

school. MS, ii. 79. 
Cati, Pasquale da Jesi, d. in the pontificate of FauLV.^ aged 70^ Boff^ 

Hone, i, 425. 
Cattanio, Costanzo, a Ferrarese, d. 1665, aged 63. Bartfffaldi, iit 220. 
Cattapane, Luca, a Cremonese, was young in 1585. Zaist, Fainted in 

1597. Oretti, Mem, u. 443. 
Cattamara, Paobxcdo, a Neapolitan, appeaca to have lived in, 1718. 

Orlandi, ii. 66. 
Cavagna, Gio. FaolO) a Bergamese^ painted in I:591t d.. 16jaZ. Tassi. 

ii. 282. 

Francesco, his son, sailed ]l:CaTagiinoiQ» d.. about 1630. Tom, 

ii. 283. 

Cayalli, Alberto, a Savonese, pamted at Versnatabont 1540. Guaxientu 

11. 334. 
Cavallini, Retro, a Romanv d. 1344, (JMrnnt, N<dm 10 Baldimucci)^ aged 

85. Vasari, i. 332. 
Cavallino, Bernardo, a Neapolitan, b. 1622, d. 1656. Dominiei, ii. 41. 
Cavallucci, Antonio, da Sermoneta, di at Rome in: 1795, aged ahont 43^ 

Ehgi dei Vinci e de' Bosri. i. 531. 
Cayalori, Mirabello, see Da Salincomo. 
Cavarozzi, eee Crescenzi. 



S52 na>Kx» 

CsTtsia, Pierfranooy a Bolognese* d. 1733. Zanetti, Or b. 1675, on 

Htli October, d. 1733. OretH, Mem. iii. 156. 
Cs?azzola» Paolo, a Veronese, d. aged 31. Vamri. ii. 207. 
Cavazzone, IVanoesoo, a Bolognese, b. 1559, Uving in 1612. Crespi, 

iu. 128. 
CavazzoBii tee Zanotd. 
Caralcabo, Baroni Ciasparantonio di Sacco, b. 1682, d. 1759. VannetH. 

n. 310. 
Caredone, Jacopo, of Saaanolo, b. 1577, d. 1660. Tirdbo9chi, ii. 361, 

—iii. 122. 
CayeTBegno, Agoetino, a Bergameae. His will in 1539, and his work, 

dated 1552. Tani. ii. 124. 
Cania, Sgismondo, da Modena, b. 1637, painted in 1682. TirahoschL 

ii. 363. 
•Ceccarini, SebastiBno, of Urbino. Lazzari. d. at Fano, almost an 

octogenarian, about 1780. MS. iii. 168. 
Ceccato, Lorenzo, a Venetian worker in mosaic, flourished towards the 

end of the sixteeniJi century. ZanetH. ii. 232. 
Cecchini, Ant. di Pesaro, b. about 1660. Coluecif tom. vi. ii. 244. 
Cecco, BraTO, tee Montdatici. 

di, Martino, a Sienese, painted about 1380. 2). Valle. i. 281. 

Cedaspe, see Cespede. 

Celesti, CaT. Andrea, a Venetian, b. 1637, d. 1706. Orlandi. ii. 293. 

Celi, Placido, a Messinese, d. 1710. Hakert. ii. 44. 

Celio, Car. Gaspare, a Roman, d. old, in 1640. BagUone. i. 469. 

Cellini, Benvenuto, a Florentine, b. 1500, d. 1572. Bottari. i. 109. 

Cennini, Cennino, da CoUe, living in 1437. Baldmucci. i. 68, 86. 

Centino, see Nagli. 

Cerajuolo, del, Ant., a Florentine, pupil of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Vasari, 

i. 164. 
Cerano. In the gallery qftke Marini Serano. See Crespi. 
Ceresa, Carlo, a Bergamese, d. 1679, aged 70. Taesi. ii. 284. 
Cerquozzi, caUed lifidiaelang. delle BattagUe, and Michaelangelo delle 
Bambocdate, a Roman, b. 1602, {Baldinucci, 1600), d. 1660. Passeri. 
i. 486. 
Cerrini, Gisndomenico, called II Cavalier Perugino, b. 1609, d. 1681. 

Paeeoli. i. 459. 
— ~— Lorenzo, a Florentine, pupil of Cristoforo Allori. Baldinucci. 
i. 217, 240. 



INDEX. 353 

Cemiti, Michelangelo, a painter of this century. Ouida di Roma, 

i. 520. 
Certosino, il, see Cassiani. 
Cerii, Bortolo, a Venetian, and pupil of Verona, d. before 1660. Boschini, 

ii. 291. 
Ceruti, Fabio, a Milanese, pupil of Agricola. MS, ii. 537. 
Cenra, Pierantonio, or rather Gio. Maria, a Bolognese, flourished in 1640, 

or 1650. Gttida di Bologna. Painted in 1667. OretH, Mem. iil. 99. 
deUa, Gio. Batista, a Milanese, flourished about 1550. MS, 

u. 499. 
Cervelli, Federigo, a Milanese, his work dated 1668. Catcdogo Vianelli, 

Flourished in 1690. Orlandi, ii. 249. 
Cervetti, Felice, of Turin, painted in 1764. N. Guida di Torino, iii. 315. 
Cervi, Bernardo, a Modenese, d. young in 1630. Tirabosehi. ii. 363. 
Cesare, Padre, see Pronti. 
Cesarei, Pietro, called sometimes Perino, or Perino da Perugia, living 

in 1595. Pascoli, i. 426. 
-— ~ — Seraiino, of Perugia, his painting of 1554. MS. ib, 
Cesari, Cay. Giuseppe d'Arpino, d. an octogenarian, 1640. Baglione, 

Or rather aged 72. Stat, delta ch. Later, i. 421, 438,— ii. 31, 35. 
— Bernardino, his brother, d. young, in the pontificate of Paul V. 

Baglione, i. 423. 
Cesariano, Cesare, a Milanese, b. 1483, d. 1543.. MS, ii. 491. 
Ceschini, Gio., a Veronese, pupil of Orbetto. Pozzo, ii. 275. 
Cesi, Bartolommeo, a Bolognese, b. 1556, d. 1629. Malvasia. iii. 49. 

Carlo, b. near Rieti, in 1626, d. 1686. Pascoli, i, 495. 

Cespede, or rather Cespedes, PalominOt in Rome called Cedaspe, Paolo, 

of Cordova, painted at B^me in the pontificate of Gregory XIII. 

Baglione. Palomino adds, that he painted also in Spain, and d. 

1608. i. 416. 
Chenda. il, or Alfonso Rivarola, a Ferrarese, b. 1607, d. 1640. Baruf, 

faldi. iii. 219. 
Chere, di, Gio., a Lorenese, painted in Venice, as appears, about 1600. 

Zanettif Guida, ii. 227. 
Chiappe, Gio. Batista, di Novi, d. 1765, aged 42. Ratti, iii. 285. 
Chiari, Giuseppe, a Roman, b. 1654, d. 1727. Pascoli. More correctly, 

he died 1733, aged 68. GalletH, Inscr, Bom, i. 505. 
Tommasso, pupil of Maratta, d. 1733, aged 68. Oreitit daW 

Epatiffio, ib, 

VOL. III. 2 ▲ 



854 INDEX. 

Chiarini, Marcantonio, a Bologneee, b. 1652, d. 1730. ZanotH, iii. 175. 

ChiaveghinOy see Mainardi. 

Chiavistellii Jacopo, a Florentine, pupil to Colonna, b. 1618, d. 1698. 

Boy. Gall, of Florence, i. 161. 
Chiesa, Silvestro, a G^ovese, d. young in 1657. Soprani, iii. 271. 
Chighi, eee Ghisi. 
Chimenti, see Da Empoli. 

Chiodarolo, Gio. Maria, a Bolognese, papU of Francia. Malvasia. iii. 23. 
Ciafferiy Pietro, a Pisan, called Lo Smargiasso, or the buUy, living in 

1651. Morrona. i. 238. 
Cialdieri, Girolamo, di Urbino, b. 1593. Lazzari. Flourished about 

1650. Guida di Urbino. i. 450. 
Ciaxnpelli, AgottinOi a Florentine, d. in the pontificate of Urban VIII., 

aged 62. Bagliont. i. 194. 
Cianfaninii Benedetto, pupil to Frate. Vasari. i. 153. 
Ciarla, Raffaello, an Urbinese, a painter of earthenware in the time of 

Taddeo Zuccaro. Lazzari. i. 485. 
Ciarpi, Bacdo, a Florentine, b. 1578, d. 1642. Passeri. i. 195. 
Ciceri, Bernardino, a Payese, b. 1650, living in 1718. Orlandi, U. 535, 
Cigognini, Ant., a Cremonese of the fifteenth century. Zaist. ii. 426. 
Cigoli, da, in ^ Florentine state, Cav. Lodovico Cardi, b. 1559, d. 

1613. Baldinucci. i.211. 
Cignani, Co. Cav. Carlo, a Bolognese, b. 1628, d. 1719. ZanotH. iii. 143. 

Co. Felice, b. in Forli, 1660, d. 1724. ZanotH. iii. 157. 

. Co. Paolo, b. there 1709, livmg in 1739. ZanotH. d. 5ih 

February, 1764. Oretti^ Mem. ib. 
Cignaroli, Gio. Bettino, a Veronese, b. 1706, d. 1770. Beoilacqua, Ltfe 

of Cignaroli. ii. 312. 
■ ■ ' P. Felice, Minor Osservanti, his brother, d. 1795, aged 70. 

ii. 313. 

Gio. Domenico, another brother. Guida di Bergamo, ib. 



Cima, see Da Conegliano. 

Cimabue, or Gualtieri, Gio., a Florentine, b. 1240, d. 1300. Vaaan. i. 41. 

Cimaroli, Gio. Batista, da Salb, on the Lake of Garda. Was living in 

1718. Orlandi. ii. 315. 
Cimatori, see Visaed. 

Cincinnato, Romolo, a Florentine, d. old in 1600. Palomino, i. 190. 
Cav. Diego Romolo, his son, b. at Madrid, d. at Rome, in 

1625. Palomino, ib. 



iin>EX. 355 

Cindnnato, Cav. Francesco Romolo, another son, d. 1636| at Rome. 

Palomino, i. 190. 
Cinganelli, Michele, a Florentine, painted at Pisa about 1600. Morrona. 

i. 219. 
CingiaroU, Pozzo ; or Cignaroli, Orlandi. Martino and Pietro, of Verona, 

lived at Milan in 1718. Pozzo, ii. 537. 
-^— ^— Scipione, son of Martino, a Mflanese, living in 1718. Or- 

landi. ib, 
Cinqui, Gio., b. in tbe Florentine state, 1667, d. 1743. Boy, Gall, of 

Florence, i. 249. 
Ciocca, Cristof., a Milanese, pupil to Lomaxzo. Zomazzo, ii. 503. 
Cipriani, Gio. Batista, a natife of Piatoia, d. in London, about 1790. 

MS. 1.257. 
Circignani, Niccolo, dalle Pomaraaoe, d. about 1588, aged 72. Baglione. 

This is not correct, as be was painting in 1591. Gvide f^f Volierra, 

He signs himself Nicolaus Circignanus Volterranus. i. 205, 416. 
Antonio, his son, d. in the pcmtificate of Urban VIII., aged 

60. Baglione, i. 205, 469. 
Cirello, Giulio, a Paduan, flourished in 1697. Chdda di Padova. 

ii. 267. 
Citta di Castello, da, Francesco, pupil to Pietro Perugino. i. 349. 
Cittadella, Bartolom., a Venetian, living about 1690. Ouarienii. ii. 271. 
Cittadini, Pierfiranc, called the Milanese, d. 1681 at Bologna, aged 65. 

Crespi. Or died, aged 68, in 1681. Oreitit Regutry qf tie Asinunziata, 

ii. 532,— in. 173. 

Gio. Batista, his son, d. 1693, aged 36. OreiHt Mem. ib. 

Carlo, another son, d. 1744, aged 75. Orettit Mem. ib. 

■ Angiol Michele, another son. Crespi. ib. 

Gaetano and Girblamo, sons of Caxio. Creepi. iii. 173. 

Civalfi, Franc, of Perugia, b. 1660, d. 1703. PmcoIL I 516. 
Civerchio, or Verchio, called the dder, Vinoensio, da Crema, painted at 

Milan about 1460. Lomazzo, But it aeems he could scarcely then be 

so old, as there exist documents at Crena shewing him to be living 

there in 1535. Zibaldone Cremateo for year 1795. In the Notizia 

MorelU he is termed Civerio el Fomer. ii. 88, 467. 
Civetta, or perhaps Enrico de Bles, a Bohemian, living about 1590. 

Lomazzo. d. at Ferraia. li. 286, 288. 
Claret, Gio., of Flanders, painted in Piedmont about 1600. Delia VaUe. 

iii. 305. 

2 A 2 



356 INDEX. 

Claudioy Maestro, a French painter of glan, d. in the pontificate of 

GitUio II. Vatari, i. 172. 
Clementone, see Bocdardo. 
CloTio, D. Giulio, of Croazia, d. 1578, aged 80. Bottari. i. 146,— 

ii. 336. 
Coccorante, Leonardo, a Neapolitan, painted in 1743. Domimci. ii. 66. 
Cockier, or Cozier, Michele, di Malines, b. 1497, d. 1592. Baldinucci. 

i. 401. 
Coda, Benedetto, da Ferrara, d. about 1520. Bart{faldi. iii. 27. 
— — Bartolommeo, his son ; he signs himself BartholomcnisArimineruis, 

and painted in 1543. Oretti, Mem. ib. 
Codagora, and Cadagora by Dommidi "Vlviano; called by mistake II 

Viviani. Floarished about 1650. i. 491, — ii. 51. 
Codibue, Gio. Bat., a Modenese, painted in 1598. Tirabosohi. ii. 355. 
Cola, di, Gennaro, a Neapolitan, b. about 1320, d. about 1370. 

Domimci, ii. 4. 
Colantonio, di, Marzio, a Roman, d. at Turin in the pontif. of Paul V. 

Baglitme. i. 433,— iii. 303. 
Coli, Gio., a Lucchese, d. 1682, aged 47. OrUmdi. i. 259. 
CoUaceroni, Agostino, a Bolognese, pupil to P. Pozzi. Guida d* Ascoli. 

i. 508, 541. 
CoUe, dal, near Citta S. Sepolcro, Ra£faellino, painted in 1546. Vasari, 

i. 170, 398. 
CoUeoni, Girolamo, a Bergamese. His Memor. from 1532 up to 1555, 

or thereabouts. See the Annotations to Tassi, ii. 187. 
Colli, Antonio, a pupil of P. Pozzo. Guida di JRqma. i. 541. 
Colombano, Bemardin, painted at Pavia in 1515. Pitture d* Italia, 

ii. 476. 
Colombini, Gio., of Trevisi, d. 1774. Federiei, ii. 318. 
Colonna, Angiol Michele, b. 1600, in the diocese of Como in district of 
Revel, d. 1687 at Bologna. Crespi, i. 229,— iii. 138, 285. 

— - Melchior, a supposed pupil of Tintoret. Zanetti, ii. 196. 

'—— Girolamo, see Mengozzi. 

Coloretti, Matteo, da Reggio, b. 1611. Tirahoschi, ii. 367. 
Coltellini, Michele, a Ferrarese, lived in 1517. Baruffaldi, iii. 194. 
Comande, Franc, a Messinese, a pupU of Guinaccia. Hakert, ii. 21. 

Gio. Simone, his brother, b. 1588. ib. 

Comendich, Lorenzo, b. at Verona, flourished in Milan about 1700. Gua^ 
rienH. iL 287, 537. 



INDEX. 357 

Comi, Girolamo, da Modena, flourished about 1550. JHraboichi, At 

S. Michelein Bosco he inscribed on one of his pictures the year 1563. 

Oretii, Memor. ii. 367. 
Franc, otherwise called II Muto di Verona, or II Fomaretto, was 

living in 1718. Pozzo. d. the 2d Jan. 1737, aged 55. Oretti Memor. 

iii. 150. 
Commenduno, a Bergamese, of the school of Nova. Tom*, il. 88. 
Como, da, F. Emanuele, Mtnor, Riform., painted in 1660. MS, d. at 

Rome, 1701, aged 76. Oriandi, ii. 536. 
Comodi, Andrea, a Florentine, b. 1560, d. 1638. Baldinueci. i. 21^. 
Compagnoni, Cav. Sforza, a Maceratese, lived about 1650. MS, i. 460. 
Conca, Cav. Sebastiano, b. at Gaeta, 1676, d. 1764. Memorie delle belle 

Aril, i. 517. 

Gio., his brother, ib, 

Condolo, painted at Subiaco in 1219. MS. i. 330. 

Condivi, Ascanio, of Ripatransone, pupil to Michelangelo ; published a 

Ufe of him in 1553. i. 133, 144. 
Conegliano, da, Cesare, flourished in the time of Titian. Zmetti. ii. 174. 

Ciro, pupil to Paul Veronese, d. young, ii. 222. 

— — — Gio. Batista, Cima, called from his native place 11 Conegliano. 

His notices up to 1517. Ridolji. ii. 110. 
Carlo, hit son. Federici, ii. 111. 



Consetti, Antonio, a Modenese, b. 1686, d. 1766. Tirabowhi. ii. 366. 
Consolano, see Casolani^ 

Contarino, Cav. Gio., a Venetian, b. 1549, d. 1605. BidolJL ii. 251. 
Conte, del, or Fasd Guido, b. in Carpi, 1584, d. 1649. Tirahoschi. 
u. 368. 

Jacopino, a Florentine, d. 1598, aged 88. Baglume. i. 190, 431. 

Conti, Cesare and Vine, d* Ancona, d. in the pontif. of Paul V. Baglione. 
i, 432,— iii. 30. 

— Domenico, a Florentine, pupil to Andrea del Sarto. VtuaH. i. 161. 

Conti, Francesco, a Florentine, b. 1681, d. 1760. R. Gall. i. 252. 

Gio. Maria, a Parmigianese, painted in 1660. AJJ^. ii. 413. 

Contri, Antonio, a Ferrarese, d. 1732. BarvfaldL iii. 227. 

Francesco, his son, and successors of the school, ib. 

Coppa, a pupil of Magnasco at Milan. Ratii. ii. 537. 
— — see Giarola. 

Coppi, or del Meglio, Jacopo, da Peretola, in the Flor. state, b. 1523t 
d. 1591. R. GaU. of Florence, i. 201. 



858 INDEX. 

Coppola, Carlo, a Neapolitan, lifing ia 1665. Dommici, iL 51. 

Coialli, GiuliOy a Bologneie, b. 1641, d. at an advanced age. Oeqn. 
iii. 111. 

CorbeUini, papil of Ciro FerrL PateoU, i. 498. 

Cordegliaghi, or Corddla Aghi Giannetto, and Andrea, of Venice, floa- 
. fished the beginning of the sixteenth century. See ZanettL Perhaps 
this Giannetto la the Zanin (buffoon) of the Comandador, ofiea men- 
tioned in the Noiigia. 8e$ MareUi, p. 197. ii. 108. 

Corenzio, Car. BeBisario, a Greek, b. about 1588, d. 1643. Dommici. 
iL30. 

Coma, ddla, Antonio, a Ciemonese, painted in 1478. Zaist, ii. 421. 

Comara, Carlo, a Milanew, d. 1673, og^A 68. OrkauU. ii. 526. 

Comia, della, Fabio, of Pemgino, of the dukes of Castiglione, b. 1600, 
d. 1643. Pateoli, i. 467. 

Corona, Leonardo da Murano, b. 1561, d. 1605. Ridol^. ii. 239. 

Coronaro, a«e CalTi. 

Corradi, see del Ghirlandaio. 

Corradini, act F. Canevale. 

Correggio, Francesco, a Bolognese, living in 1678. MiUvnia. iii. 94. 
' ■ - da, $ee Allegri, and Bemieri. 

Corso, Gio., Vincenzo, a Neapolitan, d« about 1645. Do mini ei, ii. 23. 
■ ■ Niccolo, a Genoese, painted in 1503. Sopram, SL 238. 

Corte, Vakiio, from Pavia, d. 1580, aged^50« Sopnm. iii. 249. 

— Cesare, a Genoese, son of Valerio, b. 1550. Uatti^ d. about 
1613. Soprani, ib. 

Davide, his son, d. of the plague in 1657. Soprani, iii. 250. 



Cortese, P. Giacomo, called II Boi^ognone, a Jesuit, b. 1621, d. 1676. 

Bamnueci. i. 229, 241, 486. 
■ Guglielmo, called II Boigognono, brother of (lie preceding, 

b. 1628, d. 1679. PmcoU. i. 496. 

Cortona, da, Pietro, ooo Berrettini. 

Urbano, painted in 1481. DeUa VaUe. i. 305. 

Corvi, Domenico, of Viterbi, d. 1803, aged abont 80. MS. i. 532. 
Cosattini, Canon. Giuseppe, an Udinese, painted in 1672; was still living 

in 1734. Benaldis. ii. 303. 
Cosci, eee Balducd. P. Cosimo, see Piazza. 
Cosimo, di (RosseUi) Piero, a Florentine, b. 1441, d. 1521. Baldinueci. 

i. 90, 166. 
Cosmati, Adeodato di Cosimo, a B^man, worker in mosaic, i. 34. 




INDEX. B59 

Cosme, 9ee Tunu 

Cossa, Franc, a Ferrarese, Uving in 1474. Guida di Bologna, iii. 190* 

Cossale, Grazio, a Bresdan, or rather Cozzate, living in 1605. Zamb.^ 

p. 114. ii. 280. 
Costa, Andrea, aBolognese, a pnpilofCaracci. Mdlvasia, iii. 126. 

Fruic, a Genoese, b. 1672, d. 1740. BtUH, iii. 285. 

— ^- Ippolito, aMantuan, floariBhed in 1538. liomo, ii. 335. 

Lorenzo, a Femrese, painted in 1488, d. about 1530. BaniffaUtl. 

iii. 20, 190. 
——anotiiet Lorenzo^ lived aboat 1560. V€taari, %b. 

Lnigi and Girolamo, Ms brotbers. VoUa. ii. 336. 

^-— Tommaao, of Saaanolo, b. 1690. TiraboickL ^Agdd about 56. 

OrUmdi, and CarU Oretti, ii. 363. 
Costanzi, Pladdo, a Roman, aaiocaated to Hie Academy of St. Luke, 1741, 

d. 1759, aged 71. MS. i. 499. 

tignola, da, Franoesoo, (Mardieai or Zagaiielli), pdifted at Parma in 

1518. Affh. iii. 25. 

' Bernardino, a younger brother, Itved in 1509. Crapit t» hk 

Addenda to Ban^iOdi. iii. 26. 

Girolamo Marcfaea, d. aged 69, in Am pontif. of PdedI III» 



Vatari. Or 1550, aged 70. Ban^aUi. liL 22. 
Cozza, Franc, b. at Istilo in the Calabreae, 1605, d. 1682. Patcolu 

i. 457,— U. 43. 

^-— Gio. Batista, a Milanese, d. at Ferrara in 1742, aged 66. CUia" 

data. iU. 224. 
Crastona, (Pitture <f Italia) or Cristona. Orlandi. 

Giosefifo, a Paveae, b. 1664, living in 1718. Orkmdi. n. 535. 

Creara, Santo, a Veronese, pupil to Felice Bmsagord. His works with 

the year 1603. Orett. Mem. u. 273. 
Credi, di, Lorenzo, Sdarpelloni, a Florentine, d. aged 78, after 1531. 

Bottari. i. 130. * 
Cremona, da, Niccolo, lived in 1518. Matmi. iL 426. 
Cremonese, Lattanzio, lived in the fifteenth century. Zaiet. ib. 
Simone, perhaps the same as M. Sinione da Napoli* 

ii. 420. 

n, da Paesi, see Bassi, see Caletti. 



Cremonini, Gio. Batista, da Cento, d. 1610. Malvaaia. iii. 53. 
Ciescenzi, Gio. Batista, a Roman, d. at Madrid, aged about 03. BaylUm^ 
Or aged 65, in 1660. Palomino, i. 469. 



360 INDEX. 

Creaoenzi, del, Bartolommeo, Cavarozzi, da Yherbo, d. young in 1625. 

Baglione, i. 469. 
Creteione, Giovanni, a Neapolitan, painted in 1568. Vtuari, ii. 21. 
Crespi, Benedetto, of Coma, and Anton Maria, bis son, called I Bnstini, 
lived, as it appears, in tiie seventeenth century. Oriandi, n. 531. 

Gio. Batista, called II Cerano, from a distiiet in the Novarese, 
d. 1633, aged 76. Oriandi. ii. 519. 

Gio. Pietro, called also De* Castoldi, grandfather of the preceding, 



painted about 1535. MS, ib, 

Raffaello, of the same family, painted about 1542. M8. ib. 

Daniele, a Milanese, d. 1630, aged about 40. Oriandi. ii. 520. 

Cav. Giuseppe, a Bolognese, called Lo Spagnuolo, b. 1665, 



d. 1747. Crespi. ii. 299,— iii. 162. 

Antonio, his son, d. 1781. Ouida di Bologna, iii. 163. 

Don. Luigi, Canonico, another son, d. 1779. GfUda di Bologna, ib. 



Crespini, de\ Mario, of Coma, flourished about 1720. M8. ii. 538. 

Cresti, see Da Fftssignano. 

Creti, Cav. Donato, a Cremonese, b. 1671, d. 1749, at Bologna. Crespi. 

iii. 151. 
Crevalcore, da, Fiermaria, pupil to Calvart. Malvasia. iii. 48. 
Criscuolo, Gio. Angelio, a Neapolitan, d. about 1573. Descrip. of 

NapleSf 1572. JOominici. ii. 26. 

Gio. Fllippo, his brother, b. at Gaeta, d. aged 75, about 1584. 

Dominiei. ii. 23. 
Crispi, Scipone, of Tortona, painted in 1592. Pitture d* Italia ; and in 

1559. Co. Durando. iii. 297. 
Cristofori, or Cristofani, Fabio, del Ficeno, a worker in mosaic, and 

academical painter of S. Luke in 1658. Pascoli. i. 543. 
— Fietro Faolo, a Roman, his son, a mosaic worker, lived in 1736. 

Pascoli. ib. 
Crivelli, Angiol Maria, called II Crivellone, d. about 1730. MS. ii. 537. 

Jacopo, his son, d, 1760. MS. ib. 

Cav, Carlo, a Venetian. Ridolft. Painted in 1476. MS. i. 336, 

— ii. 87. 
■' '■ ' ■■ Vittorio, also a Venetian. In the Aniichifd PicenCt torn. xxix. 



and XXX. mention is made of his paintings of date of 1489 and 1 190. 
i. 336,— ii. 87. 

Francesco, a Milanese, lived in 1450. Jf5. ii. 468. 



Croce, Baldassare, di Bologna, d. 1528, aged 75. Baglione. iii. 83. 



INDEX. 361 

CrodfissaiOy del, see Maochietti. 

Crocifissi, de% see Da Bologna. 

Cromer, called II Croma, Giulio, a Ferrarese, d. 1632, aged about CO. 

Baruffaldi, iii. 212. Also Gio. Bat. Cromer, a Fadium, d. about 1750. 

Guida di Padova, 
Crosato, Gio. Batista, of the Venetian school, d. 1756. Catalogo Alga^ 

rota. iii. 318. 
Cacchi, Antonio, or Gio. Antonio, a Milanese, painted in 1750. Pitture 

d* Italia, ii. 534. 
Cungi, or Congi, or Cugni. In Guarienii*s Dictionary, by mistake, 

called Cugini, lionardo and Gio. Batista da Borgo S. Sepolcro, lived in 

the time of Vasari. i. 203. 
-~— Francesco, son of Lionardo, painted in 1587. Guida diVolterra. ib. 
Cuniberti, Franc. Ant. da Savigliano, d. 1745. Pitture d* Italia, 

iii. 316. 
Cunio, Daniello, a Milanese, pupU to Bernardino Campi. Lomazzo, 

ii. 511. 

Rodolfo, a Milanese, lived about 1650. M8. ib. 

Curia, Franc, a Neapolitan, 1>. about 1538, d. about 1610. Dominiei. 

u. 23. 
Currado, Cav. Francesco, a Florentine, b, 1570, d. about 1661. R, Gall, 

of Florence, i, 197. 
Curti, see Dentone. 
Cusighe, da, in the Bellunese, Simone. His notices from 1382 up to 1409. 

MS, ii. 80. 
Cusin, M., a landscape painter, flourished in 1660. Bosckini, ii. 286. 
Cutigliano, see Carigliano. 

D. 

Daddi, Bernardo, a Florentine, d. 1380. Baldinucci, i. 70. 

— — • Cosimo, a Florentine, pupil to Naldini. Baldinueci. Lived in 

1614. Guida di Volterra, i. 197. 
Dallamano, Giuseppe, a Moden., b. 1679, d. 1758. Tiraboscki. ii. 368, 

—iii. 318. 
Dalmasio, Scannabecchi, a Bolognese painter, b. about 1325, living in 

1353. Piacenza, nel torn. ii. p. 5. iii. 13. 
• Lippo, his son, commonly called Lippo Dalmasio, or Lippo 

dalle Madonne. His notices from 1376. Malvasia, His will in 1410, 

shortly before his decease. See Piaeenzii, in place cited, ib. 



362 INDEX. 

Damiani, Felioe, da Gubbio, Us works from 1586 to 1606. MS. L 427. 
Damini, Pietro, da Castelfranco, d. 1631, aged 39. JUdolJl. ii. 245. 

Giorgio, his brother, d. 1631. Ridolfi. ib, 

Dandioi, Ceaaie, a Florentine, b. about 1595, d. 1658. Baldiaueci. 

i. 216, 494. 
■ Yinoenzio, brother of Cesare, b. 1607, d. aged 68. OrUmdi, 

i. 247. 
— - Fietro, his son, b. 1646, d. 1712. JR. Gail. ofFhr. ib. 

Ottayiano, son of Pietro, flourished during the eighteenth oentorj. 



Serie de^r lUtuiri Piitoriy Src i. 248. 
DandidOy Cesare, a Venetian, liTed in 1595. Morigia. ii. 510. 
Danedi, called Montalto, Gio. Ste£uio da Trevilio in the Milaneae, 

d. 1689» aged 8L Orkmdi. n. 530. 

Gioadibr his brother, d. aged 70. Orkmdi. ib. 

Dante, Girolamo, otherwise Girol. di Tiziano, by whom he was educated, 

Jlulojff. iL169. 
Danti, Teodora, of Perugia, annt of the three Danti who follow, d. 1573, 

aged 75. PateoH. t 349. 
■ F. Ignano, of Femgia, a Dominican, b. 1537> d. 1586. PateoH, 

1. 416. 
•— ^— Girolamo, his brother, b. 1547, d. 1580. PmeoH. n. 417. 
Vincenzio, another brother, b. 1530, d. 1576. PascoH. ib. 



Dardani, Antonio, a Bolognese, b. 1677, d. 1735. Zanotti. ill. 156. 
Davanzo, Jaeopo, a Fadnan, painted aboiA 1377. Nbtizia publ. dd 

Morelli, torn. ill. p. 12. See Avanzi. 
Datid, Lodonco Antonio, di Lugano, lived in 1718. Orkmdi. IL 534. 
Dei, Matteo, a Florentine worker in niello of the fifteenth century. Lett. 

Piit.j torn. ii. i. 100. 
Delfino, Cav. Carlo, a Frenchman, painted at Turin in 1664. MS. 

ill. 308. 
Delfinone, Girolamo, a Milanese, Irved about 1495. Lomazzo. iL 506. 

- Sciplone Delfinone, his son. Lomazzo. ii. 507. 

— -~— — Marcantonio, son of Scipione, lired in 1591. Lomazzo. ib. 
Deliberatore, Nicoolo, da Foligno, his work in 1461. Colueci. i. 340. 
DeUo, a Florentine, d. about 1421, aged 49. Vatari. i. 69. 
Dentone, otherwise Girol. Curti, a Bolognese, d. 1631. Maivasia. Or 
died, 18th December, 1632, aged 56, and interred at S. Niccolo. 
Oreiti, Mem. iii. 54, 135. 
Desani,Pietro>aBologne8e,b. 1595, d. 1647. Maivasia. ii. 363,— Iii. 120. 



INDEX. d63 

DesideriOy Monsieur, a painter of penpectire in the time of Corenado. 

Domifuei. ii. 32. 
Desubleo, or Sobleo, Michele, of Flanders, pnpil to Gnido. MahoM, 

iu. 101. 
Diamante, F., a Carmelite, da Prato, pupil of F. Filippo lippL Vamri. 

i. 80. 
Diamantini, C«7. Gia., or rather Giuseppe da FoBsombrone. Zanetiif 

and CMKCCf, torn. zxxi. d. 1708. MdchioH, m, 131. 
Diana, Benedetto, a Venetian, was competitor of the Bdlini. Eidoyi. 

ii. 106. 
Cristoforo, of S. Tito in tbt Friuti, pupil of Amalteo. CetarmL 

u. 154. 
Dianti, Gio. Franc, a Ferrarese, b. 1576. Barvffaldi, iii. 203. 
DiataleTi, m« D'Assisi. 
Dielai, otherwise Gio, Franoesoo Snrchi, a Fermese^ d# about 1590« 

Ban^aldi. iii. 200. 
Dimo, Giovanni, painted at Venice in 1660. JBoschini* iL 244. 
Dinarelli, Giuliano, a Bolognese, piqpil of Goido. Malvuia. d. 1671, 

aged 42. OretH, Mem, iu. 102. 
Disoepoli, Gio. Batista, called Lo Zoppo, of Lqgaao, d. 1660, aged 70. 

Orkmdi. ii. 526. 
Diziani, Gkepero, of Belluno, d. 1667. CatalofO Aigaroiii. iL 305. 
Do, Giovanni, a Neapolitan, d. 1656. JDomimei* ii. 49. 
Dolci, Carlo, a Florentine, b. 1616, d. 1686. Baldmueei* i. 228. 
•— ^ Agnese, his daughter, lived beyond the year 1686. BaUUnueei, ib, 
Dolce, Luzio, of Castel Durante, painted in 1536. MS, lived in 1589. 

Terzi. U 428. 
— — - Ottaviano, his father, and Bernardino, his grandfather. ik» 
Dolobella, Tommaso, of Belluno, a pupil of Aliense. Bidoifi. iL 242. 
Domeaichino, or Meniduno, »ee Zampieri, set Ambregi. 
Dominici, Franc, da Trevigi, flouxished about 1530. Qmda di Trenfi, 

d. aged 35. Bido^. iL 176. 
de', Bernardo, a Neqiolitnit puUiahed hi* history in 1742 and 

1743. ii. 65. 
Donatello, otherwise Donato, a ElMentine, b. 1383, d. 1466. Vamri. 

i. 73, 173. 
Donati, Bortolo, a Venetian. Guida, Was living in 1660. Boaehini, 

ii. 244. 
de', liUigi, of Coma, painted m 1510. MS. iL 470. 



864 ^ INDEX. 

DonatOi painted in Venice in 1459. JUdolfi, ii. 87. 

— -^ ZenOy a Veronese, a painter of the fixteenth century. Vasari, 

li. 208. 
Dondoli, TAbate, of Spello, lived the beginning of the dghteenth 

oentuiy. MS, i. 524. 
Dondncci, «ee Mastelletta. 
Boni, Adone, d'Asrasi, his work in 1472. Quida di Perugia. Read 

1572. Living in 1567. VoMri, Signed himielf Dono Delli Doni. 

Mariotti, i. 349. 
Donnabella, see Gentiloni. 

Donnini, Girolamo, da CorreggiOy b. 1681 , d. 1743. Tiraho»ehu iii. 166. 
Donnino, di, Agnolo, a Florentine, and assistant of Bonarmoti. Vasari. 

i. 138. 
Bonzdli, Piero and Polito, Neapolitans, d. about 1470. Domtnici. ii. 13. 
-*^-*— Pietro, a Mantoan, pupil of Cignani. MS. iii. 167. 
Borigny, Luigi, otherwise Lodovico, a Parisian, b. 1654. Orlandi. 

d. 1742. u. 308. 
Dossi, Dosso, d. about 1560. Bart^aldi, iii. 197. 

^ — Gio. Batista, d. about 1545. Ban^aldi. ib. 

— *— — Evangelista, of the same family. Seannetti, iii. 199. 

Draghi, Cav. Gio. Batista, a Grenoese, d. 1712, aged 55. Guida di 

Piaeenza. iii. 175, 282. 
Duod, Virgilio, da Citta di Castello, a pupil of Albani. MS. i. 463. 
Duccio, di, Boninsegna, a Sienese, painted in 1282. His Mem. up to 

1339. DeUa Voile, i. 277. 
Dnchino, see Landriani. 

Dughet, Gasp., b. at Rome, 1613, d. 1675. Paeeoli, i. 481. 
Duramano, F^vnoesco, a Venetian. Crtiorieiilt. Flourished about the 

middle of the 18th century, ii. 318. 
Durante, Co. Giorgio, of Brescia, b. 1683, d. 1755. GMida di Bmngo, 

and MS. Carbone preuo VOretti. ii. 319. 
Duro, or Durero, Alberto, b. in Nurimburgh, 1470 ; rather bom 20th 

May, 1471 > d. April 6th, 1528 ; which dates are verified by the very 

accurate Bartschj in his new work, entitled Le Peintre Graveur, 

vol. vii., Vienna, 1808. Baldinueei. i. 99, 111, 121,--ii. 158. 

E. 

Edesia, d', Andrino, a Pa^ese, lived about 1330. Lomazzo. ii. 4C1. 
Egogui, Ambrogio, a Milanese, his altar*pieoeof 1527. MS. ii. 491. 



INDEX. 365 

Elzheimer, Adamo, or Adamo di Frankfort, or Tedesco, d. in the ponti- 
ficate of Fbul V. Sandrart i. 478. 

Emanuele, a Greek priest, lived in 1660. iii. 15. 

Empoli, da, in the Florentine state, Jacopo Chimenti, b. 1554, d. 1640. 
Baldinucei. He is called Cristoforo da Empoli in Leziom del Laimi, by- 
mistake, i. 218. 

Ens, or Enzo, Cav. Giuseppe, d' Augusta, called the younger, to distin- 
guish him from his father, a court painter of Ridolfo II. Flourished in 
1660. Botehini, Orlandi calls him Ains, or Enzo; Zanetti, Enzo. 
and Heinz. In his celebrated Tomb of Christ at Ognissanti, he signed 
himself Job. Henmus, ii. 288. 

Daniele, his son. Zanetti, ib. 

'— — Gio., a Milanese, perhaps of the school of the Procaccini. Guida di 
Milano. ii. 524. 

EpiscopiOy Giustino, once called de' SalvoUni, di C. Durante, lired in 
1594. Terzi. i. 429 

Eroolanetti, Ercolano, of Perugia, lived in 1683. Orlandi. i. 536. 

Ercole, daFerrara, see Grandi. 

Ercolino, di, Guido, see De Maria. 

Esegrenio, perhaps of the sixteenth century, if not more modem, ii. 74. 

Estense, Baldassare, of Ferrara, lived in 1472. Barvffaidi. iii. 191. 

Evangelisti, Filippo, assisted by Benefial about 1745. Letters Pittor.^ 
tom. V. i. 500. 

Everardi, Angelo, a Brescian, called II Fiamminghino, b. 1647» d. aged 
31. Orlandi. u. 237. 

F. 

Fabio, di, Gentile, of the Piceno, flourished in 1442. i. 336. 
Fabriano,di,Bocco, painted in 1306. Colucci. i. 333 

Antonio, his work of 1454. MS. i. 335. 

Giuliano. MS. i. 336. 

Fabriano, Gentile, his work, 1423 \ d. an octogenarian. Vasari. i. 334. 
Fabrizzi, Antonio Maria, a Peruginese, d. 1649, aged 55. Orlandi. Or 

b. 1594. PateoU. i. 456. 
Facchinetti, Giuseppe, a Ferrarese, pupil of Anton Felice Ferrari. CittO' 

delta, m. 226. 
Facciate, delle, Bernardino, see Poccetti. 

Faccini, Bartolommeo, a Ferrarese, d. 1557. Baruffaldi, iii. 205. 
' Girolaao, his brother, ib. 



366 UfPEX. 

Facbetti» Vktro, a Mantoan, d. 1613, aged 78. BagUme. i. 432,— 

ii. 336. 
Facini, Pietro, a Bologneae, d. young in 1602. Mahoiia. iii. 124. 
Faenza, da, M. Antonk), his fine picture of 1525. Civallu iii. 61. 
-^— >- Jacopone, or Jacomone, the same as Giacomo Bertocci. His 

Mem. from 1513 to 1532. MS. i. 399. 

Gio. Batista, his son, painted in 1580. Crapi. d. 19th February-, 



1614. Cart. OrettL iiL 32. 

■ Figurino, pupil of Giidio Romano. VMori. iii. 61. 
— — Marco, tee Mardietti. 
Ottayiano, a pupil of Giotto. Pace, another scholar of Giotto. 



Vasari, iii. 31. 
Falce, la, Antonio, a Me88ineae,d. 1712. Hiikert. ii. 44. 
Falcieri, Biagio, a Veronese, d. 1703, aged 75. Pozzo. ii. 278. 
Falcone, AnieUo, a Neapolitan, b. 1600, d. 1665. DoBumd, ii. 50. 
Falconetto, Gio. Maria, a Veronese, d. 1534, aged 76. Vaeari, Or rather 

Uving in 1553. MS. died by Temanza, ii. 207. 

Gio. Antonio, hb brother. Vasari, ib, 

Falgani, Guasparre, a Florentine, scholar of Val^o MarueelH. Baldi' 

nueci. i. 238. 
Fallaro, Giacomo, painted utth credit at Venice, in the tinie of Titian. 

Vaeari. iL 224. 
Fano, da, Bartolommeo and Pompeo, painted about 1530. MS. L 352. 
Fanzone, or Faenzone ; Marmi writes it Finzotd (GaUer. p. 8). Ferrau, 

da Faenza, a scholar of Vanni. Orlandi. d. 1645, aged 83. Cart. 

Oretti. iii. 130. 
Farelli, Cav. Giacomo, a Neapolitan, b. 1624, d. in 1706. Domenici. 

ii. 42. 
Farinato, Paolo, a Veronese, sprung from the Farinati degU Uberti, Flo- 

rentmes, d. 1606, aged 84. Sidolji, n. 179, 212. 
■ — Orazio, his son, d. young. Pozzo. His altar-piece at S. 

Francesco di Pacda, executed in 1615. Orettif lf«m. ii. 213. 
Fasano, Tommaso, scholar of Giordano. CkUda di NepolL iL 58. 
Fasolo, Gio. Antonio, a Vicentese, d. aged 44. Bido^, Or aged 44, in 

1572. ]^»kai^ in Faocioli. Museum Lapid. VieemUn., p. 144. 

ii. 268. 
Fassetti, Gio. Batista, of B^gio, b. 1686, livug in 1772. TiraifO^ki. 

ii. 368. 
Fassi, see Del Conte. 



i:4DBX. 367 

Fassolo, Bernardino, di Pavia, painted in 1518. MS, ii. 491. 
Fattore, il, see Penni. 
« Fava, Co. Pietro, a Bolognece, b. 1669 (perhaps 67), d. 1744, aged 77. 

Crespi. iii. 152. 

see Macrino. 

Fayt, Gio. d'Anversa, livinj^ in 1656. Guarienti. ii. 290. 

Febre, le, Valentino, of Brussels, d. at Venice, about 1700. Zanetti. 

ii. 257. 
Federighetto, see Bencovich. 
Federighi, Antonio, worked the pavement of the cathedral at Siena, in 

i481. Delia VaUe, i. 305. 
Fei, or del Barbiere, Alessandro, a Florentine, b. 1543. Vasari, Painted 

in 1581. Botghini, i. 200. 
Feltrini, or Feltrino, Andrea, a Florentine, pupil of Morto, b. 1543* 

Vasari, Painted in 1581. Borghini, 1.165. 
Fdtro, da, Morto, d. aged 45, at Zara, some years after 1505. Vasari. 

Or rather after 1519. Cambntcci, Supposed to be the same with 

Pietro Luzzo da Feltro, called Zarato. See Luzzo. i. 165, 353 — 

ii. 228. 
Ferabosoo, Pietro, a supposed Lucchese, 'painted in 1616. Ckiarienft, 

i. 207. 
_ Girolamo, see Forabosco. 

Fergioni, Bernardino, a Roman, living in 1718. Orlandi. And 1719. 

Carie Oretti, i. 537- 
Fermo, di, Lorenzino, master of Giuseppe Ghezzi. Orlandu i. 509. 
Femandi, Francesco, called L'Imperiali, or rather D'Imperiali. Guida di 

Botna, Flourished about 1730. i. 520. 
Ferracuti, Gio. Domenico, a Maoeratese, lived in the seventeenth century. 

MS. i. 482. . 
Ferraiuoli, degli Afflitti, Nunzio, a Neapolitan, d. 1735, at Bologna, aged 

75. Crespi. iii. 172. 
Ferramola, Fioravante, a Bresdan, d. 1528. Zamb. ii. 122. 
Ferrante, Cav. Gio. Francesco, a Bolognese, scholar of Gessi, painted 

much at Piacenza, d. 1652. Gfuida di Piacenza. ii. 413. 
Ferranti, Decio, and Agosto his son, Liombards, flourished about 1500. 

MS. U.476. 
Ferrantini, Gabriele, otherwise Gabriele dagli Occhiali, a Bolognese, flou- 
rished in 1588. Guida di Bologna, iii. 48. 
Ferrantmi, Ippolito, of the school of the Caracd. Malvasia. iii. 129. 



368 INDBX. 

Ferrara, da, Antonio, or Ant. Alberto, d. abont 1450. BarufflaildL 

ill. 188. 
— ^ da, Cristoforo, or da Modena, caUed alao Da Bologna, his work 
of 1380. Guida di Bologna, iii. 11, 186. 

■■ Galasso, his Mem. from 1404 up to 1450. Bart^aldi, ib, 
-— Gelasio, di, Niccol6, lived in 1242. Bar^ffdldi, iii. 185. 
■ da, Pietro, a scholar of the Caracci. Mahagia, iii. 214. 
— Rambaldo and Landadio, Hved in 1380. Ban^aldi, iii. 186. 

Stefano, a pupil of Squarcione. Vasari, Or, at least, contem^ 



porary, as we collect from Sayonarola, who wrote about 1430. iii. 189. 
other Stefiuii da Ferrara. Guida detta Citta. One of them painted 



in 1531. iii. 190. 
Ferraresino, see Berlinghieri. 
Ferrari, Antonfelice, his son, a Ferrarese, b. 1668, d. 1719. Bar^ffdldi, 

iii. 225. 
— — Bernardo, da Vigerano, his imitator. Lomazzo, ii. 499. 
— Bianchi, see Bianchi. 
■ Francesco, b. near Rovigo in 1$34, d. at Ferrara in 1708. Baruf- 

faldi, iii. 225. 
— -^— Gaudenzio, b. in Valdngia in the Milanese, 1484, d. 1550. Delia 



Voile, i. 399,— ii. 496. 

— -~ Gregorio, da Porto Maurizio,in the Gtenoyese, b. 1644, d. 1726. 



SatH, iii. 258. 

^ de', Gio, Andrea, a Genoese, b. 1598, d. 1669. Soprani, iii. 267. 
I GHrolamo, a VeroeUese. ii. 504. 

Lorenzo, his son, b, 1680, d. 1744. Batti. iii. 281. 

Luca, daReggio, d. 1652, at Padua, aged 49. Guida di Padova^ 



Or b. 1605, d. 1654. THrabosehi, ii. 267, 363. 

Orazio, b.aVoltri, 1606, d. 1657. Soprani, iii. 270. 

Pietro, Parmigiano, d. 1787. Affh. ii. 415. 

— Succession of this school, iii. 225. 



Ferrau, see Fanzone. 

Ferretti, Gio. Domenico, called D'Imola, b. at Florence, 1692. Boy. 

Gall, of Florence, i. 253. 
Ferri, Ciro, a Roman, b. 1634, d. 1689. Baldinucei. i. 244, 498. 
Ferrucci, Nicodemo, a Florentine, from Fiesole, d. 1650. BaldinUcei 

i. 216. 
Feti, Domenico, a Roman, d. aged 35. Baglione. In 1624. Orlandi.. 

i. 471,— ii. 339. 



INDEX. 399 

Piacco, or Flacco, Orlando, a Veronesey flourished about 1560. Batdi* 
nueci, ii. 208. 

Fialetti, Odoardo, a Bologneaet b. 1573, aged 65. Malvasia, ii. 195. 
— iii. 53 

Fiammeri, P.^ Gio. Batista, a Jesuit, d. old, the beginning of the ponti- 
ficate of Paul y. BaglUme, i. 469. 

Fiamminghi, Angiolo and Vincenzio. Guida di Roma. i. 475. 

■ Gnaltieri and Giorgio, painters on glass, lived about 1568. 

Vaaan. i. 175. 

— — Gioranni, Rossi and Niocol6. workers in embroidery and 
tapestry. Vatari, i. 166. 

Fiamminghini, see Delia Rovere. 

Fiamminghino, see Everardi. 

Fiammingo, Arrigo, d. aged 78, in the pontificate of Clement VII I. Bag- 
Hone. His altar-piece at S. Francesco in Perugia, dated 1564 ; where 
he signs himself Henricue Malmia Mariotii. i. 425. 

■ Enrioo, a scholar of Spagnoletto and of Guido. Mahaeia. iii. 101. 

Gio., painted in the time of Gregory XIII. Tna, i. 432. 

Jacopo, a scholar of Maratta. Vita del Maraita, i. 508. 

— *-» — Lodovico, He Pozzoserrato. 

(II), gee La Longe, see Calyart. 

Fiasella, Domenico, called from his district, II Sarzana, b. 1589, d .1669. 
Soprani, iii. 256. 

FicatelU, Stefano, of Cento. UTodin 1700. CUtadella. iii. 113. 

Ficherelli Felice, a Florentine, caUed Felice Reposo, b. 1605, d. 1660. 
Baidinucci. i. 219. 

Fldani, Orazio, a Florentine, his works, dating about 1642, d. young. MS. 
i. 214. . 

Fiesole, da, B. Giovanni, a Dominican, called II B. Gio. Angelico, b. 
1387, d. 1455. Baidinucci. Painted in the cathedral of Orvieto, 1457. 
Delia Valle. i. 77, 335. 

Figino, Ambrogio, a Milanese, flourished about 1590. Orlandi. Living 
in 1595. Marigia. ii. 503. 

— ^-^ GKrolamo, living also in 1595. ib. 

Figolino, Gio. Batista, or Marcello. a Vicentese, lived about 1450. Ridolji. 
In two engravings in the imperial cabinet, by his hand, we read. Mar- 
cello Foffolino. Zani. The same in his two pictures at Vicenza. 
i. 107,— ii. 90. 

Filgher, M. Corrado, a German, living in 1660. Boschini. ii. 286. 

TOL. III« 2 B 



wo 

KKppi, Caniao, a Fcnweae, d. 1574. Har^^flML L 144,— liL 205. 
Bartwno, commoiily called Bastianino, his aofii, b. 1540. Barmflaldi. 



Qrnidierl532. Cre^ MS. d. 1602. Bmn^aidL m. 205. 

Cesare, anotiier son, d. shortly vStec 1602. BarufiUdi^ iiL 207. 

Giacomo, asdiolaroftfaeFemBi«d.l743. CSUmielU, m.225. 

— >- (Taia), or rather FQipe^ tee BottiedlL 



Tilocaino, Antonio, TmAo, Gaetano, bru tlMga and Mcnineae, d. in Ijie 

' idagneofl743. Bmiert. IL 6S. 

Plmgoenray Maso, a Ploicntine, living in 1452. GorL L 100. 

Finoglia, FiMd Domenieo, d'Orta, d. 1656. jDmmuo. iL 40. 

PSore, del, Colantonio, a Neapolitan, d. 1444, aged 90. DommieL Or 
d. yoong. Smnmozio, iL 4. 

FranoeMSO, a Venetian, deceased in 1434. ZemetH. iL 86. 

Jaoobcfflo, Ua son, memoiiBb firam 1401 to 1436. MS. Ridulfi 

and Zanetti were nwlaken in ascribing to Iub the picture DeDa 
Carita, with date of 1446 ; irimeas the Ca;r. de' Lassam aasored me 

• of his hsfing read Jo kanmet Aiemtmmt Antomim de Mwrtmo. ib. 

Fiorentino, Tonunaso, fivad in Spam, 1511. Gbnec L 165. 

• Gioliaao, eee BngiardinL 

-^— — Midiele, eee AlbertL 

— ^— il, MeYaiano, see Stefimo, eee Vante. 

Fkiri,Ce8aie,alfikDie8e,d. 1702,aged66. Oriamdi, iL 530. 

da, Mario, see Nncd Gaspero, see Lopez Carlo, Me Yoglar. 



Fiorini, Gio. Batista, a Bolognese, liriqg in 1586. Mahasia. Fiainted 

along with Aretnsi, IB liief^wch of the Caiiti^ in 1585. OreUu Mem. 

L406. 
Firenze, da, Gior]g^, his works from 1314 to 1325. JBanm Vernazza. 

iii. 291. 
Flori, Bastiano, and Fosehi F. Sahatoie of Aieszo, asBistsnts of Vasari, 

about 1545. L 202. 
— — Bernardino, and Griffi Batista, scholars of Garafolo. Ban^aldi, 

iii. 203. 

N. della Fratta, a painter of the rixteenth century. MS, I 429. 

Floriani, Francesco and Antonio, of Udine, lived in 1568. Vasari. Of 

the first there remains a pictore in his nathe place, with date of 1579, 

and another of 1586. kenaidis. iL 156. 
FlorianOy Ffaumnio, a supposed scholar of Tintoretto. ZanetH. ii. 196. 
Florigorio, Bastiano, da Udine. Bidolji. Or rather Florigerio, painted 

in 1533. Cfuida di Padotfa. ii. 156. 



INDEX. 371 

Foeo, Paolo, a Hedmontese, lived about 1660. MS, iii. 318. 
Folchetti, Stefano, of Picseno, his work of 1494. i. 336. 
Foler, Antonio, a Venetian, d. 1616, aged 80. Bidolfi. ii. 225. 
Foligno, da, F. Umile. Guida di Roma, Lived the beginning of tlie 

eighteenth century, i. 523. 
FoUi, Sebastiano, a Sienese, painted in 1608. Delia Voile, u 313. 
Fondnlo, Gio. Paolo, a Cremonese, scholar of Antonio Campi. Zaist. 

U. 442. 
Fontana, Prospero, a Bolognese, b.. 1512. Borghim, Interred at the 

Servi, 1597. Orettif from Church Reffiaters, i. 432,— iii, 41. 
Lsvinia, his daughter, b. 1552. IMvoiia, d. at Rome, 1614, 

aged 62. Oretti, Utien Jrmn an amthentie potiwit in the Caaa 

SdOppim ib, 
■ Alberto, a Modenese, painted in 1537, d. 1558. Tirabowhi. 



ii. 352. 

Batista, a Veronese, apainkerof the sixteenth century. Pozzo, 



ii. 208. 

Fhoninio^ di Urhmo, iMms t».fa«ve Uied in 1576. Lazzan. 



i. 434. 

Orazb, brother of Fknualo, flonriahed from 1540 up to 1560. 



AwQcato Passeri. ib, 

Salvatore, a Venetian, painted at Rome in the chapel of Sixtus V. 



Gtnda di Roma. i. 425. 
Fontebasso, Franc. Salvatore, a Venetian, b, 1709, d. 1769. Caialogo 

Algarotti, ii. 305» 
Fontebuoni, Anastagio, a Florentine, d. young in the pontificate of Paul V. 

Baglitme, i. 216. 
Foppa, VincenziOy da Bresda, painted in 1455, d. 1492. Zambom. See 

aho Caradosso. n. 88, 465. 
Forabosco, (written also Ferabosco,) Girolamo, a Venetian, or Paduan, 

lived in 1660. BotchUii. ii. 252. 
Forbicini, Eliodoro, a Veronese, lived in 1568. Vasari, ii. 207. 
Forli, da, Ansovino, a sdiolar of Squareione. Guida di Padova. ii. 115. 

Bartolommeo, a scholar of Franda. Mahana. iiL 30. 

— Gugliefano, (Oretti finds him caUed Gugliehno degU Organi,) a 

scholar of GKotto. Vtuari, iii. 28. 
— - Melozzo, (F. Francesco,) painted about 1472. Vatari, Was Hving 

also in 1494. Paccioli, Smnma Aritmetica, d. 1492, aged 56. Oretti^ 

Mem* ibm 

2 B 2 



372 INDEX. 

Formello, di, Donato, deceased in the pontificate of Gregory XIIL 

Baglione, i. 424. 
Formentini, il, a landscape painter of this age. (Juida di Brescia. 

ii. 315. • 

Foman, Moresini Simone, di Reggio, a painter of the sixteenth century. 

THradotehi, ii. 346. 
Fomer, el, see CiTcrchio. 

Forti, Giacomo, a Bolognese, painted in 1483. Mahatia, iii. 16. 
Fortini, Benedetto, a Florentine, d. 1732, aged 57. Morenit vol. yi. 

i. 238, 239. 
Fortori, Alessandro, di Arezzo, lived in 1568. Vaaari» 1. 202. 
Fortnna, Alessandro, lived in 1610. Pasteri. i. 456. 
Fossano, da, Ambrogio, painted about 1473. Gvida di MUano of 1783. 

ii. 475. 
Foti, Luciano, a Messinese, b. 1694, d. 1779. Hdkert. ii. 64. 
Fracanzaniy Franc., a Neapolitan, d. about 1657. Domimci, ii. 49. 
Francesca, deUa, Piero, from Borgo S. Sepolcro, called also Pietro, 

Borghese, d. about 1484, aged 86. 8€9 Vasari. i. 74, 338,— ii. 467, 

—iii. 188. 
Franceschi, or de' Freschi, Paolo, of Flanders, d. 1596, aged 56. Ridolfi. 

ii. 195. 
Franceschiello, see De Mnra. 
Franceschini, Baldassare, from his native place called II Yolterrano, 

b. 1611, d. 1689. Baldmueei, i. 222. 
Cav. Marcantonio, b. 1648 at Bologna, d. 1729. Zanottu 

iii. 157. 

Can. Giacomo, his son, d. 1745. (kUda di Bologna, Or 



d. 26th December, 1745, aged 73. Orettij Mem. iii. 160. 
. Mattia, of Turin. Pitture d* Italiat painted in 1745. 



iii. 315. 
Franceschitto, a Spaniard, scholar of Giordano, d. young. Vita del 

Giord. of 1728. ii. 59. 
Francesco, Don, a monk of Cassino ; a painter on glass ; opened school at 

Perugia in 1440. Orlandi, Bisp. i. 174. 
Franchi, Ant., a Lucchese, b. 1634, d. 1709. R. Gall. i. 223, 466. 
■ Cesare, of Perugia, d. 1615. Paaeoli. i. 467. 

Franchini, Niccolo, a Sienese, living in 1761. Peed. i. 322. 
Francia, Domenico, a Bolognese, d. 1758, aged 56. Crespi. vi. 179. 
— ^-^ Pietro, a Florentine, one of the masters of Fei. Borghini. i. 200. 



INDEX. 37-3 

Francia, otfaerwue Raibolini Francesco, a Bolognesei painted before 1490. 

Malvana. d. 1535. MS. iii. 17. 
"^-^ Giacomo, his son ; his work of 1526. Gvida di Bologna, d. 155 7» 

and interred at S. Francesco. Oretth Mem. iii. 19. 
*— '— * Gio. Batista, son of Giaoomo, d. 1575. Malvasia. iii. 20. 
' Ginlio, cousin of Francesco, flooriahed about 1500. Baldimtecim 



d. 1540, and buried at S. Francesco. Oretti, Mem, iii. 19. 

>— *• or Francia Bigi, or Franciabigio, Marcantonio, a Florentine^ 



b. 1483, d. 1524. Baidinueci. 1. 158. 
Franco, Alfonso, b. at Messina in 1466, d. there of the plague in 1524. 

Hakert. ii. 15. 

— ^— Angiolo, a Neapolitan, d. about 1445. Dominici. ii. 5. 

— ^-^ Batista, called II Semolei, a Venetian, painted in 1536, d. 15C1. 

Vtuari. i. 146,— u. 225. 

Giuseppe, a Boman, called De' Monti and Dalle Lodole, d. in the 



pontificate of Urban VIII. Bofflione. i. 424. 

——"Lorenzo, a Bolognese, d. at Reggio about 1630. Orlandi, Aged 



67. MahaHa, ii. 525. 

Bolognese, see Da Bologna. 



Francucd, see Da ImoUu 

Frangipane, Niccolo, a Paduan ; according to some, of Udine, or rather 

of doubtful birth-place. Lett. Pitt., torn. i. p. 248. His memor. up 

to 1595. BeiuUdu. u. 178. 
Frari, see Bianchi Ferrari. 
Frataoci, or Fratazd, Antonio, a native of Parma, painted in 1 730. Guidm 

diMUano. ii. 414. 
Frate, il, see Delia Porta. 
— * Paolotto, il, see GhislandL 

del, Cecchino, a scholar of F. Bartolommeo. Vasari. i. 153. 

Fratellini, Giovanna (by birth, Marmocchini) a Florentine lady, b. 1666, 

d. 1731, aged 65. R. Gall. qfFlor. i. 261. 
" Lorenzo, her son, d, 1729, aged 40. Serie degli Blusiri Piiiori, 

ib. 
Fradna, see De Mio. 

Frattini, Gaetano, a scholar of Franceschini. Guida di Ravenna, iii. 161. 
Friso, del, see Benfotto. 
Friulano, Niccolo, painted in 1332. ii. 80. 

F&lco, Gio., a Messinese, b. 1615, d. about 1680. Hakert. ii. 41. 
Fmnaccini, see Samaochini. 



S74 INDEX. 

Fmniaiii, Ant., a Venetian, d. 1710, aged 67. ZmuiH, H. 296. 
Famicelli, Lodoyico, of Treviso, painted in 1536. BiMfi. In tiie <Smda 

di TVeoiao he is called FinmioeUi. Flumicellua is read in tSie Latin 

documents, accoitling to .Rsdmei. ii. 176« 
Fangai, Bernardino, a Sienese, lived about 1512. HellB VbHU. i. ^1. 
Furini, Filippo, caUed Lo Soiaineroiii, a Ftorentine, pupil of Fassignano. 

Baldinttcci. L 240. 
Francesco, his ion, b. about 1600, d. 1649. BMbmcei, Or 



d. in 1646, and buried at S. Lmenso. OretHf Memor* i. 224. 

G. 

Gabassi, Margherita, a Modsnese, m paintress of this age. TiiNAo9chi, 

ii. 367. 
Gabbiani, Anton Domenico, a Florentine, b. 1652, d. 1722^ R, 6W?. of 

Fior. i. 249. 

Gaetano, his nephew. Sierte de* pm Illustri Pittori, 1 251. 

Gabrielli, Camillo, a Pisan, d. 1750. Morrona. i. 257. 

Gabrielo, Onofrio, called in Padua Onofrio da Messina, painted in 1656. 

Cfuida di Padova. b. 1616, d. 1706, aged 90. Hakert, fi. 43. 
Gaddo, Gaddi, a Florentine, d. aged 73, in 1312. Vaaari, i. 49. 

Taddeo, his son, b. 1300, living in 1352. BaliUtmcei, i. 66. 

■ ■ ■ Angiolo, son of Taddeo, d. 1387, i. 59. Saidimtcct. JLgod 63. 

Vasari, i. 67. 

Gio., brother of Angiolo, ib. 



Gaeta, da, ne Polzone. 

Gaetano, Luigi, a Venetian, a mosaic worker employed in 1590. ZaneiH* 

ii. 232. 
Gagliardi, Cav. Bernardino, da Citta di GastcSlo, d. 1660, aged 51. Or- 

landi. i. 474. 
Galanino, otherwise Baldassare Aloisi, a Bolognese, d. 1638, aged 60. 

BapHone. i. 478. 
Galeotti, Sebast., a Florenthie, d. 1746, a ^dmoeft, aged about 70. 

Rata. i. 252. 
■ Giuseppe and Gio. Batista, his sons, were living in 17B9. IMtim 

m, 285. 
Galizia, Fede, di Trento, was still a young unmarried lady in 1595. Jlfo- 

rizia. She painted in 1616. Gtada di Mikmo. ii. 516. 
Gain. Gio. Antonio, a Roman, called Spadarino. Orlaadi, X pohltBr of 

the seventeenth century, i. 474. 



INDBX. 375 

OaUi, »ee Bibiena ' 

GaUiariy Bernardino, di Caodoma, in the PiednMuileiey d. 1794, aged 87. 

Delia VaUe, ill. 319. 
Gallinari, Pietro, called Pierino dd Sig. Guido, d. 1664. Oheqn. iH. 102. 
Gambara, Lattanzto, a Bresdan, d. aged 32. Midoifi. Or in 1573 or 

1574. Zdmbwi. n. 184. 
Gambariniy Gioseffo, a Bologneae, b. 1680, d. 1725. ZtmotH. iii ISS. 
Gamberati, GiroL, a Yenetiaii, d. (dd in 1628. BiMJL u. 243. 
Gambemcci, Conmo, a Florentine, painted in 161X). Moreni, i. 196. 
Gandini, or del Grano, Giorgio, a native of Parma, d. 1538. Affh^ 

ii. 401. 

■ Antonio, a Brescian, d. 1630. Oir2an4tand Zambom. ii. 279. 
' Bernardino, hia eon, d. 1651. MS. ib. 
Gandolfi, Gaetano, b. at St. Matteo della Decima in the Bolognese, 30£h 

Angnst, 1734, d. auddenly 30tii June, 1802. Bhffio del Sig, OrilH'. 

iu. 181. 

Ubaldo, hia brother, d. 1781, aged 53. Quida di Bologna, ib'. 

Gandolfino, Maestro, was living in 1493. Dellu VeUle. iii. 293. 
Garbieri, Lorenzo, a Bolognese, d. 1654, aged 74. Muhmtia. Or i^ed 

75. Oreiti, from the Regitiry of S. Gio. in Mente. iii. 120. 

Carlo, his son and pupil. Maltfosia. iii. 121. 

Garbo, del, RaffaeUino, a Florentine, d. 1524, aged 58. Vaaari. i. 88. 
Gargiuoli, Domsnico, called Micoo Spadaro, a Neapolitan, b. 1612, 

d. 1679. DonUniei. ii. 51. 
Garofolini, Giadnto, a Bolognese, b. 1666, d. 1725. ZmotH, m. 161. 
Garofolo, Carlo, a Neapolitan, scholar of Giordano, d. a few years after 

his master. Domimei, i. 175. 
da, otherwise Benvenuto Tisio, or Tisi, b. 1481, in the Ferrarese, ■ 

d. 1559. Vagari. i. 399,~4ii. 194, 201. 
Garoli, Piflrfranceaoo, b. at Turin in 1638, d. 1716. PawoU. i. 541,— 

iii. 304. 
Garzi, Luigi, b. at Pistoiain 1638, d. 1721. Paieoli. Or b. 1640, June 

23rd. OrUmditsOL Carte OretH. i. 501. 
■ Mario, Ida son, d. young. PaaeoK. i. 502. 

Garzoni, Giovanna, of Aaodi, d. 1683, at an adraneed age. OrUmdi. 

i. 490. 
Gasparini, Gaspare, a Maceratese, lived about 158S. MS. i. 430. 
Gatta, della, D. Bartolommeo, a Camaldolese, d. 1461, aged 83. Vuari. 
More probably in 1491. i. 92. 



376 INDEX. 

QtAHf Bernardo, or Bernardino, called II Soiaro, a Cremonese ; according 
to others a VeroeUeae, or Pavese ; was employed in 1522, d. 1575. 
Zaut ii. 400, 430. 

■ CrenraaiOy hia nephew. His workg from 1578 up to 1631. ii. 431. 

■ ' Uriele, painted in 1601. Ouida di Piacenza. ib, 

Fortanato, Parmig., employed in 1648. .Affb. ii. 413. 

Girolamo, a Bolognese, b. 1662, d. 1726. Crespi, iu. 161. 

Tommaso, b. at PftTia in 1642, lived in 1718. Orlandi, ii. 535. 

Ganlli, Gio. Batista, called Badcdo, b. at Genoa in 1639, d. 1709. 

PascoU, i. 515, — ^iii. 275. 
Gavasio, Agostino, a Bergamese, painted in 1527. lYuH. ii. 124. 
— ~-— Gio. Giacomo, a Bergamese, was employed in 1511. Tassi. ib, 
Gavassetti, Camillo, da Modena, d. young in 1628. Tiraboscki ii. 361. 
Gavignani, Gio., di Carpi, b. 1615, living in 1676. T^rabosehi. ii. 369. 
Gellee, Clandio, commonly called Claude Loraine, b. 1600, d. 1682. 

PaseoU. i. 482. 
Generoli, Andrea, called, from his birth-place, II Sabinese. OrUmdi, 

Called Generelli in the Guida di Boma, Flourished in the seventeenth 

century, i. 496. 
Genga, Girolamo, ofUrbino, d. 1551, aged 75. Vtuari, i. 291, 345. 
Gennari, Benedetto, da Cento, lived about 1610. Malvasia, iii. 108. 
Gio. Bat., painted in 1607. Gvida di Bologna, ib, 

■ Ercole, a son of Benedetto, b. 1597, d. aged 61. Crespi in the 
Giunte al Baruffaldi, iii. 112. 

■ Bartolommeo, another son of Benedetto. Crespi. d. 1658, aged 



67. Orettif Mem. ib. 

Benedetto, the younger son of Ercole, b. 16339 ^ 1715. 



Crespi, ib. 

— Cesare, another son, b. 1641, d. 1688. Crespi. ib. 

Lorenzo, di Bimino, was living in 1650. Guida di Rtnuno. iii. 1 13. 



Geneva, da, Lucchetto, see Cambiasi. 

Genovese, II Prete, or II Cappuccino, see Strozzi. 

Genovesini, by Orlandi called Marco, by others Bartolommeo, a Milanese, 
painted in 1628. MS. In the Mem. Oretti the mistake into which 
many, as well as myself, had fallen, is detected : the above was sup- 
posed to be his surname, whereas this writer found in the church of the 
Certosa of Garignano, Bartol, Moverio 2>. GenovesinOi 1626 ; and also 
in the refectory one of his Crucifixions with the year 1614. ii. 530,^ 
iii. 310. 



INDEX. 377 

Genovesmo, il, see Miradoro, see Calcia. 

Gentile, Luigi, of Brussels, an academician of St. Luke in 1650. OrUmdu 

d. 1657, at Brussels, aged 60.- Paseeri. i. 475. 
■ di. Maestro Bartolommeo, d' Urbino. His paintiDg of 1497. 

MS. i. 337. 
Gentilescfai, or Lomi Orazio, b. 1563, d. 1646. Morrona. i. 232. 
— — — — Artemisia, his daughter, b. 1590, d. 1642. Morrona. ib, 
Gentiloni, LuciHo, da Filatrava, perhaps Filattrano, and Belladonna, whose 

designs are extolled by Marini in the Gallery, lived about 1610. 

iii. 304. 
Gera, a Pisan, an old painter. Morron/tt. i. 71. 
Gessii Franc., a Bolognese, b. 1588, d. 1649. Oretti, Mem, ii. 35, — 

iii. 98. 
— »- del, see Ruggieri. 
Ghelli, Francesco, of the Bolognese territory, lived in 1680. Cre^i, 

Bom at Medicina, 8th Jan. 1637, d. at Bologna, 3rd May, 1703. 

Oretti from MS. accounts of artists of that place, iii. 133. 
Gherardi, Antonio, da Bieti, b. 1644, d. 1702. Pascoli. i. 462. 

' CristofjEmo, di Borgo S. Sepolcro, called Doceno, d. 1556, a^d 

56. Vasttri. i. 202. 

Filippo, a Lucchese, d. soon after 1681. MS. i. 258. 



Gberardini, or Ghilardini, Alessandro, a Florentine, b. 1655, d. 1723. 

R. Gall. qfFlor. i. 251. 
■ Gio. a Bolognese, pupil of Colonna. CrespL d. 1685, aged 

75. Oretti, Mem, iii. 138. 
— — - Stefano, a Bolognese, scholar of Gambarini, d. 1755. Guida 



di Bologna, i. 153. 

Tommaso, a Florentine, b. 1715, d. 1797. MS. i. 263. 



Gherardo, a Florentine, lived towards the end of the fifteenth century. 

Vasari. i. 93. 
— — dalle Notti, see Hundhorst. 
Ghezzi, Cav. Sebastiano, of the Commune in the Ascolano, lived some 

years after 1634. Guida di Ascoli. i. 513. 
• Cav. Giuseppe, his son, b. in the Commune in 1634, d. at Rome 

in 1721. Guida di Ascoli. ib. 

Cav. Pierleone, son of Giuseppe, b. at Rome in 1674, d. 1755. 



JB. Gall, of Florence, ib, 
Ghiberti, Lorenzo, a Florentine, d. 1455, aged 77 and upwards. Baldi" 
nucci. i. 33, 173. 



878 INDEX. 

Ghiberti, Vittorio, a Florentine, lived in 1829. Varehifr€S90 U M&reni, 

i. 94. 
Ghidone, Galeazzo, a Cremonese, lived in 1598. Zaisi. ii. 442. 
Ghigi, Teodoro, a Mantuan, a pupil of Giidio. Orkmdi caHfl him 'a 

Roman, ii. 334. 
Ghirardoni, Glo. Andrea, a Ferrarese, lived in 1620. Saruj^aUR. iii. 212. 
Ghirlandaio, del, Domenico (Corradi) a Florentine ; in some books idso 
commonly written Del GriUandaio ; b. 1451, d. 1495. Vantri, i. ^9, 
133. 

Davide, his brother, b. 1451, d. 1525. Vasari, i. 90. 

— — Benedetto, another brother, d. aged 50. Vmart. ib, 

Bidolfo, son of Domenico, d. 1560, a^ 75. Vasari, i. 163. 

' Ghisi, Giorgio, called Giorgio, a Mantuan, an engraver in the 

time of Ginlio Romano. Orlandi. ii. 337. 
Ghi^andi, Domenico, a Bergsmeee, painted in 1662. Tani, u. 284. 

' " Fra T^ttoie» Ins son, called Ii Frste Paolotto, d. 1743, aged 88. 
Taaai. u. 306, 
Ghisolfi (Criaolfi and Chiaolfi), Gio., a Milanese, d. 1683, aged 60. 

Orltmdu i. 481,— ii. 536. 
Ghissoni, Ottavio, a Sienese, pupil of Gio. Vecchi. Soprem, i. 314. 
Ghiti, Fompeo, a Brescian, b. 1631, d. 1703. Orlandi, ii. 280. 
Giacarolo, Gio. Batista, of Mantua, scholar of Giulio. Volta. ii. 335. 
Giacciuoli, N. a pupil of Orizzonte. Catalogo CoHonna. i. 536. 
Giacomone, see Lippi, see obo Da Faenza. 
Gialdisi, N., a native of Parma, flourished at Cremona about 1720. Zaist, 

ii. 416. 
Gianella, see Da Siena. 

Giannetti, Filippo, a Mesaanese, d. 1702, at Naples. Hakert, li. 66. 
Giannizzero, scholar of Borgognone. Catalogo CoUmna, i. 487. 
Giaquinto, Corrado, di Molfetta, d. old in 1765. Omea. 1. 519i— 

ii. 533,— iii. 314. 
Giarola, Gio., da Reggio, d. 1557. TirttbosefU. ii. 356, 397. 

or Gerola, Ant., a Veronese, called II Car. Coppa, d. 1665, aged 

about 70. Pozzo. ii. 278, 537. 
Gibertoni, Paolo, a Modenese, flourished in Lucca about 1660. MS, 

ii.367. 
Gilardi, Piet., a Milanese, b. 1679, flourished 1718. Orlandi, ii. 533. 
Gilloli, Giadlnto, a Bolognese, a scholar of tiie Caracd. Mahasia, 
d. 27th June, 1665, aged 71. MS. iii. 128. 



INDEX. 379 

Gimignani, Giadnto, b. 1611» at Fistoia, d. 1681. Pateoli. i. 255. 
^~-— ~- — Lodovicoi son of Giacinto, b. 1644, at RomCi d. 1697. 
PascoU, ib, 

Alessio, a Fistoiese, painted in the 17th centory. MS. i. 231. 



Ginnasi, Caterina, a Roman lady, d. 1660, aged 70. Paaaeri, i. 461. 
Gio, Tedesco, or Znanei of Gennany, was companion of the Vi?arim. 

Zanettu His worJu up to 1447. Guida di Padovu, u. 82. 

' di| Tedesco Marco, was employed in 1463. Guida di Raoigo, 

u. 112. 

a painter at CUeri in 1342. MS, in. 292. 

Gioggi, Bartolo, a Florentine, lived about 1350. Baldmued. i. 63. 
Giolfinoj or GU>lfiBO| Niccolo, a Veronese, master of Farinato. Poszo, 

iL 207. 
Gionima, Simone, a Fadnan, scholar of Cesare Gennari. Cretpi, Or 

rather a Dalmatian by family, and b. at Veniee in 1655. P^mnly Pedi-i' 

gree in the Mem, Oretti. m, 112. 

■ Antonio, son of Simone, b. 1697, d. 1732. Crespi. iii. 153. 
Giordano, Oav. Luca, called Luca fa preeto, a Keiqpolitan, b. 1632, 

d. 1705. Dominiei. Or 1704. Qmea, i. 175,-^. 54. 

Stefimo, a Messinese, painted in 1541. Hakeri, ii. 21. 

Giorgetd, Giacomo, of Assisi, a sdiolar of Lanfraaco, d. aged 77. 

Orlandi. i. 461. 
Giorgio, 4i, Francesco, a Sienese, lived in 1480. Vaeari, L 288. 
Giorgione, or Giorgio Barbarelli, da Castelfranco in the Trevigiano, 

d. 1511, aged 34. Vanri. n. 133. 
Giottino, or Tommaso di Stefano, a Florentine, b. 1324, d. aged 32. 

Bottari, i. 65. 
Giotto (Manni explains Angiolotto, others AmUogiotto), of Vespignaae 

in the Fldrentine toritory, b. 1276, d. 1337. Vaaari. Is called Giotto 

di Bondone from his father, i. 43, 54, 332,-*ii. 3, 74, 845, 460,— 

iii. 10, 24, 185. 
Giovenale, painted at Rome in 1440. Bondhnm: i. 334. 
Giovenone, Girolamo, da Vercelfi, flourished towards 1500. MS, Two 

of his pictures at S. Faolo di VerceOi, bearing dates of 1514 and 1516. 

LeUera del P, AJttegrania al Sip, OretH, ii. 477. 
Giovenone, Batista, Giuseppe, Pftolo, of the same family. P. della Valle, 

ii. 505. 
Gioyita, a Brescian, called II Brescianino, a scholar of Gambara. Ridoffi, 

u. 185. 



380 INDEX. 

Giraldioi (more correctly GUardino), Meldiiore, a Milanese, d. 1675. 

Orlandi. u. 529. 

— ^— ^— N., his son, a painter of battle-pieces. Orlandu ih. 

Girandole, dalle, tee Baoutalenti. 

Giron, M., a Frenchman, flourished in 1660. Botehini, ii. 286. 

Gismondi, tee Perugino Paolo. 

GioUanello, Pietro, a painter in the modem-antique stylel MS, i. 352. 

Giuliano, Giorgio, da Civit^ Castellana, painted in 161. MS, i. 460. 

Giunta, tee Pisano. 

Giuntalocchio, Domen., a Pratese, scholar of Soggi, d. old. Vasari, 

i. 205. 

Giusti, Antonio, a Florentine, d. 1705, aged 81. OrUmdi. i. 238. 

Gnocchi, Pietro, a Milanese, called also, as it seems, Luini, lived in 1595« 

Morigia, ii. 496. 

Gobbi, Marcello, a Macerateie, lived about 1606. MS» i. 466. 

Gobbino, «ee Rossi. 

Gobbo, il, da Cortona, il Gobbo de' Caracd, il Gobbo da' Fnxtti, or 

Pietro Paolo Bonzi, d. aged 60, in the pontif. of Urban VIII. Bag^ 

Hone, See Lett. Pitt.y tom. y. i. 490,— iii. 134. 

— del, see Solan. 

Gori, Angiolo, a FlorentiBe, lived in 1658. Deaerip, de la OaUerie Roy. 

de mor., 1790. i. 237. 

— ^^ Lamberto, a Florentine, professor of sca gl idla work, d. 1801, aged 

70. i. 251. 

Goro and Bernardo di Francesco, painters on glass, lived in 1434. Moreni, 

i. 173. 

Goti, Maurelio, a Ferrarese, scholar of Faccninetti. CUtadeUa, iii. 226. 

Gotti, Vincenzio, a Bolognese, d. 1636. Orlandi. iiL 129. 

GozzoU, Benozzo, a Florentine, d. aged 78. Tomb erected to him in 

1478. Vaeari. i. 78. 

Grammatica, Antiveduto, b. near Rome, of Sienese father, d. 1626, aged 
about 55. BaglUme. i. 319, 478. 

Grammorseo, Pietro, painted in 1523, iii. 293. 

Granacci, Franc, a Florentine, b. 1477, d. 1544. Bottari, i. 147. 

Grandi, Ercole, da Ferrara, d. 1531, aged 40. Ban^aldu iii. 191. 

Granello, Nioolosio, a Grenoese, pupil of Ottavio Semini. Soprani, iii. 248. 

Graneri, of Turin, lived in 1770. MS. iu. 317. 

Grano, del, see Gandini. 

Grappelli, a painter of the seventeenth century, i. 474. 



INDEX. 381 

Grassaleoni, Girolamo, a Ferrarese, d. 1629 Barvfaldu Hi. 205. 
Grassi, Gio. Batista, da Udine, lived in 1568. Vasari. iii. 128. 

Tarqumio, painted at Turin in 1715. Gvida di Jbrino, iii. 312. 

— — ~- Gio. Batista, his son. ib, 

— — Nicola, a Venetian, pupil Of Niccol5 Cassana. Zanetfi. Called 

Gnassi by Goarienti. In the Guida di Udme he is called Delia Camia. 

u. 314,— iii. 312. 
Gratella, see FlUipi. 

Grati, Gio. Batbta, a Bolognese, b. 1681, d. 1758. Cfretpi, iii. 150. 
Graziani, scholar of Borgognone. Caialogo Colorma. i. 487. 

Ercole, a Bolognese, b. 1688, d. 1765. Cretpi, iii. 151. 

Grazziu, Gio. Paolo, a Ferrarese, d. 1632. Bam^aldi. iii. 219. 
Grecchi, Marcantonio, a Sienese, his work of 1634. M8. i. 320. 
Greche, delle, Domenico, or Domenico Greco, and Tdoscopoli, d. 1625, 

aged 77. PdUmmo^ who here mistakes, the engraving of Pharaoh 

drowning bearing date of 1549. i. 99,~ii. 169. 
Grechetto, see Castlglione. 

Greco, N., scholar of Pellegrino da Udine, ii. 156. 
Grecolini, Antonio, pamted at Rome in 1702. Pascoli. i. 463. 
Gregori, GriroUuno, a Ferrarese, d. 1773, almost SO. Cittadella. iii. 227. 
Griffoni, Annibale, di Carpi, flourished in 1656. Tirabowhi, ii. 369. 

Don Gaspero, his son, b. 1640, painted in 1677. Urabaschi. ib, 

Fulvio, an Udinese, lived in 1608. RenaldU. ii. 259. 

Grifoni, Girolamo, a Bergamese, scholar of Cavagna. Tasri, ii. 283. 
Grillenzone, Orszio, da Carpi, d. old in 1617. Tirahoseki. ii. 358. 
Grimaldi, Grio. Francesco, a Bolognese, lived in 1678. Mahasia, d. at 

Rome, aged nearly 80. Orlandi. i. 535, — iii. 132. 
— — * Alessandro, his son. Orkmdi. iii. 133. 
Grisoni, Gioseffo, a Florentine, d. 1769. Boy. Gall, of Flor. i. 253. 
Grossi, Bartolommeo, Parmigiano, flourished about 1450. Aff'b. ii. 372. 
Guadagnini, Jacopo, a-Bassanese, d. 1633. Verci, ii. 204. 
Gualtieri, a Paduan, lived about 1550. Gvida di Padova. ii. 178. 
Gualla, Pietro, di Casale, deceased about 1760. MS, iii. 316. 
Guardi, Francesco, a Venetian, d. 1793, aged 81. MS, ii. 318. 
Guardolino, »ee Natali. 
Guargena, eee Da Messina. 

Guarienti, Pietro, a Veronese, d. between 1753 and 1769. Crespi. iii. 165. 
Guariento, a Paduan, or Veronese. Notiziat p. 22. Fainted in 1365. 

Ridolfi, a, 76. 



382 z:n)Ex. 

Gaarini^ Bernardino, di RavennA, painted in 1617. MS,, and VOrHH, 

who found his name on an altar-piece in the Mooache deUa Torre. 

iii. 129. 
Gubbio, da, Oderigi, d. shortly before 1300. Baidmttcei. i. 50, 331,— 

iii. 7. 
— — da, Cecco and Pnccio, painted about 1321. JMla Voile, i. 331. 
— — da, Giorgio, flourished between 1519 and 1537. AvvoeatO Pas- 

seri, i. 433. 
Guercxno, see Barbieri. 
Guerra, Gio., a Modenese, was emidoyed in the pontificKte of Sixtns V. 

BagUons, i. 418. 
Guerri, Dionisio, a Veronese, d. 1640, aged 30. PoiztK ii. 277. 
Guerrieri, Gio. Franceteo, of Fonombrone, flourished in the serenteenth 

century. MS, i. 455. 
Guglielmelli, Areangdo, a Neapolitan, lived in the caghteenth century. 

Vita del Solimene, ii. 66. 
Guglielmi, Gregorio, b. 1714, at Rome, d. 1773, at St. Petersburg^. 

Freddy, i. 519. 
Gnglielmo, supposed to be of the school of GhmicBto. MS, n, 76. 
di, Giacomo, di Castel della PiefV, lived in 1521. Mariottt. 

Called himsdf also Giacomo di Gug^iebBO £ Ser GfaeiBrdo. Mariaitu 

i. 349. 
Guidobono, Prete Bartolommeo, da SaTona, d. 1709* aged 55. JUUiL 

ni. 281, 314. 

Domenioo, his brother, b. 1670, d. 1746. Haiti, m, 282. 

Guidotti, Borghese, Cav. Paolo, a Lucchese, d. 1629, aged about 60. 

Baglione, i. 206. 
Guinaccia, Deodato, a KeapoUtan, and pupil of Polidoio. MaierL. iL21. 
Gsisoni, or Ohisoni, Fermo, da Mantora, was living ia 1568. Vaaari* 

ii. 334. 

H. 

Hafiher, Enrico, a Bolognese, b. 1640, d. 1702. Crespi. And Antonio, 
his brother, a Philippine monk at Grenoa, d. 1732, aged ^8. BatH* 
m, 175, 285. 

Hembreker, called Mon. Teodoro, b. in Haarlem, in 1633. Orlandi, i» 488. 

Hugford, Ignazio, a Florentine, d. 1778, aged 75. MS. i. 251. 

— — '— P. Ab. Enrico, his brother, of Vallombrosa, b. 1695, 
1771. Novelle Leiterarie di Firenze, 1771. ib. 



INDEX. 3S3 

Hnndhorst, or Honthorst, Gfaerardo, of Utrecht, called Gborardo deilt 
NoUh d. aged 68. Orlandi, In 1660. Sandrart. L 455. 

I & J. 
Jacone, a Florentine, d. 1553. Vatari, i. 160. 
JacopOi di, Pierfrancesco, pupil of Andrea del Sarto. Vaaari. i. 161. 
■ di, Nicola, see Grera. 

Ibi, see da Perugia Sinibaldo. 
Imola, da, Francesco. Colueci. ii. 17. Perliaps Bandinelli. Mabwritu 

iii. 32. 

Gaspero, was lining in 1521. MS, ib, 

— - Innocenzo (Francucci,) painted from 1506 to 1542, d. aged 56. 

Vasari. His painting at S. Salvatore, of Bologna, bearing date 1549. 

Orettiy Mem, iii. 36. 
Imparato, Francesco, a Neapolitan, flourished about 1565. Donunicu 

ii. 23. 

■ Girolamo, his son, d. about 1620. Dominiei, ib, 
Impiccati, dagl', Andrea, so called from haring painted some felons 

hanged. See Del Castagno. 
Incisori Antichi, old engravers, i. 107. 
Indaco, T, or Jacopo, a Florentine, called Tlndaco, painted in 1534. 

Bottari. d. aged 68. Vasari. u 90, 138. 
. Francesco, brother of Jacopo, i. 90. 

India, Bernardino, a Veronese, living in 1568. Vasari, His altar- 
piece at S. Bernardino of 1572, another of 1579, and a third at 

S. Nazaro, of 1584. Oreiti, Memor, ii. 207. 
— Tullio, feither of Bernardino. Del Pozzo, ib. 
Ingegno, T, see D'Assisi Andrea. 

IngoU, Matteo, da Ravenna, d. 1631, aged 44. Ridolfi, ii. 245. 
Ingoni, Gio. Batista, or Gio. Batista, a Modenese. Vasari. d. 1608, 

aged 80. Tirabosehi. ii. 355. 
Jodno, Ant., a MessinesCy painter of landscape in the seventeenth cen* 

tury. Hakert, ii. 53. 
Joliy Ant., a Modenese, b. about 1700, d. 1777. Tirabosehi. ii. 368. 

L. 

Laar (in Italian written and pronounced Laer), PietroVander, called U 
Bambocdo, b. at Iiaar in Holland, about 1613, d. 1673. GaU. /mj». 
Or in 1675. ArgensmUe. i. 487. 



384 INDEX. 

Lama» Qio. Bernardo, a Neapolitan, b. about 1508, d.. about 1579. 

JDominiei. ii. 20. 

6io. Batista, a Neapolitan, scholar of Giordano. Flor, Vie, ii. 60. 

Lamberti, Bonaventara, da Carpi, b. about 1651, d. 1721. Tiraboaeki. 

Or b. 5th December, 1652. Letter from his son, in OreiH, i. 510, — 

ii. 365. 
Lambertini, Michele, a Bolognese, his work of 1443, with another of 

1469. Malvatia. iii. 19. 
Lamberto, a German, or Lamberto, a Lombard, or Sustermans, or 

Suavis, b. at Li^ge in 1506, flourished about 1550. Orlandi, ii. 174. 
Lambri, Stefimo, scholar of Malosso, painted in 1623. ZaUf, ii. 448. 
Lame, delle, see Pupini. 
Larama, Agosdno, a Venetian, was employed in 1696, at about the age 

of 60. Melehion. ii. 288. 
Lamo, Fietro, of Bologna, scholar of Innocenzio da Imola, known by 

a MS. on the paintings of the said city. Guida di Bologna, d. 1578, 

and buried in the cloister of S. Francesco, painted by him with histories 

of that saint. OretH, Memor. iii. 9. 
Lamparelli, Carlo, of Spello, pupil of Brandi. Orlandi. i. 461. 
Lana, Lodovico, da Modena, d. 1646, aged 49. Tirabatchi. ii. 365. 
Lancilao and Girolamo, F^nans, lived towards the beginning of the 

fifteenth century. Vasari. i. 92. 
Lancisi, Tommaso, of Cittk S. Sepolcro, b. 1603, d. aged 79. Orlandi. 

i. 255. 
Lanconello, Cristoforo, of Faenza, perhaps a scholar of Baiocci. Lett. 

Pill., tom. tU. iii. 62. 
Landriani» Faol Camillo, a Milanese, called II Duchino, was young in 

1591. Lomazzo. His work at La Passione, with his name and the 

year 1602. Oretti, Mem. Deceased shortly before 1619. Bonieri 

Stgrplemenio al Morigia. ii. 511. 
Lanetti, Antonio, da Bugnato, a scholar of Gaudenzio. Lomazzo. ii. 499. 
Lanfranoo, Cav. Gio. di Parma, d. 1744, aged 66. JBellori. i. 460,-«-> 

u. 36, 412,— iii. 114. 
Langetti, Gio. Batista, a Genoese, d. at Venice in 1676, aged 41 » 

Zaneiti. iii. 277. 
Lanini, Bernardino, di Vercelli, was employed in 1546. Guida di MtUmo, 

d. about 1578. DeUa Voile, ii. 503. 
■ Gaudenzio and Girolamo, his brothers. MS. ii. 504. 

Lanzani, Andrea, a Milanese, d. 1712. Orlandi. ii. 532. 



INDEX. 885 

Laodicia, a Pavese, linng about 1330. Lomazzo. ii. 461. 

lApi> Niccolb, a Florentine, b. 1661, d. 1732. Soy, Gall, qf Florence. 

i. 252. 
Lapiccola, Nicola, of Crotone, a scholar of Mancinii i. 510. 
Upi3, Gaetano, di CagU, b. 1704, d. 1776, MS. i. 518. 
Lapo, di, eee Amolfo, eee also vol. i. p. 49, where it is proved that 

Lapo was fellow-pupil, not the father of Amolfo. 
Lappoii, Matteo, of Arezzo, scholar of D. Bartolommeo. VoMori. i. 171. 

Gio. Antonio, his son, d. 1552, aged 60. Vasari. ib, 

Laudati, Giosefib, of Perugia, lived In 1718. Orlandi. i. 508. 
Lavizzario, Vincenzio, a Milanese, flourished in 1520. MS. ii. 505. 
Laurati, see Lorenzetti. 
Laurentini, Giovanni, called L'Arrigoni, lived in 1600. Guida di Rimino. 

iii. 58. 
Laureti, rather than Lauretti, Tommaso, a Sicilian, d. in the pontificate 

of Clement VIII., aged 80. Baglione. i. 404, 415, 420,— ii. 29,— 

iii. 33, 53. 
Lauri, Baldassare, of Antwerp, b. about 1570, d. 1642. Baldinucci, 

Or d. aged 70. Pascoli. i. 501. 
— — Filippo, his son, b. at Rome in 1623, d. in 1694. Paecoli. ib, 
Lauri, Francesco, another son, b. 1610, at Rome, d. 1635. Pascoli, i. 500. 
Or de Laurier, Pietro, a Frenchman, scholar of Guido. Malvasia. 

iii. 101. 
Lauro, Giacomo, a native of Venice, resident at Trevigi, called Giacomo 

Trevigiano, d. young in 1605. Federici, ii. 221. 
Lazzari, see Bramante. 
■ Gio. Antonio, a Venetian, a scholar of Cav. Liberi, of Langetti, 

of Ricchi, of Diamantini, a good copyist and painter in crayons, 

d. 1713, aged 74. Melchiori. ii. 205, 314. 
Lazzarini, Canon. Gio. Andrea, of Pesaro, b. 1710, d. 1801, aged 91. 

See Fantuzzi Notizie del Canon. Lazzarini. i. 510,— iii. 169. 
— Gregorio, a Venetian, d. 1740, aged 86. Zanetti. Or in 1735, 

aged 78. Longhi. Or rather in 1730, aged 75. Gvida di Venezia 

of 1733. ii. 297. 
Lazzaroni, Gio. Batista, a Cremouese, d. 1698, aged 72. Zaist, ii. 450. 
Lecise, da, Matteo, painted in the pontificate of Gregory XIII. Bag- 

Hone. See also D'Alessi. ii. 28. 
Lecchi or Lech, Antonio, lived in 1663. Martinioni. ii*. 289. 
Legi, Giacomo, of Flanders, d. young about 1640. Soprani, iii. 25'j. 

VOL. UL 2 C 



386 

Legxiago, tee Barbieri Fnnoeaco. 

Trfignmi, Stefano, a Milanese, called II TiPgnanino, d. 1715, aged 55* 

OrUmdi. ii. 532,— iii. 309. 

Cristofora, or Ambiogio, hia fiither, iL 532. 

LelU, Ercole, a Bolognese, d. 1766. Guida di Bologwu iU. 155. 
*-^ Gio. Antonio, a Roman, d. 1640, aged 49. Baglione. i. 470. 
Lenardi, Gio. Batista, a scbolar of Pietro da Cortona. Gtdda di AmcoIu 

Or of. Baldif whom he sumved. PaaeoU, i. 496. 
Lendinara, da, Lannzo Canozio, d. ahout 1477. Guida di Padova. 

u. 116, 126. 
— . CristoforQ, hiis brother, and Fierantonio, his son-in.law, ii. 126. 

Leone, da, Giovamii, a scholar of Giulio Romano. Vamri, ii. 334. 
Leon, Carlo, di Rimiiio, d. 1700. Guida di lUmiHO. iL 264. 

Gio. da Carpi, b. 1639, d. 1727. Tirabotchi, ii. 369. 

<— (dai,) Girolamo, of Fiacenza, lived aboat 1580. Orkmdi. ii. 413. 
Levo, Domenieo, a Veronese, lived in 1718. Pozzo, iL 318. 
Lianori, Pietro, a Bolognese, his notices from 1415 to 1453. Mahana 

iii. 15. 
Liberale, da, Verona, d. 1536, aged 85. Vasari, iL 120. 

.. Genzio, di Udine, lived in 1568. Vasari, Ridolfi calls him 

Gennesio ; RenaUis, Giorgio or Gemiesio. iL 228. 
liberi, Cav. Pietro» a Padnan, d. 1687, aged 82. Register qf Venice ^ 

cited by Zanetti. ii. 265. 
•—— — Marco, his son, painted in 1681. Guida di Rovigo, ii. 266. 
Libri, da, Girolamo, a Veronese, d. 1555, aged 83. Vasari. ii. 121. 

Francesco, his father, and his son Francesco, ib, 

Lidno, or Licinio< Cav. Gio. Ant. da Fordenone, called afterwards 

Regillo, and also CuticeUo, — more correctly Cortioellis, — and com- 
monly II Fordenone, d. 1540, aged 56. Jtidolji. Or in 1539. MSS. 

M9timri. u. 147,*-Ui. 197, 240. 
■ Bernardino da Fordenone, perhaps a relative of Gio. Antonio. 

mdolfi. ii. 150. 
Ginlio, pupil and nephew of Gio. Antonio, d. at Augusta, in 



1561. Sandrart. ii. 151. 

■ Gio. Antonio, the younger, called also Sacchiense, brother of 



Giulio, d. at Como in 1576. Bendldis, ib, 
Ligorio, Firro, a Neapolitan, d. about 1580. OrlandL i. 405, — ii. 27. 
ligozzi, Jaoopo, a Veronese, b. 1543, d. 1627. Roy, Gall, qf P^rmce. 

i. 229,— u. 208. 



Ba>BX. 387 

Ligozzii Gio, ErmaxmO) perhapt of tlie fame ikmily ; hia fkther aooord- 

ing to the Elogie de' Pittori, i. 229,— ii. 209. 
Lilio, or LilHo, Andrea, of Anoona, d. at Aacolit in 1610, aged 55. 

Coluedr vol. yiii. Called also Andrea Anconitano, which may correct 

the error of the Dizumario degli Uomitd illmtri di Anetmat which 

exhibits him as two painten. y. Gd/., vol. xzvii. i. 446. 
linaiuolo, Berto, a Florentine, lived in the fifteenth eentury. Vatari, 

i. 80. 
Idone, di, Andrea, a Neapolitan, b. 1596, d. about 1675. Qrlandu ii. 51. 
Lioni, Cav. Ottavio, a Padnan by^ birth, b. at Rome, and there called 

n Padovanino, d. in the pontificate of Urban VIII., aged 52. 

Baglione, i. 478. 
Idpari, Onofrio, a Sicilian painter of this age. MS. U. 64. 
Idppi, F. Filippo, a Florentine, b. about 1400, d. 1469. BMimusei. i. 79. 
~— — Filippino, a Florentine, d. 1505, aged 46. Vmarik i. 88. 
' " '■ Giacomo, called Giacomone da Budrio, scholar of the Caracd. 

Malvasia. iii. 128. 
-^— Lorenso, a Florentine, b. 1606, d. 1664. Bc/dMwen. i. 225. 
Idppo, a Florentine, fiourished about 1410. Vomrt. i. 66. 

— di, Andrea, of Pisa, living in 1336. Dinono au la Sioria Lei* 
terttria di Pisa, i. 72. 

Lissandrino, see Magnasco. 

Litterini, Agostino, a Venetian, b. 1642, living in 1727. Melehiari, 

ii. 256. 
• Bartolommeo, his son, b. 1669, living in 1727. MehMori, ib. 

Caterina, his daughter, b. 1675, living in 1727. Meiehiori, ib, 

Lizini, Giulio, a Bx>man. ZanetH. I believe him to be the same with 
Giulio licinio. He is termed a- Roman, peihaps, as a snmame ac- 
quired by his long residence in Rome. RmuiUUs, He painted at 
Venice in 1556. ZanetH. ii. 151. 

LocateUi, Giacomo, a Veronese, d. 1628, aged 48. Pozxo. ii. 278. 

Lodi,'Ermenigildo, a Cremoneie, painted in 1616. Zaiai. ii. 447. 

— Manfiredo, his brother. A painting at S-. AgoaliBO with hu name, 
executed in 1601. OreMt, Mem. ib. 

Lodi, Carlo, a Bolognese, b. 1701, d. 1765. CreepL iii. 172. 
^— da, Albertino, painted about 1460. Lomazzo, ii. 464. 

Callisto Piazza, his notices from 1524 up to 1556. JITS', ii. 188. 

LoU, Lorenzo, a Bolognese, cdled Lorenzino del Sig. . Guide Reni. 
Malvana. d. 5th April, 1691. OreiH, JAm. iii. 102. 

2 2 



28S INDEX. 

LolmOt Gio. PaolOi a Bergames^, d. 1593. Pasta, Or more correetif 

in 1595. CaM and Tasri. ii. 281. 
Lomazzo, Gio. Ftoloi a Milanese, b. 1538. N, Guida di Wlano,, 

d. 1600. M8. ii. 500. 
LombardeUi, see Delia Marca. 
Lombardi, Gio. DomenicOt a Lucchese, called L'Omino^b. 1682, d. 1752. 

Flor, Die, i. 259. 
Lombardo, Biagio, a Venetian, living in 1648. Bidolfi. ii. 287. 
'■ Ginlio Cesare, flourished towards the end of the sixteenth 

century. Zanetti. ii. 291. See also Lamberto Lombardo. 
LomellinOi Valentino, da Raconigi, flourished in 1561. MS, iii. 294. 
Lomi, Alessandro and Mancini Bartolommeo, copyists of Dolci. Baldi' 

nueci, i. 228. 

Bacdo, a Fisan, living in 1585. Da Morrona, i. 206. 

— » Aurelio, a nephew of the preceding, d. 1622, aged 66. Morrona. 

According to Cav. Titi he lived to his eighUeth year. i. 231, — ^iii. 254. 
-~— Orazio and Artemisia, see Gentileschi. 
Londonio, Francesco, a Milanese, b. 1723, living in 1763. OretHf Mem.^ 

vmtten by himself, ii. 538. 
Longe, la, Uberto, or Roberto, called H FiammingOt b. at Brussels^ 

d. 1709, at Piacenza. Guida di Piaeenza, where it is written Da Longe. 

u. 453. 
Longhi, Luca, da Ravenna. Vasari, d. 12th August, 1580, aged 73.. 

Carrari Orazionef &c. iii. 55. 
Francesco, his son, living with his sister, 1581. Orazione detta. 

MS, ib, 
^— Barbara, daughter of Luca. ib, 

Pietro, a Venetian, b. 1702, living in 1762. Mess. Longhi. 



Pietro Longo, or De' LungU, was pupil to Paul Veronese. ZanetH, 

ii. 310. 
Lopez, called Gaspero da' Fiori, a Neapolitan, d. at Florence about 1732» 

Dominici. Or at Venice. Catalogo Algarotti, i. 238, — ii. 318. 
Lorenese, Claudio, see Gell^. 
Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, a Sienese. His works from 1330 to 1337. Delia 

Valle, d. 1340, aged 83. MS, i. 281. 
called Laurati, Pietro, brother of Ambrogio. His works from. 

1327 to 1342. Delia Valle. Out of Siena, up to 1355. Vasan, i.282.. 
Gio. Batista, a Veronese, painted in 1641. Pozzo, ii. 312. 



Lorenzi, Francesco, a Veronese, d. 1783, aged 64. ii. 314. 



INDEX. SSO 

Lorenzmo da Venezia, schokur of Titum. lUdol/i. iL 170. 

da Bologna, Me Sabbatmi, see Di Guido, see Loli, see Fenno* 

Lorenzo, Don., a monk of Camaldoli, a Florentine, of the school of 

Taddeo Gaddi. BdUlmucci, d. aged 55. Vasari, i. 67. 

— >— — di, Fiorenzo, di Perugia. His notices from 1472 up to 1521. 
Mariotti, i. 341. 

Lorio, Camillo, an Udinese painter of the seventeenth century. Renaldis, 
u, 259. 

Loro, da (in the Florentine district). Carlo, living in 1568. Vasari, 
i. 164. 

Loschi, Jacopo, of Parma. His notices, 1462 and 1488. Jffo, ii. 372. 

Bernardino, of Carpi. His notices from 1495 to 1533. ii. 347. 

Loth, Gio. Carlo, a Bavarian, d. 1698, aged 66. ZanetH^ ii. 256. 

^^ Onofrio, a Neapolitan, d. 1717. Domitnei. ii. 52. 

Loto, Bartolommeo, a Bolognese, pupil of Viola. Malvasia. iii. 133. 

Lotto, Lorenzo, a Bergamese. His notices from 1613 to 1554 and up- 
wards. Tassi, d. old at Loretto. Vasari, Proved to be a Venetian. 
Beltramelli Notizie, &c. ii. 140. 

Loves, see Lys. 

Luca, Santo, a Florentine, lived in the eleventh century. Lami. i. 329. 

di Tom^, a Sienese, pamted in 1367. Delia Valle, i. 285. 

Lucatelli (in most books Locatelli), Pietro, a Roman academician of St. 

Luke, 1690. Orlandi, i. 496,— iii. 318. 

Andrea, a Roman landscape-painter. Catalogo Colomia, i. 496, 

535, 538. 

Lucca, da, Diodato, painted in 1287. MS. i. 37. 

^— (da), Michelangelo, see Anselmi. 

Lucchese, il, see Ricchi. 

Lucchesino, see Testa. 

Lucchetto, see Cambiasi. 

LuffoH, Gio. Mario, a Pesarese, painted before 1680. Guida di Pesaro, 
His works at S. Abate were from 1665 to 1707. OretH, according to 
Church Registers, iii. 105. 

Lugaro, Vincenzio, di Udine, his notices from 1589 to 1619. Renaldis. 
u. 259. 

Luini, Tommaso, a Roman, d. in the pontiiicate of Urban VIII., aged 
35. Baglione. i. 455. 

■ or Lovini, Bernardino, of Luino, in the Lago Maggiore, lived be- 

yond the year 1530. MS. ii. 492. 



390 INPEX. 

Liuni, ETangdistE, his won, lived in 1584. lamazzo, iL 495. 

— — ~ Avielio, another ton, d. 1593, aged 63. Mmi^im, H. 

— • Ginlio CasaMy VabetianQ, a admlar of Gaadenzio. PiMre ^ 

Italia, ii. 499. 

FiatiOf Mr Gaoochi. 

Lunghi, Antonio, a Bolognese, d. 1757. Gtdda di Bologna, iii. 150. 
hnHf Car. Banedetto, b. 1666, at Florenoe, d. 1724. Paaeoii. i. 250« 

498. 
Lnzio, a Boman, a aofaolar of Perino, painted at<3enoa, aiboiit 1530. See 

Vatari. i. 404,— iii. 240. 
Lnzzo, Pietro, da Fdtre, rappoied identical with Morto da Fdtro, in 

Vatari, CaUad also Zanto, and more tralf, by Gciii5rMeet., Zarotto. 

Painted at hia nattre place, in tiie loggia belonging to 6. Stslbno, in 

1519. Cambrucei. ii. 136. See Da Feltro. 
— — — Lorenzo, da Feltre, painted at his native plaoe, in S. Stefimo, in 

1511. Ggmbrueei. iL 137. 
Lji, Gio., called Fkn of Oldenborgh, d. 1626. Samdrart, In the short 

Caialogue of the pamtinge of 8t, Peter in Voile di JPime (1781), he is 
^ termed Gio. Loves, ii. 257. 

M. 

Macchi, Florio and Gio. Batiste, Bolognese pupils of the Caracci. 

Malvasia, Oretti^ in the Memorie, says of the second, that he died 

24th November, 1628. iii. 128. 
Maocfaietti, Girolamo, a Florentine, called Del Crodfissaio, b. about 1541i 

tiving in 1564. Vatari, i. 198. 
Macerate, da, Giuseppino, living in 1630. MS. i. 466. 
Macrino, d' Alba, or Gio. Giacomo Fava, his notices from 1496 to 1508. 

Co, Durando. iii. 293. 
Mademo, da Como, flourished about 1700. MS, ii. 538. 
Madiona, Ant., a Syracusan, d. 1719, aged 69. Hakeri, ii. 44. 
Madonna, delle, Carlo, tee Maratte, tee Lippo, tee Dalmasio, tee Da 

Bologna. 
Madonnina, Franc., a Modenese of the sixteenth century. Ttrobotcfd. 

u. 355. 
Maestri, Rocco, a pupil of Padovanino. Guida di Venezia dello Zanetti. 

u. 264. 
Mafl'ei, Jac., a Venetian, lived in 1663. Guida di Rovigo, ii. 287. 



INDEX. 891 

Maffei, Franc, diVicenza^d. in Padua, 1660. Chrida tU Pmiova, ii.241, 

269. 
Magagnolo, a painter and writer of the fifteenlh ceotnrj, a Modenese. 

Tirabotchi. ii. 346. 
Maganza, Gio. Batista, called Magagnb di Vioenza, b. 1509, d. 1589. 

Orlandi, ii. 179. 

Alesnndro, hig aon, b. 1556, d. 1630. Bido^, ii. 268. 

Gio. Batista, son of Alessandro, d. 1617, aged 40. Bida^. 

u. 269. 
other sons, ib. 



Magatta, or Domenico Simonetti, of Ancoiia, an artiat of Has age. M8. 

i. 524. 
Magatti, Pietro, di Vareae, flourished about 1770. M8. ii. 534. 
Maggi, Pietro, a Milanese, pupil of Abbiati. MS, ii. 529. 
Maggieri (i^ a picture of S. Agostino, at C. di CasteUo, written Mae* 

eerhu)f Cesare, of Urbino, d. 1629. Lazxari. i. 450. 
— — Basilio, a portrait-painter. Lazxttn, ib, 
Maggiotto, Domenico, a Venetian, d. old in 1794. MS, ii. 301. 
Magistris, de, Simone, da Caldarola, painted in 1585. MS. i. 431. 
Magnani, Cristoforo, di Pizzichettone, lived about 1580. Zaist. ii. 444. 
Magnasco, Stefimo, a Genoese, d. 1665, aged aboat 30. BatH, iii. 286. 
— Alessandro, his .son, called Ltaaandfino, b. 1681, d. 1747. 

RaUi, ii. 537,— 4ii. 286. 
Maia, Gio. Stefano, a Genoese, d. 1747, aged 75. BaUL m, 285. 
Maiano, da, in the Florentine state, Benedetto, d. 1498, aged 54. V0Mn, 

u. 126. 
Mainardi, Andrea, called II Chiaveghino, of Cremona, fia notifies from 

1590 to 1613. SMH. ii. 442, 449. 
' Marcantonio, his nephew, one of his works at Castel Buttano 

in the Cremonese bears date 1629. BarMi nid OretH, ii. 442, 444. 
— — — Bastiano, a Florentine scholar of Domenico del Gfairlandaio. 



VoMri, i. 90. 

Lattanzio, a Bolognese, d. in the pontificate of Siztns V., aged 



27. BagUone, in. 82. 
Mainero, Gio. Batista, a Genoese, d. 1637. Soprani, iu. 271. 
Maioli, or Maiola, Clemente, a Reman, according to some a Ferrarese, 

scholar of Pietro da Cortona {attadeiia e Guida di M. Mboddo\ or of 

Romandli. GwdadiBoma, iii. 222. 
Malagavazzo, Coriolano, a Cremonese, painted in 1585. ZaiM, ii. 443. 



392 INDEX. 

Malatesta, Me Da Ffttoia. 

Malducci, Mauro, and Fiorentini Francesco, priests of Forli, and scholars 

of Cignani. GttarienH. in. 168. 
Malinconico, Andrea, a Neapolitan, scholar of Stanzioni. Dominici. 

ii. 41. 
Malo, Vincenzo, of Camhray, d. at Rome, aged 45. Soprani, iii. 255. 
Malombra, Pietro, a Venetian, b. 1556, d. 1618. Bidolfi. ii. 242. 
. Malosso, ne Trotti. 
Malpiedi, Domenico, da S. Ginteio, in the Marca, living in 1596. 

Colueci. i. 447. 
— ^ Francesco, di S. Ginesio, of the same epoch. MS, ib, 
Manaigo, Silvestro, a Venetian, a scholar of Lazzarini. Zanetti, ii. 298. 
Mancini, Annibale, named in the Gall, del Marino, liyed about 1610. 

iii. 304. 
— - Francesco, of S. Angelo in Vado, an academician of St. Luke in 

1725, d. 1758. MS, i. 509. 
Manenti, Vincenzio, of Sabina, d. 1674, aged 74. Orlandi, i. 459. 
Manetti, Rutilio, a Sienese, b. 1571, d. 1637. J2oy. Gall, of Florence, 

i. 317. 
Manfredi, Bartolommeo, of Mantua, d. young in the pontificate of Paul 

V. Baglitme, i. 453. 
Manglard, Adriano, a Frenchman, b. 1688, d. 1761. Flor, Die, i. 537. 
Mannini, Jacopo, a Bolognese, b. 1646, d. 1732. Zanotti. iii. 175. 
Mannozzi, 9ee Da S. Giovanni. 

Mansueti, Gio., a Venetian, painted at Trevigi in 1500. MS, ii. 105. 
Mantegna, Cav. Andrea, a Paduan, b. 1430, d. 1506. Guida di Padova. 
i. 107, 108, 116, 334,— ii. 114, 326. 

Francesco, and another son who survived their father. Belli'- 

nelli, Arti Mantovane, ii. 328. 

del, Carlo, a Lombard, painted at Genoa about 1514. Soprani, 



ii. 329,— iii. 236. 
Mantovano, CamiQo, lived about 1540. Vasari, ii. 336. 
— ~-~ — Franc, living in 1663. Guida di Rovigo. ii. 289. 
■ — Gio. Batista, or Gio. Batista Briziano, scholar' of Giulio. 

Vaaari, ii. 337. 

Diana, his daughter, called Diana Mantovana, Vasari, Her 



name is signed, Diana Civia Volterrana ; painted in 1575. Botlari, ib. 

Rinaldo, scholar of Giulio, d. young. Vasari, il. 334. 

— Teodoro, see Ghigi. 



. INDEX. 393 

MantovanOy Giorgio, see Ghisi. 

Manzini, Raimondo, a Bolognese, b. 1668, d. 1744. Creapi, iii. 174. 

Manzoni, Bidolfo, of Castdfranco. b. 1675, d. 1743. M8. ii. 319. 

— of Faenza, d. young, iii. 131. 

Manzuoli, or di S. Friano Maso, a Florentine, b. 1536, d. 1575 Roy, 

GalL qf Florence, i. 199. 
Marasca, Jacopino, a Cremonese, lived in 1430. Zaist. ii. 421. 
Maratta, Cav. Carlo, called Carlo delle Madonne, b. in Camurano of 

Ancona, 1625, d. 1713. PmcoU. i. 175, 494, 502. 
' M. Maratta, his daughter, i. 504. 

Marca, della, Gio. Batista Lombardelli, called also Montano of Monte- 

novo, d. about 1587, aged 55. Oriandi. i. 419. 
' Lattanzio, of the Pagani family, b. at Monterubbiano, called also 

Lattanzio da Rimino, lived in 1553. Marioiti. i. 350, — ^iii. 28. 
Marcantonio, da Bologna, see Raimondi. 

Marchelli, Rolando, a Genoese, b. 1664, d. 1751. Raiti. iii. 278. 
Marchesi, Gioseffo, called II Sansone, a Bolognese, d. 1771. Guida di 
Bologna, Orb. 30th July, 1699, d. 16th February, 1771. Orettij 
Mentor, iii. 152. 
—— — * or Zaganelli, see Da Cotignola. 

Marchesini, Alessandro, a Veronese, b. 1664, d. 1733. Guarienti. Or 
1738, aged 74. Zanetti. Or b. 1665, d. 27th January, 1738. Oreiti, 
Mem. ii. 308. 
Marchetti, Marco, da Faenza, d. in the pontificate of Gregory XIII. 

Baglione. Or 1588. Cart. Oretti. i. 432,->iu. 62. 
Marchioni, la, di Rovigo, painted towards 1700. Gtdda di Roviffo. 

ii. 289. 
Marchis, de, Alessio, of the kingdom of Naples, flourished about 1710. 

MS. i. 536. 
MarciUa, da, Guglielmo, d. 1537, at Arezzo, aged 62. Vasari. i. 171. 
Marcola, Marco, a Veronese, d. 1790, aged 62. ii. 314. 
Marconi, Marco, di Como, lived about 1500. MS. ii. 476. 
— RoGCO, Trevigiano, painted in 1505. MS. ii. 145. 
Marcucci, Agostino, a Sienese of the school of the Caracci. Malvasia. 

i. 309. 
Mareni, Gio. Ant., scholar of Baciocio. Guida di Torino, iii. 312. 
Marescalco, il, see Buonconsigli. 

— — — • — Pietro, birth-place uncertain, a painter of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. MS. ii. 120. 



894 INDEX. 

Marescotti, Bartolommeo, a Bolognesei d. 1630. Cfuida di Bologna* 

iU. 102. 
Mai^garitone, d'Arezso, d. after 1289, Bg«d 77. Vaiori, i. 37. 
Mari, Alessandro, of Turin, b. 16&0, d. at Madrid, 1707. Orlandi. 

iu. 312. 

Antonio, of Tarin. N. Guida di Tbrmo. ib. Note that Co. 

Durando Villa, p. 51, believes that Alesnandro and Antonio Mari are 
the same painter. 

Maria, de, Cav. Ercole, a Bolognese, called ErcoHno di Gkiido, d. yoang 
about the time of Urban VIII. MtUffotia. iii. 99. 

- di Francesco, a Neapolitan, b. 1623, d. 1690. Dominici, ii. 45. 
Mariani, Camillo, b. of Sienese fatiier in Vioenza, d. 1611, aged 46. 

Baglitme. i. 309. 
■ Domenico, a Milanese, floarished in the serenteenth century. 

Orlandi, ii. 536. 
— ^- Gioseffo, son of Domenico, living in 1718. Orlandi. ib. 
— — Gio. Maria, of Aacoli, a companion of Valerio Castello. Soprani. 



iii. 259. 
Marieschi, Jacopo, a Venetian, scholar of Diziani, b. 1711, d. 1794. 

MS. ii. 318. 
Marinari, Onorio, a Fknentine, b. 1627, d. 1715. R. Gall, of Flor. 

i. 228. 
Marinelli, Girol. d' Assisi, painted in 1630. Detcriz. di 8. J^iiumc. di 

Perugia, u 461. 
Marinetti, Antomo, called II Chioanotto, sdiolar of Piazzetta. MS.. 

U. 301. 
Marini, Antonio, a Paduan, flourished about 1700. Gvida di Padova. 

ii. 315. 
' Benedetto, of Urbino, painted in 1625. Guida di Piaeenza. i. 450, 

— ii. 232, 
-— Gio. Antonio, a Venfltiaa moflaic.iWorker, scholar of Bozza. 

Zanetti. iL 232. 
N. da S. Severino, fioniished about 1700. MS. i. 524. 



Mariotti, Gio. Batista, a Venetian, d. about 1765. Guida di Padow. 

ii. 310. 
Marliano, Andrea, a Pavese, scholar of Bernardino Campi. Lamo. 

ii. 511. 
Marmitta, Francesco, of Parma. His notices in 1494 and 1506. Affh. 

ii. 372. 



INDEX. 395 

MaroU, Domenko^ a Messinese, {Boseb, HaierL) b. 1612, d. 1676. 

ii. 43, 290. 
Marone, Jacopo, di Alessandria, j)amted at Savona in the fifteenth century. 

Guida di Genova, iii. 234. 
Marracd, Gio., a Lnodiese, b. 1637, d. 1704. OrUmdi, i. 258. 

" ' ■ IppolttOy hifl younger brother. Oriandu i. 261. 
Martelli, Lorenzo and Baldini Taddeo, Florentine copyists and imitators 

of SalTator Roia. Baidinueei, i. 238. 
Martinelli, Gio., a Florentine, Uy^ towards the middle of the serenteentii 

century. JIfS'. i. 219. 

■ — Laca and Ginlio, scholars of Jacopo Bassano. Fern. ii. 204. 
Martini, Gio., of Udine, sdiolar of Gio. Bdlini, his paintings of 1501 and 

1507. Renaldis, In the Registers of the school of S. Cristoforo at 

Udine, the person who made its GonftJone, or banner, is called Gio. di 

Martino, and there are accounts of this painter up to 1515. MS, 

ii. 111. 
■ Innooenzio, .of Parma, lived in the sixteenth century. AfO' 

u. 408. 
Martino, di, Bartolommeo, aSieoese, painted in 1405. DtUa VdUe, i. 284. 
Martinotti, Evangelista, di Casalmonferrato, d. 1694, aged 60. OrknuH, 

iii. 312. 
Martis, or Martini, Ottayiano, da Gubbio, matncokted at Perugia in 1400, 

living in 1444« MarioUi. i. 338. 
Martorana, Giovacchino, a Sicilian, lived in the eighteenth eentury. MS. 

ii. 64. 
Martoriello, Gaetano, a Neiq>oliten, d. 1723, aged about 50. DomrnUn. 

U. 65. 
Marucelli, or Mamsoelii, Gio. Ste&oo, a Florentine, or of Umbria, b. 

1586, d. 1646. Baldmueei. Or d. 1656, aged 72. Spitafh yreno 
r Oretii. i. 197. 

Valerio, scholar of Santi Titi. tb. 

Marullo, Giuseppe, of Casale d' Orta, d. 1685. Donamei. ii. 40. 
Marzi, by others Mazzi, Ventura, of Urbino, supposed pupil of Barocci. 

Lazzari, i. 449. 
Karziale, Marco, a Venetian painter in 1488 and 1506. MS. ii. 107. 
Masaocio, di S. Giovanni, in the Florentine state, b. 1401, d. 1443. 

Baldmueei, i. 75. 
Mascagni, Donato, a Florentine, called afterwards F. Arsenio, b. 1579, 
d. 1636. JBaldinucei. i. 230. 



^96 INDEX. 

Mascherini, Ottaviano, a Bolognese, d. in the pontificate of Panl V., 

aged 82. Malvasia, i. 439. 
Maaini, Giuaeppei his work of 1658, i. 239. 
Masolino, see Panicale. 

Massa, D. Gio., da Carpi, d. 1741, almost 80. Tirabosehu ii. 369. 
Massari, Lucio, a Bolof^ese, b. 1569, d. 1633. Malvasia. iii. 123. 
Massaro, Nicola, a Neapolitan, d. 1704. JDominid. ii. 65. 
Massarotti, Angelo, a Cremonese, d. 1723, aged68< Zaist. ii. 452. 
Massei, Girolamo, a Lucchese, d. in the pontificate of Paul V., aged 80. 

Baglione. i. 206, 417. 
Maasi, D. Ant. da Jesi, flonrished about 1580. Colucci, vol. x. i. 431. 
Massone, Gio., of Alessandria, painted at Savona in 1490. Guida di 

Genova, iii. 234. 
MasteUetta, or Gio. Andrea Dondncci, a Bolognese, b. 1575, scholar of 

the Caracci. Malvasia, d. 25th April, 1655. Oretti, Mem. iii. 126. 
Mastroleo, Giuseppe, a Neapolitan, b. 1744. DonUnici. ii. 60. 
Masturzo, Marzio, a Neapolitan, scholar of Rosa. Dominici. n, 51. 
Masucci, Agostino, an academician of St. Luke in 1724. MS. d. 1758. 

aged 67. His Bpitaph at Borne. MS. i. 506. 
— — — ' Lorenzo, his son, i 507. 

Matham, Teodoro, of Haarlem, lived in 1663. Orlandi. iii. 309. 
Mattei, Silvestro, of Asooli, d. 1739, aged 86. Guida di Aseoli. i. 509. 
Matteis, de, Paolo, a Neapolitan, b. 1662, d. 1728. Dominici. ii. 59. 
Matthieu, Baldassare, of Anvers, painted at Turin in 1656. MS. iii. 307. 
Mattioli, Girolamo, a Bolognese, lived in 1577. Malvasia. iii. 44. 
Matttrino,ofFlorence,d. about 1528. Vasari. i. 396. 
Mayno, Giulio, of Asti, his notices from 1608 to 1627. MS. iii. 303. 
Mazza, Damiano, a Paduan, scholar of Titian. Xidolfi. ii. 177. 
Mazzanti, Cav. Lodovico, of Orvieto, sc^iolar of Baciccio. Ratii. Living 

in 17C0. MS. i. 516. 
Mazzaforte, di, Pietro, his work of 1461. Civalli. i. 340. 
Mazzaroppi, Marco, of S. Germano, painted in 1590, d. 1620. Dominici. 

ii. 28. 
Mazzelli, Gio. Marco, of Carpi, living in 1709. Tirabosehi. ii. 369. 
Mazzi, see Marzi. 

. Mazzieri, Antonio, a Florentine, scholar of Franciabigio. Vasari. i. 165. 
Mazzolini, Lodov., a Ferrarese, d. about 1530, aged 49. Baruffaidi, 

iii. 193. 
Mazzoni, or Morzoni, see Morazzone. 



I 

INDEX. 397 

Mazzoniy Cesare, a Bolognese, b. 1678, d. 1763. Crespt, iii. 150. 

— Giulio, of Piacenza, living in 1568. Vasari. ii. 409. 

Cav. Guidoy called also Paganiniand II Modanino, of Modena, 

painted in 1484, d. 1518. Tiraboschi. ii. 348. 
Sebastiano, a Florentine, d. about 1685. Guarienti, ii. 249. 



Mazzuchelli, gee Morazzone. 

Mazzuoli, Annibale, of Siena, d. at an advanced age in 1743. D, Valle. 

i. 320. 
(Vasari) written by others Mazzuolaand Mazzola, Pierilarioi^ 

of Parma, painted in 1533. 4fb. ii. 373. 
' Michele, his brother. .Affb, ib. 

—^ Filippo, another brother, d. 1505. AJfo, ib. 

Francesco, his son, called Parmigianino, and by LomazzOf D 



Mazzolino, b. 1503. Affb. Or 1504. Marieite, Descrip, d. 1540. 
Vatari. ii. 402. 

Girolamo, cousin of Franc, living in 1580. Ratti, ii. 406. 

Alessandro, son of Girolamo, d. 1608. A^, ii. 407. 

Filippo, see Bastaruolo. 



— Mecherino, see Beccafiimi. 



Meda, Carlo, a Milanese, flourished about 1590. Orlandi, ii. 511. 

Giuseppe, a Milanese, living in 1595. Morigi, ib. 

Medola, see Schiavone. 

Meglio, di, supposed the same as Coppi. 

Mehus, Livio, of Oudenard, in Flanders, b. 1630, d. 1691. R. Gall. i. 246. 

Mei, Bernardino, a Sienese, his works of 1636 and 1653. D. Valle^ 

i. 317. 
Melani, Cav. Giaseppe, a Pisan, d. 1747. Momma, i. 258. 

Francesco, his brother, d. 1742. Morrona. i. 260. 

Melchiori, Melchiore, di Castelfranco, father of the historian, b. 1641, d. 

1686. Melchiori. ii. 271. 
Melchiorri, Gio. Paolo, a Roman, b. 1664, Uving in 1718. Orlandi, 

I. 506. 
Melissi, Agostino, a Florentine, painted in 1675. Baldinueei. i. 214. 
Melone, Altobello, a Cremonese, painted about 1497. Vasari. And 

about 1520. Botiari. ii. 423. 
Meloni, Marco, di Carpi, Uved in 1537. Tiraboschi. ii. 347. 
Melozzo, see Da Forli. 
Melzi, Francesco, a Milanese, Uving at an advanced age in 1568. Vasari.. 

ii. 488. . 



398 INDEX. 



Memmi, that is Guglielmi Siraone, a SieoeM, d. 1344. Delki Valle. 

Aged 60. Vasari. i. 55, 278. 
— — -^ lappo (Filippo), a Stenese, a relation of the preceding, living 

in 1361. 7). Voile. L 278. 
Menabuoi, see Padorano. 
Menarola, Cristof., da Vicenza. Guida di Vteenza. Living in 1727. 

MelcMori, ii. 271. 
MeDgazzino, see Santi. 
Mengozzi, Colonna, or Colonna Mengozzi, Girolamo, a Ferrarese, 

native of Tivoli, and academician- of Venice ; hia memoriala tiiere 

commence before 1733, and continue up to 1766, when he attained 

his 78th year. Zanetti. iii. 226. 
Mengs, Cav. Ant. RaffiiettOy b. in Ansaig. 1728, d. 1779. Cav, Azara, 

i. 525, 532. 
Mengucci, Gianfrancesco, da Pesaro, a scholar of Lanfranc. Mahasia, 

i. 462,— iii. 116. 

. Domenico, u landscape-painter, floniiahed abont 1660. Mai- 

vasia, iii. 127. 
Menichino, del, Brizio, see Ambrogi. 
Menini, Lorenzo, a idiolar of Geasi* Mahasia^ ii. 35. 
Menzani, Filippo, a Bolognese, living in 1660. Malvtuia, iii. 99. 
Mera, Pietro, of Flanders, lived in the time of Aliense. J^dolji, ii. 242. 
Merano, Gio. Batista, a Genoese, b. 1632, d. about 1700. Ite^. iii. 260. 
. Francesco, called II Faggio, b. 1619, d. 1657. Soprad, ik, 

Mercati, Gio. Batista, of Citta S. Sepolcro, a painter of tiie seventeenth 

century, i. 255. 
Merli, Gio. Antonio, painted at Novara in 1488. MS, ii. 477. 
Messina, da, Antonello, called by some Antondlo degli Antoni, d. aged 

49. Vasari. Or b. ia 1447, d. 1496. Gallo. On tiie authority of 

a MS. by an artist of Susi who lived at the dose of tiie seventeenth 

century, i. 82, — ^iL 354. His Notices in Venice from about 1470 to 

1478. Zanetii. In Trevigi up to 1490. Ridolfi. ii. 96. 
■ Salvo di Antonio, nephew of AntoneUo, flourished about 1511* 

Haketi. ii. 18.. 

da, P. Feliciano, a Capuchin (before he became a priest. 



called Domenico Guargena), b. 1610. Hak, ii. 53. 
Pino, a scholar of Antonello. Hakert. ii. 96. 



Messinese, see AvellinOt se& GabrieUL 

Metrana, Anna, of Turin, living in 1718. Orlandt. iii. 318. 



iXfDEX. 399 

Mettidoro, Marioito and RaffiMllo, Ftorentinm) lived about 1568. Vaiori. 

i. 166. 
Meucd, Yincenzio, a Florentiiie, b. 1694, d. 1766. R. Gall, i. 253. 
Meyer, or rather Meyerle {Necrologio qf V€rceUi)t Fran. Anton, da 

Praga, d. 1782, aged 72. MS. m. 317. 
Messadri, Anton., a Bologneae, living in 1688. Cfrespi, iiL 134. 
Michela» a painter of perspective. Pittwe d'ltaUa, Flourished about 

1740. iii. 318. 
Michelangeli, Francesco, of Aquila, a scholar of Luti, d. young. Lett. 

Pitt., vol. vi. i. 500. 
Michele, Parrasio, a Venetian, scholar of Paul Veronese. Sido^. ii. 221 
Michelini, Gio. Batista, of Foligno, flourished about 1650. MS. i. 460. 
Michelino, a Milanese, living in 1435. Lomazzo, ii. 462. 
Micheli, tee Andrea Vioentino. 
Micone, Niccolo, a Genoese, called LiO Zoppo (the cripple) of Genoa, 

d. 1730, aged 80. RatH. ii. 286. 
Mid, Cav. Gio., of Antwerp, b. about 1599, d. 1644. Baldinucci. 

i. 488,— iu. 307. 
Miglionico, Andrea, a scholar of Giordano, d. soon after his master. 

jDomtntci. ii. 59. 
Mignard, Nicolas, of Troyes, d. 1668. De Piles. Aged 63. Bardon. 

i. 476. 
— Pietro, his brother, called U Romano. Orlandi. ib. 
Milanese, Guglidmo, or Guglielmo della Porta, a pupil of Perino in design, 

a celebrated sculptor, and brother of Piombo, living in 1658. Fdwart. 

See also Baglione. iii. 240. 
— — il, e Cittadini. 
Milanesi, Filippo and Carlo, painters of the fifteenth century. Lomazzo. 

ii. 468. 
Milani, Giulio Cesare, a Bolognese, b. 1621, d. aged 57. Orlandi. iii. 107. 
Aureliano, his nephew, b. 1675, d. 1749, at Rome. Crespi. 

iii. 152. 
Milano, da Agostino, scholar of Snardi. Lomazzo. ii. 473. 

• Andrea, living in 1495. Zanetti. ii. 475. 

another Andrea da Milano, see Solari. 

. Francesco, was living in 1540. Federici. ii. 189. 

Gio., painted in 1370. Vasari. i. 67. 

Milocco, Antonio, of Turin, a painter of this age. Pitiure d^Iialia^ 

iiL315. 



400 INDEX. 

Minga, del, Andrea, a FLorentinei was living in 1568. Vatari, i. 198.. 
Mini, Antanio, a Florentine, pupil of Bonarmoti. Vasari, i. 144. 
Miniatd, Bartol., a Florentine, assistant of Rosso. Vasari. i. 163. 
Miniera, Biagio, of Ascoli, d. 1755, aged 58. Ouida diAseoli. i. 509^ 
Minniti, Mario, a Syracusan, b. 1577, d. 1640. Hakert, i. 529. 
Minorello, Franc, di Este, d. 1657, aged 33. Guida di Padova. ii. 267. 
Minozzi, Bernardo, a Bolognese, b. 1699, d. 1769. Guida di Bologna^ 

iii. 172. 
Minzocchi, Franc., called II Vecchio di S. Bernardo, of Forli. Vcuari: 

d. 1574, upwards of 61. Carte Oretti, iii. 56. 

Pietro Paolo, his son, iii. 57. 

■ Sebastiano, another son, his painting of 1593, ib, 

Mio, de, Gio., di Vicenza, perhaps sumamed FraHnOf painted in 1556. 

ZanetH. ii. 179. 
Miozzi, Niccolo and Marcantonio, of Vicenza, lired about 1670. Guida 

di Rovigo, ii. 271. 
Miradoro, Luigi, called H Genoyesino, painted in 1647. Zatst. One of 

his works is at S. Imerio, bearing date 1651. Oretti^ Mem. ii. 451. 
Mirandola, Domenico, a Bolognese, scholar of the Caracci. Mahana. 

Interred at S. Tommaso di Mercato in Bologna, 1612. Oretti^ Mem, 

iii. 129. 
Mirandolese, %ee Paltronieri, %ee Perracini. 
Mireti, Grirolamo, a Paduan, by Vasari called Moretto. His notices, 142^ 

and 1441. MS. ii. 113. 
Miretto, Gio., a Paduan, perhaps brother, or relative of the preceding. 

See Notizia Morelli. ii. 77. 
Miruoli, Girolamo, of Romagna, according to Vasanf or Bologna. 

Masini. d. about 1570. Gnida di Bologna, iii. 41. 
Misciroli, Tommaso, da Faenza, called II Pittor Villano, d. 1699, aged 

63. Orlandi. iu. 131. 
Mitelli, Agostino, b. in the Bolognese m 1609, d. 1660. Crespi. i. 229^ 

—iii. 137, 285. 

Giuseppe, his son, b. 1634, d. 1718. Zanotti. iii. 138. 

Mocetto,Girol., a Venetian, painted in 1484. MS. ii. 107. 
Modanino, il, see Mazzoni. 

Modena, da, Bamaba, painted in 1377. 'Brahosehi. ii. 345,— iii. 292. 
Niccoletto, his engravings from 1500 to 1515. Tirahoschi. 

i. 107,— ii. 346. 
- Pellq;rino, we Munaii 



' INDEX. 401 

Modena, TommasOy painted in 1352. IHrabosehi, i. 84,— ii. 343. 
Modigliana, di, Francesco, di Forli. Guida di JUimnf. Lived about 

1600. iii. 57. 
Modonino, Gio. Batista, d. about 1656. Tiraiogeki. ii. 367. 
Moietta, Yincenzio, da Caravaggio, flourished at Milan about 1500. 

Morigia. ii. 475. 
Mola, Gio. Batista, a Frenchman, a scholar of Albano. Malvana, 

d. 1661, aged 45. Oretti, Register of the Ckieta dOie Lame. iii. 92. 
Pierfrancesco, of the Luganese district, or of the diocese of Como, 

b. 1612, d. 1668. Passen. Orb. at Coldre, 1621, d. 1666. Patcoli, 

and Mmette^ Deeeriz. i . 462, — ii. 535, — iii. 92. 
Molinaretto, see Dalle Piane. 
Molinari, Ant., a Venetian, was employed in 1727. Meleh, ii. 294. 

Gio. Batista, his father, b. 1636. Melchiori. ii. 295. 

■ Gio. di Savigliano, scholar of Beaumont, b. 1721, d. 1793. 

Vemasza. iii. 315. 
Mombasilio, Cav., painted at Turin about 1675. See Pitture d* Italia. 

ui. 309. 
Mombelli, Luca, a Brescian, living in 1553. Orkmdi. ii. 182. 
Mona, or Monna, or Monio, Domenico, a Ferrarese, d. 1602, aged 52. 

Bantfaldi. iii. 210. 
Monaco, delle Isole d' Oro, or d' leres, of the Cib6 fiunily, a Genoese, 

d. 1408t Soprani, iu. 233. 
Monaldi, a scholar of Andrea LucateUi, i. 538. 
Moncalvo, see Caocia. 
Monchino, see Dal Sole. 
Mondini, Fulgenzio, aBolognese, scholar of Guercino, d. young in 1664. 

Guida di Bologna, iii. 111. 
Mone, for Simone, da Pisa, see Del Sordo. 
Moneri, Gio., b. at Visonenear Acqui in 1637, d. 1714. 2>ella Valle. 

iiL306. 

Monosilio, Salvatore, a Messinese, scholar of Cav. Conca. Guida diBoma. 

i. 519. 
Monrealese, il, see Morelli. 
Monsieur Leandro, see Reder, Mons. Rosa, Mons. Spirito, and others, to 

be found under their respective names. 
Monsignori, Francesco, a Veronese, b. 1455, d. 1519. Vasari, ii. 330. 
— F. GiroUmo, a Dominican, his brother, d. aged 60. 

Vasari, ib, 

TOL. III. 2 D 



402 IKDBX. 

Montagus, BaftolommeOy of Vioenza. HiB notiees up to I5Q7. M8* 

i. 107t— iL 118- 
' Benedetto, his brother, flourished about 1500« JBkfo^. In 

the NoHzia Morelli he is considered the son of Bsitolommeo. L 107. 
>M. TdIHo, a BoBMn, pnpil of Peder. Zaecari. BaglUmt «nd 



Orlandu 1.416. 

of H<dl«nd; Okmdese, as he is coonDonly called in. Italy, and 



also M. Bualdo dflUsMontagna* Maharia. d. at Fftdna in 1644. 

M8» McmUimo, woen. by Sig. Brandoieae. i. 486. 
Montagnana, Jacopo, aPadvan, Uving in 1508. VoMorL U. 113. 
Montagne, Niccolb de Plate, of Holland, d. about 1665. JFUttirf . i. 486. 
Montalti, see Danedi. 
Montani, Giosaffb, of Pessfo, lining in 1678. Matoaria. b. 1641. Oretti, 

Mem, iiL106. 
Montanini, Pietro, of Pbngis, d. 1689,. «ged 70. OrioMdi. Pateoli 

would have it, aged 63. i. 536. 
Montano, Me DoDs Bffarca. 

Monte, da, Gio. of Crema, flourished about 1580. MS. ii. 187, 505. 
Montelatid, Franoeaoo, called Cecco Bravo, a PlonmHnfi,. d. 1661. Or« 

landi. I 214. 
Montemezzano, Fran., a Veronese, d. young about 1600.. Bido^ ii. 223. 
MontqrohaanOy U, em MoroanL 

Montevarchi, il, scholar of Pietro Pemgino. Vmari.. L 94. 
Monti, Francesco, a Bologneae, b. 1685, d. 1768. CVeqn. iii. 149. 

■ Eleonora, his daughter, b. 1727. Crupi. iii. 150. 
another Francesco, a Brescian, b. 1646, d. 1712. OrUmdi, 

ii. 287, 414. 

■ Gio. Batista, a Genoese, d. 1657. Soprani, vL 271. 

■ Gio. Giacomo, a Bolognese, b. 1692. Cre^^ iii. 139. 

-'— — — Innoceniio, of Imola, painted from the year 1690. Cretpi, iii. 167. 
de% Antonio, a portrait painter of Gr^ory XIII. Baglione, 



1.431. 

de*, or delle Lodole, tee Franco. 



Monticelli, Angeb Michele, a Bolognese, b. 1678, d. 1749. Creepi, 

m. 172. 
Montorfano, Gio. Donate, a Milanese, painted at the Grasie In 1495. 

N, (htidm di MUano. li. 474. 
MoBverde, Luca, da Udine, scholar of Pellegriao, d. aged 21 , painted in 

1522. Rename, ii. 155. 



INDEX. 403 

Moxiza, da, Nolfo, painted about 1500. ScatmellL ix. 472, 

' Troao. Lomazzo, Employed aboat 1500. MS, ii 476. 
Morandi, Gio. M., a Florentine, b. 1622, d. 1717. PmcoU, t 214, 513. 
Morandini, Francesco, daPoppi, in the Florentine state, b. 1544, lived in 

1568. Vasari. «. 181. 
Morazone, Giacomo, a Lombard, painted in 1441. ZanMiti, ii. 87, 462, 

— iu. 303. 
Morazxone, da, Fierfrancesco MazzucheUi, Cav., d. 1626, aged 55. 

Orlandu u. 518. 
Morelli, Bartolommeo, called from bis native place, H Pianoro, in the 

Bolognese, d. 1603. Cretpu iiL 92. 

" Franceaoo, a Florentine, master of Cav. BagUone. BaglUme, 1. 470. 

Moreno, F. Lorenzo, a Genoese Carmelite, flourished in 1544. Soprani, 

iu. 238. 
Moresini, we Fomari. 

Moreto, Niccolo, a Padnan. Vasari, See Mireti, 
Moretti, Cristoforo, called also BiveUo, a Cremonese. His notices from 
• about 1460. Zaist. ii. 422. 

Moretto, Gioseffo, del Friuli, was employed in 1588. Renaldit, ii. 154. 
' Faustino, di Valcamonica in the Brescian territory, a painter of 

the aerenteenth century. Orlandi, ii. 291. 

■ ■ da Brescia, see Bonyicino. 



Morigi, see Caravaggio. 

Molina (by mistake of Marini called Maina. Gall,), Giulio, a Bolognese, 

pupil of Sabbatini. Malvasia, ill. 44. 
Morinello, Andrea, of Val di Bisagno (in the^ Genoese), painted in 1516. 

Soprani, iiu 238, 
Morini, Gio., oflmola, was living in 1769. Crespi, ill. 165. 
Moro, il, gee Torbido. 
del, Batista, or Batista d'Angelo, a Veronese, living in 1568. Vasari, 

11. 209. 
^^ Marco, son of Batista, flourished about 1560, d. young. Pozzo, 

ii. 210. 
^—- Giulio, brother of Batista. Zanetti, ib, 

del, Lorenzo, a Florentine, living in 1718. Orlandi. i. 238, 239. 

Morone, Domenico, a Veronese, b. 1430, d. about 1500. Vasari, ii. 120. 

. Francesco, his son, deceased in 1529, aged 55. Vasari, ii. 121. 

Moroni, Gio. Bat., of Albino in the Bergamese. His notices fi*om 1557* 

d. 1578. Tassi, ii. 182. 

2d2 



404 INDEX. 

Moroni, Pietro, a descendant of Gio. Batista, d. about 1625. OrkmeU. In 
the Guida di Brescia, and in the Carte Antiche by Zamboni, he is 
called Marone Bresciano. ii. 279. 
Morosini, Francesco, colled II Montepulciano, a scholar of Fidani. 

Baldinucci, i. 231. 
Monrillo, see II Bruno. 

Mosca, N., an imitator of Raffaello. MS, i. 402. 
Moscatidlo, Carlo, a Neapolitan, d. 1739, aged 84. Dominici, ii. 57,66. 
Motta, Raffaello, called Raffaellino da Reggio, b. 1550, d. 1578. Tira- 

boschi. i. 417, 419,— ii. 358. 
Muccioli, Bartolommeo, da Fejrrara, father of 

Benedetto, who painted at Urbino in 1492, after his father's 

death. Laz. i. 337. 

Mugnoz, Sebastiano, a Spaniard, scholar of Maratta, d. 1690, aged 36. 

Gnarienti , who by mistake terms him Murenos. See Lett, Pittor. 

vol. vi. p. 322. i. 522. 

Mailer, or DeMulieribus, Cay. Pietro, called II Tempesta, b. at Haarlem, 

1637, d. 1701. Pascoli, i. 485. 
Mulinari, or Mollineri, called II Caraccino, Gio. Ant. da Savigliano iir 

Piedmont, b. 1577, d. about 1640. Co, Durando, iii. 304. 
Munariy Pellegrino, called also Aretusi, and commonly Pellegrino da 

Modena, employed m 1509, d. 1523. Tiraboschi. i. 397,— ii. 350. 
Monari, Giovanni, his father and master. Tiraboschi. ii. 346. 
Mura, de, Francesco, a Neapolitan, living in 1743. Dominici, u, 62. 
Murano, da, Andrea. He has an altar-piece at Mussorense, bearing date 

1502. Verci. ii. 81. 
■ Bernardino, a painter of the fifteenth century. Zanettt. ib, 

— — Quirico, a painter of the same century. MS. ib. 

NataUno, a scholar of Titian. Bidolfi, Was employed in 1558.. 

MS, ii. 170. 
Muratori, Domenico Maria, a Bolognese, b. 1662, d. 1749. Letter from, 

his son in Oretti, i. 509, — iii. 152. 
— — negli Scannabecchi Teresa, a Bolognese, b. 1662, d. 1708. 

Crespi, iii. 149. 
Musso, Niccolo, of Casalmonferrato, Uving in 1618. Pittur^e d* Italia^ 

m, 301. 
Mustacchiy il, see Revello. 

Mutii. or Mucd, Gio., of Cento, a nephew of Guercino. Crespi, MSi 
iii. 113. 



INDEX. 405 

Mato di Ficarolo, see Sard : di Verona, see Comi. 

Muttoni, see Yecchia. 

Muziano, Girolamo, b. at Acquafredda in the Brescian territory, 1528, 

d. 1590. Ridolfi, Or rather 1592. Galletti, Inscrip. Rom, i. 417, 

542,— ii. 184. 

N. 

NagU, FrancescOi called II Centino, scholar of Quercino. Guida di Rimini, 

iii. 113. 
Naldini, Batista, a Florentine, b. 1537. Orlandi. Living in 1590. MS, 

i. 195. 
Nani, Giacomo, a Neapolitan, scholar of Belvidere. Vominici, ii. 52. 
Nannetti, Niccola, a Florentine, b. 1675, d. 1749. Roy, Gall, ofMorence, 

i. 252. 
Nanni, Girolamo, a Roman, called II Poco e Baono (Little and Good), 

living in 1642. Baglione. i. 424. 
— or Nani, see Da Udine. 

Nannoccio, a scholar of Andrea del Sarto. Vasari, i. 161. 
Napoli, di, Cesare, a Messinese, flourished about 1583. Hakert, ii. 21. 
Napolitano, il, see W Angeli. 
Nappi, Francesco, a Milanese, d. in the pontificate of Urban VIII., aged 

65. Baglione, ii. 518. 
Nardini, D. Tommaso, of Ascoli, d. about 1718, aged 60. Guida dt 

Ascoli, i, 508. 

Naselli, Francesco, a Ferrarese, d. about 1630. Baruffaldi. iii. 218. 

———-Alessandro, supposed son of Francesco. MS, Crespi, iii. 219, 
221. 

Nasini, Cav. Giuseppe, b. in the Sienese, in 1664, d. 1736. Delia Valle. 

i. 321. 
' Cav. ApoUonio, a clerk, his son, b. 1697, at Florence. Delia 

Valle, d. about 1754. MS. ib, 

D. Antonio, a brother of Giuseppe, d. 1716. Roy, Gall, of 



Flor, ib, 
Nasocchio, Giuseppe, da Bassano, painted in the style of the fifteenth 

century ; left a work with date 1529. I call him the elder, to distin- 
. guish him from Francesco and Bartolommeo, who lived in 1541. Verci, 

ii. 85. 
Natali, Carlo, a Cremonese, called Guardolino, b. about 1590. Living 

in 1683. ZaiMt, ii. 449. 



406 INDEX. 

Nataliy Gio. Batista, his son, painted in 1657, d. towards 1700. Zaui, 

ii. 450. 

' Oinseppe, di Casal Maggiore, in the Cremonese,b. 1652, d. 1722. 

Zaist, ii. 454. 

Francesco, his brother, d. about 1723. Zaitt. ii. 455. 

■ Pietro and Lorenzo, their brothers, ib. 
— • Gio. Batista, son of Giuseppe, d. young. ZaUt. ib, 
■ Gio. Batista, son of Franceioo. Zaiti, ib. 



Natoire, Charles, a Frenchman, b. 1698, d. 1777. Boy* Gall, f^ Jflor. 

i«521. 
Naudi, Antonio, an Italian, scholar of Paul Veronese. Palomino, iL 222, 
Nazzari, Bartolommeo, a Bergamese^ b. 1699, d. 1758. Zbiri* ii. 3QT, 
Nebbia, Cesare, of Orvieto, d. in the pontificate of Panl V., aged 78. 

Baglione, living in 1592. OretH, Mem. i. 418, — ^ii. 517. 
Nebea, or Nebbia, Galeotto, of the territory of Alessandria, painfeed at 

Genoa about 1480. Guida di Genova, iii. 234* 
Negri, Pietro, a Venetian, painted in 1679. JMt, Piti, toL It. ii. 294. 

Gio. Francesco, a Bolognese, b. 1648, Uving in 1718. Qrkmdi. 

iii. 134. 
-— — or Neri, Pietro Martire, a Cremoneae, floorished about 1600. 

Zaist, ii. 449. 
Negrone, Pietro, a Calabrese, d. about 1565, aged 60. Xhmudd, iL 29. 
Nelll, Pietro, flourished at Rome the bsginning of the eightieenth centmy. 
MS. i. 153, 514. 

Suor. Plautella, a nun of St. Catherine,' at Florenoe, d. 1588, aged 

65. MS. i, 153. 
Nello, Bernardo di Gio. Falconi, a Pisan, flourished about 1390. Morrona, 

i. 64. 
Neri, Gio., a Bolognese, living in 1575. Matini. iii. 52. 
—^ Nello, a Pisan, painted in 1299. Morrotui, i. 71. 
Nerito, Jacopo, da Padova, scholar of Gentfle da Fabriaao. MS. ii. 85. 
Nero, del. Durante, da Borgo S. Sepolcroi, painted in 1560. Fowri. 

i. 203. 
Nerocdo, a Sienese, painted about 1483. JD. Valle. i. 291. 
Neroni, Bartolommeo, see II Riccio. 

Nervesa, Gaspare, del Friuli, of the sdiool of Titian. Mido^ Ii. 175. 
Niccolb, a painter employed in Gemona, 1331. MS. ii. 80. 

: — di, Gio., perhaps the same as Gio. di Pisa, a painter of the four* 

teenth century. Morrona, i. 72. 



INDEX. 407 

Niceron, P. Gianfranoesoo Paolotto, a Frenchman. Ouida di Boma. 

i. 491. 
NicolucciOy a Calabrese, scholar of Lorenzo Costa. Vatari. ii.29,— lii.191. 
Ninfe» dalle, Cesare, a supposed pupil of Tintoretto. Zamtii. ii. 19S. 
Nobiliy de*, Durante di Caldarola, in the Picennm, painted in 1571. 

Guida di AmcoIu i. 43L. 
Noferi, Michele, a Florentine, scholar of Yinoenzio DandinL BtUdimieci. 

L249. 
Nogari, Giuseppe, a Venetian, d. 1763, aged Cvi. ZanetH. ii. 310. 

Paris, a Roman, d. in tht pontificate of Clement VIIL, aged 63. 

Baglione, i. 419. 

Nonzio, a miniature-painter, or Annunzio, ]iymg in 1593, at Mika. 

Morigia, ii. 516. 
Nosadella, see Bezzi. 
Notti, dalle, Gherardo, see Hnndhorst. 
Nova, de, Fedno, a Bergamese, painted as early as 1363, d. 1403. 

Tassi. ii. 80. 

Fietro, his brother, notices of him, from the year 1402. U, 

Novara, da, Fietro, painted in 1370. MS. iL 461. 

Fietro, his father. MS. ib. 

Novellara, da, Lelio, see Orsi. 

Novelli, Gio. Batista, da Csstelfiranoo, d. 1652, sged 74. ii. 246. 

— — Fietro, Cav., called from his birthplace Monxealese, termed by 

mistake MoreUi, lived in 1660. Ouarienik He is also praised by 

Rosa, in the Serie deUa 0. 1, di VtetmOf p. 71. it 49. 
Nucd, Allegretto, di Fabriano, painted in 1366. MS, L 333. 

Ayanzmo, di Cittkdi Castello, d. 1629,aged 77. £agiione. i. 429. 

Benedetto, di Gubbio, d. 1575. Ab. Bxmghumi. ii. 182. 

Yirgilio, his brother. BangMasei. ib, 

Nunziata, del, Toto, & Florentine, scholar of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Vasari. 

i. 165. 
NuTolone, Fanfilo, a CremoneK, flourished in 1608. ZaisL d. 1661, 

aged 53. GaOeraii Istruz. della PUt. MUtmesi. ii. 448. 
•— — ~— Carlo Francesco, his son, a Milanese, called also Panfilo, 

b. 1608, d. 1651. Orkmdi. ii. 527. 
-^■^— Gioseffo, another son, a Milanese, called also Fsnfilo, b. 1619, 



d. aged 84. Orhmdi, ib. 
Nuzzi, Mario, b. at Penna, a diocese of Fermo, in 1603, d. at Rome in 
1673. Pascoli. i. 490. 



408 INDEX. 



o. 

Oberto, di, Franceioo, painted at Genoa 'in 1368. Guida di Genova. 

iiL233. 
Occhiali, dagli, Gabriele, aee Ferrantiniy see YanTitelli. 
Odam, Girolamo, a Roman, b. 1681, living in 1718. Orlandi. i. 507. 
Odazzi, or Odasi, Gioyanni, b. at Rome in 1663, d. 1731. PdscolL 

i. 516. 
Oddi, Giuseppe, a Pesarese, scholar of Maratta. Gmda di Pemro. i. 509 

Manro, Parmigiano, d. 1702, aged 63. Orlandi, ii. 413. 

Oderico, a canon of Siena, and a miniatorist, living in 1213. DeUa Valie. 

i. 270. 
-— Gio. Paolo, a Genoese, d. 1657, aged 44. Soprani, iii. 257. 
Oderigi, see Da Gubbio. 
Oldoni, Boniforte, a citizen of YercelH, and Ercole Oldoni, painted in 

1466. Delia VaUe. ii. 477. 
Oliva, Pietro, a Messinese, flonrished towards 1491. Haiert, ii. 15. 
OUvieri, Domenico, of Tnrin, b. 1679, d. 1755. DeUa Valle, iii. 317. 
Omino, T, see Lombardi. 
Onofrio, di, Crescenzio. CoUmna Catalogue. He signed his name also 

Crescenzi, living in 1712. MS, i. 482. 
OrbettOy see Torchi. 
Orcagna, or Orgagna (those desirous of the utmost degree of minntecess 

in minute matters may consult Baldinucci, Bottari, and Manni), 

Andrea, a Florentine, d. 1389, aged 60. Vasari, i. 63. 
~.^— Bernardo, an elder brother of Andrea. Vasari, ib, 
Orioli, Bartolommeo, painted at Trevigi in 1616. F^derici, ii. 244. 
Orizzonte, see Van Bloemen. 
Orlandi, Odoardoj a Bolognese, b. 1660, living in 1718. Orlandi, 

d. 1736. Oretti, Mem, iu. 153. 

Stefano, a Bolognese, b. 1681, d. 1760. Crespi, iii. 177. 

Orlandini, Giulio, of Parma. Orlandi, Lived in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, ii. 413. 
Orlando, Bernardo, painted at Turin in 1617. MS, iii. 303. 
. Omerio, Gerardo, a Frisian, painter of glass : painted in 1575. Orlandi, 

i. 175. 
' Orrente, Pietro, di Murciay a supposed scholar of Bassano. Conea, 

ii. 205. 



. INDEX. 409 

Orsi, Benedetto, di Pescis, s pupil of Baldassare Franceschini. MS, 

i. 224. 
— — * BernardinOi da Reggio» painted in 1501. Tiraboschi. ii. 346. 
— — LeliOy da Reggio» called Lelio da Kovellara, d. 1587 » aged 76. 

Tlmbosehi, ii. 356. 
•— — Prospero, a Romani d. under Urban VIII., aged 75. • Baglione, 

i. 424. 
Oreoni, Gioseffo, a Bolognese, b. 1691, d. 1755. Qrespi. iii. 177. 
OrtolanOy or Gio. Batista Benvenuto, a Ferrarese, painted in 1525. 

Guida di Ferrara, d. about 1525. Saruffaidi, iii. 201. 
Orvietani, Andrea and Bartolommeo, painted in 1405. D. Voile, i. 334. 
Orvietano, Ugolino, painted in 1321. JD. Voile, i. 333. 
Oflsana, Biffi, Ciniaelli, Ciocca, followera of Procaccini, ii. 527. 
Ottini, Felice, or Felicetto di Brandi, d. young about 1695. Pateoli, 

i. 461. 
-— — — Pasquale, a Veronese, d. 1630, aged about 60. • Pozzo. i. 473, 

— ii. 275. 

P. 

Pftccelli, Matteo, a Neapolitan, a pupil of Giordano, d. about 1731. 

Domimci. ii. 58. 
Pacchiarotto, Jacopo, a Sieneie, went into France in 1435. - Delia Voile, 

L292. 
Pace, del, or Pad Ranieri, a Pisan, painted in 1719. Morrona, i. 251. 
Pacicoo, or Pacecco, see Di Rosa. 
Padema, Grio., a Bolognese, and scholar of Dentone, d. aged 40. 

Malvoaio, iii. 139. 

Paolo Antonio, a Bolognese, b. 1649, d. 1708. Orlandu iii. 133. 

Padova, da, Girolamo, called Girolamo dal Santo, d. about 1550, aged 

70. Chdda di Padotfo. ii. 116. 

Lauro, a scholar of Squardone. Saruovino. ib, 

.Maestro Angelo, painted in 1489. Gwda di Padova, ii. 117. 

Padovanino, see Varotari. 

Padovano, Giusto, or Giusto Menabuoi, a Florentine, d. about 1397. 
Gvida di Padova, ii. 75. 

■ Gio. and Antonio, painters of the same age. ib, 

. del, or di Lamberto Federigo, of Flanders, lived in 1568. 

FoMTt. i. 201. 



410 INDEX. 

YwBa, da% Me Baad, Dal Sole, Mnxiaiio, Vernigo. 
PaganeUi, Nicoolo, di Faenza, b. 1538, d. 1620. Oreiti Cart. in. 61. 
Faganiy Gasparo, a Modenow, painted in 1S43. Tirttbo&cki. it. 3SI2. 
n Paolo, di YalMlda, in tlic MUaneie, d. 1716, aged 56. Orbmdi. 

ii. 533. 

. Fraaceaoo, a FLorsntine, d. 1561, aged 30. BsUmuoR. i.*214. 

Gregorio, his son, b. 1558, d. 1605. BdUUnucci, ib, 

— — Vincensio, da Monte AubbiBBo, in tlie Pioenum, painted in 1529. 



CiealU, i. 400. 

or Da Bisiino LattaasiD, ate DeQa Marea. 



Paganini, h9 Maxmni Gtulio. 

Paggi, Gio. Batista, a Genoese, b. 1554, d. 1627. Soprmi, i. 229,— 

iii. 251, 256. 
PaggiOi il> M« Merani. 
Paglia, Francesco, a Bresdan, b. 1636. Orktndi, d. after the year 1700. 

MS, ii.260. 

■ Antonio and Angiolo, his sons ; the former d. Otii February, 

1747, aged 67, the latter d. 1763, aged 82. Carboni MS., presw 

VOretti. ib. 
Pagni, Benedetto, da Pesda, a scholar of Giulio Romano. Vasari. i. 168, 

— u. 334. 
Paladini, Arcangela, a Pisan lady, b. 1599, d. 1622. B. QalL ofFfor. 

i. 234,— ii. 507. 

Cay. Giuseppe, a Sicilian, liTed in the serenteenth century, iu 50. 

■ litterio, a Meastnese, d. in the jdague of 1743, aged 52. MitHrt. 

ii. 63. 
Palladino, Adriano, a Cortonese, d. 1680, aged 70. Orlandi. i. 255, 494 . 
Filippo, a Florentine (by Hakert it is written Paladnd), d. in 

Mazzarino, 1614, aged about 70. i. 219. 
Palloni (Orfandt), or PoUoni (Baidtmieet), MicfafJangelo, da' Campi nel 

Florentine. Passed into Pohmd in 1674. BaUimucei. i. 224. 
Palma, Jacopo, the elder, d. aged 46. Vaaati, ii. 142. 

' Jacopo, the younger, b. 1544, d. aged about 84. BOBf/i. i. 417, 

— ii. 234. 

Antonio, father of Jacopo, the younger, flourished in 1600. 



Guarienti. ii. 234. 
Palmegiani, Marco, da Forli, his notices of 1513 and 1537. MS. m. 30. 
Palmerini, a native of Urbhio, flourished about 1500. Gmda di vrbmo, 

i. 351. 



INDEX. 411 

Falmenicd, Ouido, da Qubbio, painted about 1345. Ab. Ranghiasci. 

i. 331. 
Falmieri, Giuaeppe, a Genoese, b. 1674, d. aged 66. Raiti. iii. 282. 
Falombo, Bartolommeo, a scholar of Fietro da Cortona. Orlandi. i. 496. 
Palomino, D. Antonio, b. near Cordora, a married man, and then a 

priest, d. 1725, aged 72. Oonea, ii. 58. 
Paltronieri, Gio. Francesco, da Carpi, lived in 1737. T^raboeehi, ii. 369. 

Fietro, called II Mirandolese dalle Frospettire, b. 1673. . , 

d. at Bologna ; d. 3rd July, 1741. OretH, Mem. iii. 176. 
Pampurini, Alessandro, a Cremonese, painted in 1511. Zakt, ii. 425. 
Fan, see Lys* 

Panootto, Fietro, a Bolognese, pupil of the Caracci. Malvtuia, Flou- 
rished about 1590. Masinu iii. 128. 
Fandolfij Giangiacomo, da Fesaro, flourished about 1630. MS» i. 416. 
Fanetti, Domenico, a Fenarese, b. 1460, d. about 1530. Bannffdldi, 

iu. 194. 
Fanfilo, eee Nuvoloni. 
Fanicale, da (in the Florentine state), Maaolinoi d* 1415, aged 37. 

Saldinucei, i. 75. 
Fanico, Anton Maria, a Bolognese, scholar of Annibal Caracci, d* at 

Famese. Bellori, iii. 83. 
Fannicciad, Jacopo, a Ferrarese, d. young about 1540, Bart^abH, m. 199. 
Pannini, Cav. Gio. Paolo, of Piacenza, b. 1691, d. 1764. Ouida di 

Piaeenza. i. 542,— u. 416,— iii 318. 
Panza, Cav. Federigo, a Milanese, d. 1703, aged 70. Orlandi, ii. 528. 
Panzacchi, Maria Elena, a Bolognese lady, b. 1668, Uving in 1718. 
Orlandi. d. 1737. OretH,from the Ckurch JtegiMirif of 8, Andrea 
degUJMoldi. iu. 172. 
Faoletti, Paolo, a Paduan, d. at Udine, in 1735. BenaldU, ii. 319. 
PaoMo, a Neapolitan, scholar of Sabbatim. Dommici, i. 499. 
Paolini, or Paulini, Fietro, a Lucchese, d. old a]H>ut 1682. Baldinneci. 
Or d. 1681. Oreiti, Mem. i. 235. 

Pio, an Udinese, Deferred to the Academy of B.oma in 1678. 

Orlandi. ii. 303. 
Paolo, Maestro, painted at Venice in 1346. Zaneiti. In Vioenza, 1333. 

Morelli Notiz. ii. 78. 
^— Jacopo and GioYanni, his sons. MS. tb. 

Papa, Simone, a Neapolitan, b. about 1430, d. about 1488. Ihminict. 
u. 12. 



412 INDEX. 

Papa, Simone, the younger, a Neapolitan, b. about 1506, d. shortly- 

before 1569. Dominici. ii. 27. 
Paparello, or Papaoello, Tommaso, a Cortonese, scholar of Giulio Romano. 

Voiari, Living in 1553. Marioiti, i. 170. 
Pappanelli, Niccolb, il. 1620, aged 83, iii. 63. 
Paradisi, Nicool6, a Venetian, painted in 1404^ ii. 78. 
Paradiso, dal, see Ca^telfranco. 
Paradosso, see Trogli. 
Parasole, Bernardino, a native of Norcia, d. in the pontificate of Urban 

VIII. Baglione. i. 423. 
Parentani, Antonino, painted at Turin about 1550. Gnida di Torino, 

iii. 294. 
Parentino, Bernardo, or Lorenzo (the one his name before he became 

a monk, the other his assumed ecclesiastical name), of Parenzo, in 

Istria; d. an Augustine friar, at Vicenza, in 1531, aged 94. His 

Epitaph in FaceioU. ii. 115. 
Paris, di, see Alfani. 
Parma, da, Lodovico, a scholar of Francia. Aj0^h. Scholar of Costa. 

Maivasia, ii. 372. 

Cristoforo, see Caselli. 

^— Daniello, *ee De Por. 

Parmigiano, Fabrizio, d. in the pontificate of Clement VIII., aged 45. 

Baglione, i. 433, — ^ii. 416. 
Parmigianhio, see Mazzuoli, see Scaglia, see Rocca. 
Parocel, Stefano, painted at Rome in the early part of the eighteenth 

century. See Guida di Roma. i. 521. 
Parodi, Domenico, a Genoese, b. 1668, d. 1740. Haiti, iii. 279. 

Batista, his brother, d. 1730, aged 56. Ratti. iii. 280. 

Pellegro, son of Domenico, living in 1769. Raiti. ib, 

— Ottavio, a Pavese, b. 1659, living in 1718. Orlandi. ii. 533. 
Parolini, Giacomo, a Ferrarese, d. 1733, aged about 70. Barufaldi. 

iii. 223. 
Parone, Francesco, a Milanese, d. young in 1634. Baruffal^i, ii. 518. 
Parrasio, Angelo, a Sienese, painted in 1449. Coined, i. 289. 
Pa^inelli, Lorenzo, a Bolognese, b. 1629, d. 1700. Crespi. iii. 142, 144. 
Pasquali, Filippo, a Forlivese, scholar of Cignani. Orlandi. iii. 168. 
Pasqualini, Felice, a Bolognese, scholar of Sabbatini. Malvasia. iii. 44. 
Pasqualmo, see Rossi. 
Pasqualotto, Constantino, da Vicenza, lived about 1700. MS, ii. 27L 



INDEX. 413 

F^issantei Bartolommeo, a Neapolitan, pupil of Spagnoletto. Dominiei. 

u. 49. 
Passarotti, Bartolommeo, a Bolognese, flourished about 1578. CftUda 

di Bologna, d. 1592. OretH, from the Registry of 8. Martino 

Maggiore. iii. 45. 
' ■ Tiburzio, d. 1612. Aurelio, d. at Rome in the time of Clement 

VIII. Ventura, d. 1630. Passarotto, d. 1585. His sons. OretHt 

Mem, iii. 47. 
Passeri (in some books Passari), 6io. Batista, a Roman, b. about 1610, 

d. a priest in 1679. Life prefixed by the Editor to the lives written 

hy him, i. 458. 
— Giuseppe, his nephew, b. 1654, d. 1714. Pascoli. i. 505. 
' Andrea, of Como, painted in 1505. MS. ii. 476. 

Passignano, da, in the Florentine state, Cav. Domenico Cresti, called 

also Passignani, b. 1560, d. 1638. 22. GalL of Florence, If he be 

admitted master of Lodonco Caracci, the date of his birth must 

be placed earlier, i. 215, — ^ii. 227, — iii. 65. 
Pasterini, Jacopo, a Venetian, a mosaic-worker, flourished about 1615. 

Zanetti. u. 232. 
Pasti, Matteo, a Veronese, living in 1472. Mqfei. i. 99,— ii. 122. 
Pastorino, da Siena, painted at Rome about 1547. Taia, i. 1/4. 
Patanazzi, , of Urbino, about the times of Claudio Veronese. MS, 

i. 450. 
Pavese, il, see Saochi. 

Pavesi, Francesco, scholar of Maratta. Vita del Maratta, i. 508. 
Pavia, Giacomo, a Bolognese, b. the 18th February, 1655. Oretd, 

Mem. d. about 1750. Guida di Bologna, iii. 165. 
— « da, Donato Bardo, painted in Savona about 1500. Guida di Genova, 
m. 235. 

Gio., a scholar of Costa. Malvasia, ii. 476. 

—— Lorenzo, painted at Savona in 1513. Guida di Genova. iii. 235. 
Pauluzzi, Stefano, a Venetian, living in 1660. Boschini. ii. 250. 
Pavona, Francesco, di Udine, d. at Venice in 1773, aged 88. Guida 

di Bologna. Corrected by Reruildis, for b. 1692, d. 1777. iii. 150. 
Pecchio, Domenico, a Veronese, and scholar of Balestra, living in 1733. 

Lett. Pittor. d. about 1760. Dizion. Istorico, ii. 315,— iii. 144. 
Pecori, Domenico Aretino, a pupil of D. Bartolommeo. Vasari. i. 92. 
Pedrali, Giacomo, a Brescian, companion of Domenico Bruni. Orlandi, 
d. before 1660. Boschini. ii. 291. 



414 INBBX. 

Fedretti, Giuseppe, a Bolognese, d. 1778, aged 84. Gvida ^ Boloptui, 

Or b. 26th Febraary, 1684. Orettiy Mem, iii. 161. 
Pedrini, Gio., a giqiposed soholar of Vinci at Milan. MS. ii.491. 
Pedroni, Pietro» di FontiemoU, d. 1803. MS, i. 263« 
Pellegrini, Antonio, of a Padnan family, b. at Yenioe, 1675, d. 1741. 

Guida di Padova. ii. 305. 

-— Girolamo, a Roman, painted about 1674. Zaneiii. ii. 249. 

—^ Felice, of Perugia, b. 1567. Orlandu i. 448 ; and Vin- 

cenzio his brother, called 11 Pitbor Bello, b. 1575» d. 1612. PascoU,. ib. 
Lodovica, a Milaiiese lady. Nu&va Quida di MUano for 



1788. Or Antonia. Nuova Guida di Milano for 1783. Painted 
in 1626. ii. 507. 

Andrea, a Milanese of the same £&mily, living in 1595. 



Morigia, ih, 

'Pellegrino, his cousin, d. 1634. MS» ib. 



Pellegrino, di, S. Daniello, his true name is Martino d'Udine, d. soon 
after 1545, Benaldis, ii. Ill, — ^iii. 196« 
' ■ da Modena, tee Munari. 

da Bologna, aee Tibaldi. 

Pellini, Andrea, a Cremonese, painted in 1595. MS. His Christ 
taken from the cross at S. Bustorgio, bears date 1597. Orettiy Mem. 
ii. 511. 

Marcantonio, a Pavese, b. 1664, living in 1718. Orlandi. Con- 
firmed by Orettiy from the Registry of his Baptism. He had after- 
wards an account of his death, which occurred 21st January, 1760» 
and that he was aged 101 years, ii. 535. 

Pennacchi, Piermaria, di Trevigi, flourished about 1520. Zanetti, ii. 109. 

Penni, Gianfrancesco, or U Fattore, b, at Florence, d. aged 40, about 
1528. Vasari. i. 394. 

Lnca, his brother, assistant of Rosso. Vasari. i. 163, 394. 

Pensaben, P. Marco, and Maraveia P. Marco, his assistant, Dominicans 
at Venice, painted at Trevigi in 1520 and 1521 ; <Jie former bom 
about 1485, and registered in the biUs of mortality for 1530. A 
painter of singular merit, made known to history by P. M. Federici. 
ii. 124. 

Feranda, Santo, a Venetian, b. 1566, d. 16^8. Ridolji. iL 240. 

Perino, see Cesarei, see Del Vaga. 

IPerla, Francesco, da Mantova, a painter of the sixteenth century. Volta. 
ii. 335. 



INDEX. 415 

Peroni) Bon Giuseppe, di Parma, d. old in 1776. Affh* iL 414. 

Perozino, Gio., painted in 1517. Delia Valle. iii. 293. 

Berraccini, Giuseppei called II Mirandoleae, a scholar d Franceichim, 

b. 1672, d. 1754. Creapi. iii. 176. 
Pemoci, Orazio, da Reggie, d. 1624, aged 76. Tiraboaehi. u. 357. 
Perugia, da, Gianniooola, b. about 1478. Pateoli. d. 1544. Mariotti, 

i. 348. 

J Mariano, his notices from 1547 to 1576. MarioUi^ i6, 

Sinibaldo, his works in 1524 and 1528. MaHatH. ii. 

Perugini, a landscape painter at Milan, in the time of Magnasco. Battu 

ii. 537. Another of the same name is met with at Milan, d. 1560. 

MS. ib. 
Perugino, Domenico, master of Antiveduto Grammatica. Baglione, i. 320. 

Lello, painted in 1321. DeUa VaUe. i. 333. 

-— ^ Paolo, or Ffeolo Gismondi, an academidaB of St. Luke from 

1668. Orlandi. i. 495. 
— — — Fietro, or Pietro Vannucd, b. at Cittii della Pieve, whence he 



signs himself De Castro Plebis, b. 1446, d. 1524. PoMo/t. i. 93, 
291, 342,-^. 17. 

another Pietro da Perugia, mentioned by Vasari, who appears 



to have lived about 1430. i. 426,^U. 89. 
— ^ n Cayaliere, Me Cerrini. 



Penud, Baldassare, called also Baldassare da Siena, b. in Accaiano 
(in the Sienese), 1481, d. 1536. DeUa Voile, i. 299> 353. 

Peruzzini, Ca?. Gioranni, of Anoona, d. 1694, aged 65. Orlandi, 
iii. 106, 309. 

■ Domenico, his brodier. Guida di Pemtro, ib. 



' Paolo, son of Cav. Gio., painted about 1670. ib, 

Pesari, Gio. Batista, a Modenese, livrng about 1650. 7\raboschi, ii. 363. 
Pesaro, da I^oeolo, Trometta, d. in the pontificate of Paul V., aged 

70. BaglUme. i. 415. 
Pesci, Gaspero,^ Bolognese, living in 1776. Cataiogo MgarotH, iii. 181. 
Pescia, da, Mariano Gratiadei, a scholar of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Vasari, 

i. 164. 
Pesello, Francesco, a Florentine, b. 1380, d. 1457. Vaaari, i. 80. 
' Pesellino, his son, b. 1426, d. about 1457. Vasari, ib, 

Pesenti, called II Sabbioneta Galeazzo, a Cremonese, living in the 

fifteenth century. Zaist. ii. 426. 
— — Martire, of the same family, living in 1582. Zaist ii. 425. 



416 INDEX. 

Petanano, or Pretenzzano, Simone, a Venetiany painted at Milan in 

1591. Lomazzo. ii. 510. 
Petrazsi, Aatolfo, a SienMe, painted in 1631. Delia VaUe. d. 1665. 

Baldinueei. i. 319. 
Petreolo, Andrea, di Venzone, living in 1586. Renaldis. ii. 259. 
Petri, de% Pietro, b. in the Novarese, d. 1716, at Rome, aged 45. At 

Rome commonly called De' Pietri. Orlandi, i. 506, — ^ii. 535. 
Petrini, Cav. Giuseppe, da Carono, in the Luganeae, d. about 1780, aged 

80. M8. iL533. 
Piaggia, Teramo, or Eraamo, di Zoaffli, in the Genoveae, waa living in 

1547. Soprani, iii. 237. 
Piane, dalle, 6io. Maria, a Genoeae, called 11 Molinaretto, b. 1660, 

d. 1745. BaiH. iU. 275. 
Pianoro, 9ee Morelli. 
Piaatrini, Gio. Domenico, a Piatoieae, scholar of Luti. Serie degli 

Jlluttri Pitton, i. 257. 
Plattoli, Gaetano,a Florentine, b. 1703, d. about 1770. MS. i. 261. 
Plazsa, CaUiato, see Da Lodi. 
— — - P. Cosimo, da Caatelfranco, a Capuchin, d. 1621, aged 64. 

Bidolfi. u. 245. 
— — Cav. Andrea, hia nephew, painted in 1649, d. about the year 1670. 



MS. ib. 
Piazzetta, Gio. Batista, a Venetian, d. 1754, aged 71. JjangU. Or 72. 

ZoMtH. ii. 299. 
Piochi, Giorgio, b. in Caatel Durante, now Urbania, was living in 1599, 

d. aged about 50. Terzi. i. 447. 
Piccinino and Chiocca, Uved about 1500. Morigia. ii. 475. 
Piccione, Matteo, Marchigiano, an academician of St. Luke in 1655. 

Orlandi. i. 474. 
Piocola, la, Nicoc^, or Liapicoola, of Palermo, b. 1730. FloretU. Die* 

d. 1790. i. 510. 
Picenardi, Carlo, a Cremoneae, flourished about 1600, d. young. Zaist. 

ii. 449. 
— — • another Carlo Picenardi, flourished about 1660, d. aged 70. 

Zaitt. ib. 
Piemonteae, Cesar*, flouriahed in the pontificate of Gregory XIII. Tata. 

i. 433. 
Pieil, Stefimo, a Florentine, d. in the pontificate of Clement VIII., aged 

87. BaglioM. i. 197. 



INDEX. 417 

Fleriy de', Antoiiio» called Lo Zotto, that isi Zoppo da Vioenza, painted in 

1738. Ouida di Rovigo, ii. 271. 
Pierino, Me Gallinari, see Del Vaga. 
PietrOy di| Lorenzo, »ee Yecchietta. 
Pierano, Stefano, di S. Agnese, his painting of 1381 . Boni Opusc, ScieU' 

tiflci. ii. 74. 
Pignone, Simone, a Florentine, b. 1614, d. 1706. R, Gall, of Florence. 

d. 16th December, 1698, and bnried at the Teatini. Oreiti, Mem. 

i. 225. 
Pilotto, Girolamo, a Venetian, living in 1590. Guida di Bwigo. ii. 243. 
Pinacd, Gioseffo, b. at Siena, 1642, living in 1718. Orlandi. i. 321. 
Pinelli, Antonio, a Bolognese, scholar of the Caracci. Malvtuia. d. 1644. 

Oretti, Mem. iii. 129. 
Pini, Engenio, an Udinese, b. at the beginning of the seventeenth century, 

living in 1655. Ah. Boni. ii. 259. 
Paolo, aLncchese. Orlandi, Flourished shortly after the Caracci. 

MS. ii. 536. 
Pino, Paolo, a Venetian, living in 1565. Guida di Padova. ii. 172. 

— da Messina, Me Messina. 

-— — da, Marco, called also Marco da Siena, d. about 1587. Dominici. 

i. 144, 406,^ii. 25. 
Pinturicchio, Bernardino, da Perugia, b. 1454, d. 1513. Pateoli. 

Called also Bernardino Betti. MariotH. i. 291, 345, 360. 
Pio, del, Giovannino, see Bonatti. 
Piombo, del, F. Sebestiano, a Venetian, d. 1547, aged 62. Vasari. Hts 

surname was Luciano. Claudio Tolomei, cited in the Pitture di Len- 

dinara, p. 9. i. 145,— ii. 137. 
Piola, Gio. Gregorio, a Genoese, d. 1625, aged 42. Soprani, iii. 260. 
Pierfrancesoo, b. 1565, d. 1600. Soprani, ib. 

— Pell^ro, or Pellegrino, b. 1617, d. 1640. Soprani, ib, 

Domenico, his brother, b. 1628, d. 1703. Ratti. iii. 261. 

Antonio, son of Domenico, b. 1654, d. 1715. Ratti. ib. 

Paolgirokmo, another son, b. 1666, d. 1724. Ratti. ib. 

Gio. Batista, anotjier son. Ratti. iii. 262. 

^— Domenico, son of Gio. Batista, d. 1744, aged 26. RatH, ib. 
Pippi, Giulio Romano, d. 1546, aged 54. Vasari. i. 393,— >u. 331. 

Raffaello, his son, d. 1560, aged 30. Volta. ii. 335. 

PisaneOi, Me Spisano, see Storali. 

Pisanello, Vittore, da S. Vito, in the Veronese. Pozzo. Or rather da 

VOL. UL &B 



418 INDEX. 

S. VirgUio wu LagOi Me^eif Verou. JUurtr. por/e 3, Mp. 6. Flomnlied 
about 1450. Va§ari. Hp was alio called Pinno. MoreUi, NoHz, 
p. 179. ii. 89. 

Pisano, Ginntai his notices from 1210 to 1236. Momma, L 36. 

Niocola, d. aboQt 1275. Va$mi. i.31. 

i— ^— GioTanni, his son, d. 1320. Vasari. i. 33. 

■ Andreat an architect and scnlptor of thefouiteenth ceatnry, L 32. 

Pisbolica, Giacomo, painted at Venice in the sixteenth century. Fosicrt. 
ii. 224. 

Bstoia, da» Gerino, a scholar of Ftetio Perugnio. Vatari. Bninted in 
1529. MS. i. 94. 

^— — — GioTanniy a scholar of CaTsllini. Vuari. i. 332. 

Leonardo, a scholar of Eattore. Foaort. He is somamed Guelfo 

dal Celano in the NotizU di N^foU ; by others Malatata, and perhaps 
Gratia. It appears there were two artisti of the same name, one of 
whom lived in 1516, the other later, i. 169, 400,— iL 23. 

F. Paolo, a scholar of Frate. Voiori. i. 153. 



Pitocchi, da, Matteo, a Florentine, flourished about 1650. Ouida A 
Botrigo. d. at Padua about 1700, at an advanced age. Mdekiari, 
u. 250. . 

Pittoni, Gio. Batista, a Venetian, d. 1767, about 80. ZmdH* ii. 299. 

■ Francesco, his unde, H. 
Pittor BeQo, aie Pellegrini. 
— — Santo, il, see Roderico. 
ViUano, U, see MisdrolL 

■ da' libriy il, see Caleiti. 

Kttori, Lorenzo, a Maceratese, painted In 1533. (hluecu L 352. 

— — Paoloy del Masaodo, accounts of htm from 1556, d. 1590. Colmeei, 

i. 431. 
PSzzoU, Giovacchiao, a Bolognese, b. 1651,d«1733. ZmoiH. iii. 138. 
Pizzolo, Niocolo, a Paduan, d. at the end of the fifteenth oentuy. Omida 

di Padooa, ii. 115. 
PC, del, Pietro, a Sicilian, b. 1610, d. 1692. Pesoo^t. 1 457.— ii. 44. 
— — Giacomo, his son, a Roman, d. 1726, aged 72. PateoiL it 45. 
Teresa, a Roman lady, daughter of Hetro, an academiciaa of St. 

Luke in 1678. Paseoli. d. 1716. DomimcL ib. 
Poocetti, Bernardino Barbatdli, a Florentine, called also Bernardino delle 

facdate, or delle grotescbe, b. 1542, d. 1612. Baidmueei, This date 

should be coiieeted on the authority of a note by the Canon. Bforeni 



INDEX. 419 

(vol. ii. p. 152), where it is observed that in 1591 he%u in his forty.* 

third year. i. 198. 
Foco e Buono, U, see Nanni. 

PogginOy di. Zanobii a Florentine, ccbolar of Sogliani. BtUdmueei. i. 132. 
Polla, da, Bartolommeoy appears to have flourished abont 1500. MS, 

ii. 127. 
Polazzo, Franc, a Venetian, d. 1753, aged 70. MS, ii. 301. 
Poli, two brothers, of Piza, painted in the seventeenth century, i. 238. 
Polidorino, see Ruviale. 

PoUdoro, a Venetian, d. 1565, aged 50. Zanetti, ii. 170. 
PoUainolo, del, Antonio, a Florentine, d. 1498, aged 72. Vasari. Or 

aged 71. OretH, dalP Epitafio. i. 91, 101, 106, 116. 
■ Pietro, his brother, d. 1498, aged 65. Vasari. i. 91. 

Pomaranee, dalle, see Circignani and Boncalli. 
Ponchino, Gio. Batista, called Bozzato di Castdfranco, b. about 1500, 

painted in 1551. MS, d. 1570. tMeriei. Vasari, Ridolfi, Zanetti, 

Bottari, and Quarienti, who call him Bazzaoco, and Brazzacco, are all 

in a mistake, ii. 111. 
Ponte, da, Francesco, b. in Vioenza, was father of Jacopoi and d. 1530, 

at Bassano. Verei, ii. 117. 

Jacopo, from his birthplace called Bassano, or Bassan the elder, 

d. 1592, aged 82. Ridoljl. ii. 197. 

Francesco, his son, d. 1591, aged 43. Verci, ii. 202. 
' Cav. Leandro, another son, d. 1623, aged 65. Ridolfi. ib, 

Gio. Batista, another son, d. 1613, aged 60. Mdoifi, iii. 203. 

^— — — Girolamo, another son, d. 1622, aged 62. Bidolfi, ib, 
da, Gio., a Florentine, d. 1365, aged 59. Vasari, L 63. 



Pontormo, da, in the Florentine state, Jacopo Carrucd, b. 1493, d. aged 

65. Vasari, i. 159. 
Ponzone, Matteo, Dalmatino, Cav., a scholar of Peranda. Zanetti, 

ii. 241. 
Ponzoni, de', Gio., a Milanese, lived about 1450. MS, ii. 468. 
Popoli, de'. Car. Giadnto d'Orta, d. 1682. Dominici, ii. 40. 
Poppi, da, see Morandini. 
For, de, Baniello, called Daniello da Parma, d. 1566, at Bx)me. Bottari. 

ii. 398. 
Porda, il, see ApoUodoro. 

Porcdloy Gio., a Messinese, b. 1682, d. 1734* Hak, ii. 63. 
Pordenone, see Lidno. 

2 E 2 



420 INDEX. 

Porettano, Pier Maria, a icholar of the Caracci. Malvatia, iii. 129. 
Porfirio, Bernardino, of the Florentine itate, a worker in mosaic, liying 
in 1568. Vatari, i. 242. 

Porideo, Gregorio, a scholar of Titian, ii. 170. 

Porpora, Pisolo, a Neapolitan, an academician of S. Luke, 1656, d« about 

1680. Dommtet. ii. 52. 
Porro, Maso, a Cortonese, painter on glass, shortly before 1568. Vautri. 

i. 174. 
Porta, Andrea, a Milanese, b. 1656, living in 1718. OrUmdi. ii. 550. 
Ferdinando, a Milanese, b. about 1760. MS, Or rather b. 1689, 

d. about 1767, at Blilan. Ore/^', from a letter of Porta's friend, ii. 534. 
— — Giuseppe, called Del SalTiati, a native of Garfagnana, d. about 1570, 

aged 50. Ridolfi. i. 190, 406,— ii. 226. 
Orazio, di Monte S. Savino, living in 1568. Viuari, i. 202. 

— della, or di S. Marco, F. Bartolommeo Domenicano, a Florentine^ 
called II Frate, b. 1469, d. 1517. Baldinueei. i. 149. 

Portelli, Carlo, da Loro, in the Florentine state, scholar of Ridolfp Ghir- 

landaio. Vatari. i. 164. 
Possenti, Bened., a Bolognese, scholar of the Caracci. Malvana, iii. 133. 
Poussin, Niccolo, b. at Andeli, in Normandy, 1594, d. 1665. Bellori. 

i. 476. 
■ " called Graspare, 9ee Dughet. 
Pozzi, Gio. Batista, a Milanese, painted in 1700. Nuova Chdda di Tbn'no. 

iii. 309. 
<— ~- Gio. Batista, a Milanese, d. in the pontificate of Sixtus V., aged 28. 

Baglifme. i. 420,— ii. 532. 
— — Giuseppe, a Roman, d. young in 1765. MS, i. 507. 

Stefano, his brother, d. 1768. MS, ib, 

Pozzo, P. Andrea, a Jesuit of Trent, b. 1642, d. 1709. PeueolL iii. 285, 

310. 

— Dario, a Veronese, d. 1652, aged about 60. Or rather in 1632. Pozzo, 
i. 419. 

dal, Isabella, punted at Turin in 1666. Nuova Gvida di Tbruso.. 

Iii. 312. 
— — — Mattio, a Paduan, scholar of Squarcione. Scardeone. See also 

Notizia MoreUi. ii. 1 1 7 . 
Pozzobonelli, Giuliano, a Milanese, living in 1605. MS, ii. 530. 
Pozzoserrato, or Pozzo Lodovico, of Flanders, living in 1587, d. aged 60. 

Guida di Rovigo, ii. 286. 



INDEX. 421 

Pozznoli, Gio.y da Carpi, d. about 1734. Tiraboschi. ii. 369. 

Prata, Ranmuio, painted at Pavia about 1635. MS, At S. Francesco of 

Brescia is found an altar-piece representing the Marriage of the Virgin. 

and bearing the inscription, Francisci de Prato Caravajeruis ojntSf 1547, 

pronounced by Oretti to be rare. It not being referred to any school, 
. it may be conjectured, after examination, whether the Francesco da Prato 

be one and the same, or rather two artists. See also P. Donasana, 

Minor Ossenrante, who wrote a work on the professors, paintings, 

and sculpture of Caravaggio ; an extremely rare book. ii. 521. 
Prato, dal Francesco, a Florentine, d. 1562. VatUri, . i. 190. 
Preti, Cav. Mattia, called II Cav. Calabrese, b. at Tavema in 1613, 

d. at Malta 1699. JDominici, ii. 47. 
^^- Gregorio, brother of the Cavaliere, ii. 48. 
Previtali, Andrea, a Bergamese ; his works from 1506 to 1528, in which 

year he died of the plague. TVun. ii. 123. 
Preziado, D. Francesco, b. 1713, at Seville. Roy, Gall, ofFhr, Director 

of the Spanish academy at Rome. Bottari. Lett, Pitt, vol. Ti. 

p. 325. d. at Rome 1789. MS, i. 523. 
Primaticdo, Ab. Niocolo, b. 1490, at Bologna, d. in France about 1570. 

Guida di Bologna, ii. 333,— iii. 37. 
Primi, Gio. Batista, a Roman, d. 1657, at Genoa. Soprani, iii. 255. 
Prina, Pierfrancesoo, di Noyaro, living in 1718. OrUmdi, ii. 536. 
Procacdni, Ercole the elder, a Bolognese, b. 1520. MS, Living in 

1591. Lomazzo, It is also read Pcreaceiniy pref. xiv. ii. 410, 512, 

523,— iii. 41. 
Camillo, his son, flourished in 1609. Malvasia, ii. 512. 

I Giulio, Cesare, another son, d. about 1626, aged about 78. 

Orlandi, ii. 514. 

Carlantonio, another son. MalvoHa. His work at S. Agata 



in Milan, with the name and year 1605. GalleraH Ittruz, , &c. ii. 515. 
Ercole the younger, son of Carlantonio, a Milanese, d. 1676, 



aged 80. OrUmdi. ii. 523. 

Andrea, a Roman, b. 1671, d. 1734. Pateoli. i, 506. 



Profondavalle, Yalerio, di Lovanio, d. 1600, aged 67. MS, i. 175,— 

ii. 517. 
Pronti, P. Cesare, an Augustine monk, of Cesi, called Padre Cesare 

da Ravenna. Orlandi, b. nella Cattolica 1626, d. at lUvenna 1708. 

Pateoli. iii. 113. 
Provenzale, Maroello, da Cento, d. 1639, aged 64. Baglione, i. 542. 



422 INDEX. 

ProTenzaH. Stef., da Cento, d. 1715. Cretpt. MS. m. 113. 

PnuuitOy Santo, a Veronese, b. 1656, liTing in 1716. Poxxo, fi. 311. 

-^*— - Bficfadangelo, bis scm, b. 1690, living In 1717. Pozxo, ik, 

Pnoei, Gio. Antonio, a Florentine, studied at Bone in 1716. X«^. 
Pm,Yo\.'u. i. 251. 

Pncdni, Biagio, a Roman, painted about the pontificate of Clement XI. 
GutdadiRoma. i. 520. 

Pnglia, Giuseppe, a Roman, called Del Bastaro, d. young in the ponti- 
ficate of Urban VIII. BaffUtme. L 425. 

Puglieschi, Ant., a Florentine, pupil of Pier Dandini. JB^iMtmicet. i. 249. 

Puligo, Domenioo, a Florentmey d. aged 52, in 1527. Vamiru L 161. 

Polzone, Sdpione, called Sdpione da Gaeta, d. in tiie pontificate of 
Sixtus v.. aged 38. Baglume, L 408, 431,— ii 28. 

Piqnm, Biagio, or Idaatro Biagio, a Bolognese, and Dalle Lame, or Dalle 
Lamme, flourished in 1530. Guida di Bologtia, L 397, — ^iii. 36. 

Q. 

Qna^ia, Giulio, di Como, Uving in 1693. Eenaldi9. u. 303. 
QuagUata, Gio., a Messinese, b. 1603, d. 1673. Hakert. ii. 54. 

Andrea, bia brother, 4. 1660, aged 60. Hakeri. ib. 

Quaini, Luigi, a Bolognese, b. 1643, d. 1717. ZomUL iii. 159. 

Francesco, his fktiier, a scholar of Mitdli. ZanotH, d. 1680, 



aged 79. OretH, Mem. iU. 160. 
Quirico, Gio. da Tortona, bis altar-piece of the year 1505. MS. iii. 292. 

R. 

Rabbia, Raffaello, a portrait painter of Marino, was liriiig about 1610. 

Marini Oallerkt. liL 304. 
Racdietti, Bernardo, a Milanese, d. 1702, aged about 63. Oritmdi. 

ii. 536. 
Raconigi, da, Valentin Lomellino, lifing in 1561. MS. in. 294. 
RafEaellino, Me Bottalla, Del Colle, Del Garbo, Motta. 
Ra£faello, 9ee Sanzio. 

Raggi, Pietro Paolo, a Genoese, b. about 1646, d. 1724. Batii. iii. 283. 
RaiboUni, see Franda. 
Raimondi, Marcantonio, a Bolognese, d. soon f^ter 1527. Vanru 

L 108, 401. 



INDBX. 423 

Baimondoy a Neapolitan painter of the fifteenth century , iii. 292. 

Rainaldiy Domenico, a Romac, mentioned by Titi, painted in the seven- 
teenth century ,« i. 474. 

Rainieriy Francesco, called Lo Schivenoglia, a Mantuan, d. old in 1758. 
Volta. 11, Ul. 

Rama, Camillo, a Brescian, painted in 1622. Orlandi, ii. 280. 

Ramazzani, Ercole, di Rocca, a district in the Marca, painted in 1588. 
Colucei. i. 351. 

Rambaldi, Carlo, a Bolognese, b. 1680, d. 1717. Zanotti. iii. 156. 

Ramenghi, Bartolommeo, called II Bagnacavallo, b. at Bologna in 1493^ 
d. 1551. Cfuida di Bologna. Or rather b. at Bagnacavallo, 1484, 
d. 1542. Barufftddi ; who produces the documents, i. 397, — ^iii. 35. 

• Gio. Batista, his son, d. 9th November, 1601. There was 

another Gio. Batista Ramenghi, son of Bartolommeo the younger, who 
painted in 1615. Oretiit Mem, iii. 36. 

■ Bartolommeo and Scipione. Mahatia, liL 53. 



Randa, Antonio, a Bolognese, pamted in 1614. Cfttida di Bologna i and 

in 1644. Ouida di Btrngo. iii. 124. 
Ratti, Gio. Agostino, b. at Savona in 1699, d. at Genoa In 1775. €%». 

Ratti, iii. 287. 
— Carlo Giuseppe, C»v., his son, a Genoese, b. 1795, d. aged about 

60. M8. ib. 
Raviglione, di Casale, a painter of the seventeenth century. OrlandL 

iii. 312. 
Ravignaao, Marco, a engrmyer, and pupil of Marcantonio. Vamri, Or 

Marco Dente, kiUed in the sack of Rome, in 1527. Carrarif Oraz, in 

Morte di Luea Longki„ i. 108. 
Raxali, Sebastiano, a Bolognese, a sdiolar of the CanMXsi. Malvana. 

m. 128. 
Razzi, Car. Giannantanio, di Vercelli, caSed II Sodoma, lived to about 

the age of 75, d. 1554. Vasari, i. 293. 
Realfonso, Tommaso, a Neapolitan, and pupil of Belvidere. Dominici. 

ii. 52. 
Recchi, Gio. Paolo and Gio. Batista, da Como, painted about 1560. MS. 

ii. 531,— iii. 309. 
«^— Gio. Batista, a nephew of Gio. Paolo. Piiture d'ltaUa, ii. 531. 
Recco, Cav. Giuseppe, a Neapolitan, b. 1634, d. 1695. Dominici. ii. 52. 
Reder, Cnstiano, or Monsieur Leandro Sassone, b. 1656, d. 1729. 

Paacoli, i. 537. 



424 INDEX. 

Redi, Tomxnato, a Florentiiw, b. 1665, d. 1726. Boy. GaU. i. 250. 

Reggio, da, Luca, t€e Ferrari. 

Rcni, Guido, a Bologneie, d. 1642, aged 67. Malvasia, i. 459,— ii. 35, — 

iii. 86. 
Renieri, Niccolo Maboieo, flourished in the seventeenth century. ZaneiiL 

i. 492. 
'^— Anna, ud other sisters, f^. 
Benri, Cesare, di S. Ginesio, in the Pioenom, a pupil of Giudo Rem. 

Colueci, i. 460. 
Resani, Arcangelo, b. 1670, at Rome, liring in 1718. Orlandi, i. 538. 
Reschi, Pandolfo, of Dantcic, d. about 1699, aged 56. Orlandu i. 241. 
Revello, Gio. Batista, called II Mostaochi, from the state of Grenoa, 

d. 1732, aged 60. Maiti. iii. 285. 
Ribalta. Franc, di Valenza, a supposed scholar of Annibal Caraoci, and 

master of Spagnoletto. Conca, ii. 32. 
Ribera, Car. Giuseppe, originally from Valenza, b. at GallipoU in 1593. 
Dominiei» But more correctly at Sathra, now S. Filippo. The Anio- 
logio di Soma, 1795 ; and d. 1656, aged 67. JBa/omtno. He waa 
called Lo Spagnoletto. ii. 32, 411. 
Ricamatore, «ee Da XJdine. 
Ricca, or Ricoo, Bernardino, a Cremonese, painted in 1522. Zaiti, 

ii. 425. 
Ricchi, Fietro, called from his birtliplaoe II Lucchese, b. 1606, d. 1675, 

at Udine. Baldinueei, i. 235,— ii. 248. 
Ricchino, Francesco, a Br^scian, living in 1568. Vatari, ii. 182. 
Ricci, Antonio, «ee Barbalunga. 

Camillo, a Ferrarese, b. 1580, d. 1618. Baruffaldi, iii. 209. 

Gio. Batista, di Novara, d. 1620, aged 75. DeUa Voile, i. 421,— 

ii. 518. 
— Natale and Ubaldo, painters of Fermo, belonging to this age. MS* 
i. 509. 

Fietro, a Milanese, scholar of Vinci. Lomazzo. ii. 491. 

or Rizzi, Bastiano, di Cividal di Belluno, b. 1660. Orlandi, Or 

b. 1659, and d. the 15th of May, 1734. Deacriz, de* Cartom di Carlo 
dgnani and Bast, Ricci. ii. 304. 

Marco, nephew of Bastiano, d. 1729, aged 56. Zanetti, ii. 305,— 

iii. 318. 
Ricdanti, Antonio, a Florentine, scholar of Vincenzio Dandini. Baldi- 
nucci, i. 248. 



J 



INDEX. 425 

Ricciardelli, Gabriele, a Neapolitan, painted in 1743. Dominici. 

ii. 66. 
RiociareUi, Daniele, di Volterra, d. 1566. Vasari, i. 148, 405. 
Riccio, U, or Bartolommeo Neroni, a Sienese, painted in 1573« Delia 

VaUe, i. 295,—ii. 21. 
— — i-i^ Domenioo, called II Bmsasorci, a Veronese, d. 1567, aged 73. 

Ridolfi, u. 179, 210. 
— — — • Gio. Batista, his son, a scholar of Caliari, ii. 212. 
Felice, his brother, d. 1605, aged 65. Ridolfl. ii. 211. 

— Cecilia, a sister of Felice and of Gio. Batista. Pozzo. ii. 212. 
— ^— Mariano, a Messinese, b. 1510. Hakert, ii. 21. 

— Antonello, his son, flourished about 1576. Hakert, ib. 



Ricciolini, Michelangelo, caUed di Todi, b. 1654, at Rome, d. 1715. 

22. GflK. of Flor. i. 495. 
— — Niccolo, b. at Rome in 1637. J2. Gall, qf Flar, ib. 
Rtchieri, Antonio, a Ferrarese, scholar of Lanfranco. Paeseri, iii. 222. 
Richo, Andrea, di Greta, a Greek painter, i. 59. 
Ridolfi, Cay. Carlo, b. 1602, at Vicenza. OrUmdi, d. about 1660. 

Cdlvi Bibliot. Vieent. torn. -vi. p. 131. He seems to have flourished 

in 1660. BosehnUf p. 509. The epitaph recorded in the GtUda dello 

Zanetti, p. 176, dates his decease in 1658, aged 64. ii. 253. 
•— Claudio, a Veronese, d. 1644, aged 84. Cav, Carlo Ridolfi, 

i. 449,— ii. 273. 
Ridolfo, di (Ghirlandaio), Michele, a Florentine, living in 1568. Vasari, 

i. 164. 
^— Piero, di, a Florentine, painted in 1612. Moreni, i. 201. 
Rimerici, Gio., first of the known painters of Rimini, living in 1386. 

Fantuzzi, iii. 27. 
Riminaldi, Orazio, a Pisan, b. 1598, d. 1631. Morrona, i. 233. 

Girolamo, brother of Orazio, sunriTed him. Morrona, i. 234. 

Rimino, da, Bartolommeo, tee Coda. 

Gio., lired about 1500. MS, His notices, up to 1470. Oretii, 

Mem, iii. 28. 
I^ittanzio, eee Delia Marca. ib. 



Rinaldi, Santi, a Florentine, called II Tromoa, scholar of Francesco 

Furini. Baldinucei, i. 241 . 
Ripanda, Giacomo, a Bolognese, flourished about 1480. See Malvatia. 

iii. 15. 
Riposo, fee Ficherelli. 



426 INDBX. 



and Sisto, DoHumem frian, ardutecto, were employed in 

12G4, i. 50. 
Ritratti, da', Santmo, see Yandi. 
Rtrarola, see Cbenda. 
RiTello, Gakazzo, Cristoforo, another Galeazzo and Qioaeppe. ZeUst. 

ii. 422. 

see alto Moretto Cristoforo. 

Riverditi, Marcantonio, di Akssandna ddla Fagliay d. 1774. Gmda di 

Bologna. vL 318. 
Bmera, Franc., a Frenrhman, d. at Leghorn about the middle of the 

eighteenth centnrf. i. 261. 
Bivola, Giuseppe, a Milanese, b. 1740. MS. ii. 529. 
Rizzi, SteAno, master of Romanino. Gmda di Brescia, ii. 183. 
Rizzo, Maroo Luciano, a Venetian, living in 1530. Zaneiii. ii. 231. 

See also S. Croce. 
Bo, see Kotfaenainer. 

Robatto, Gio. Stefono, b. hi Sarona, 1649, d. 1733. BatH. in. 277. 
Robert, Nicolas, a nmchman, fifing in 1473. MS. in. 292. 
Robertelfi, AureUo, painted in Savona, 1499. Guida di Oenova. m. 238. 
Robetta, an engnira', who signed himself also R. B. T. A. i. 107. 
Robusti,— €0 named by Rids^ — Jaeopo, called II Ilntoretto, a Venetian, 

b. 1512, d. 1594. ii. 190. 
' Domenico, his son, commonly called Domenioo Thitoretto, d. 

1637, aged 75. Bidsl/i. ii. 194. 

Marietta, daughter of Domenico, b. 1590, d. aged 30. Ridol/i. 



iii. 195. 

Rooca, Ant. Hisnotioes from 1611 to 1627. MS. in. 303. 

' Giacomo, 'a Roman, d. old in the pontificate of Clement VIII. 

Baglione. i. 422. 

^— Micfade, ilouiished towards the b^inning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Paseolif tom. ii. p. 290. i. 463. 

Roccadirame, Angiolillo, a scholar of Zingaro. Hommtei. ii. 12. 

Rocchetti, Marcantonio, called Figurino, flourished in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, iii. 61. 

Roderigo, Gio. Bernardino, a Siciliim, called II Pittor Santo, d. 1667. 
Domimci. ii. 38. 

■ Luigi, his unde, d. young. DommM. More correctly called 

Rodriquez di Messina. Hakert. ii. 35, 37. 

' Alonzo, brother of Luigi, b. 1578, d. 1648. Hakert. tL 37. 



INDEX. 427 

Roelas, de las, Paolo, of Seville, a canon, ficholar of Titian, d« 1620, aged 

6G. Conca. This epoch disputed, ii. 175. 
Roli, Antonio, a Bolognese, scholar of Colonna. Crtspi. b. 1643, d. on 

13th July, 1696. OreiH, Mem. iii. 138. 
RomaneOi, Gio. Francesco, of Viterbo, b. 1617, d. 1662. Pascoli. 

i. 493, 497. 

Urbano, his son, d. yonng, i. 498. 

Romani, il, da Reggio, a painter of the seventeenth century. Thrdboschi, 

ii. 362. 
Romanino, or Ramano Girol., a Bresdan, d. in advanced age. Bidolfi. 

Before the year 1566. Va»ari, li. 183. 
Romano, Domenioo, living in 1568. Vatari, L 190. 

Giulio, aet Pippi. 

Luzio, see the letter L. 

VirgiliO, a schohir of Peruzzi. Delia VaUe. i. 303. 

Romolo, see Cincinnato. 

Roncalli, Cay. Cristofano delle Pomarance, d. 1626, aged 74. Baritone, 

i. 205, 417, 467,— iii. 254. 
Roncelli, D. Giuseppe, a Bergamese, d. 1729, aged 52. Tassi, ii. 315. 
Roncho, de, Michele, a Milanese, painted in 1377. Tasri. ii. 461. 
Rondani, Francesco Maria, of Parma, d. before 1548. Affh, ii. 399. 
Rondinello, Niccolo, da Ravenna, flourished about 1500, d. aged 60. 

Vasari, iii. 25. 
Rondinosi, Zaccaria, a Pisan, painted in 1665, d. about 1680. Morrona, 

ii. 531. 
Rondolino, see Terenzi. 

Ronzelli, Fabio, a Bergamese, painted in 1629. Tassi. ii. 284. 
Pietro, perhaps ftther of the preceding. Tassi. His works 

from 1588 to 1616. Pasta, ib. 
Roos, see Rosa. 
Rosa, Cristoforo, a Brescian. Vasari. d. 1576. Rido^. ii. 186, 

229. 
Ste&no, his brother, painted in 1572. Zeanboni. ib. 

Pietro, son of Cristoforo, d. young in 1576. Bidolfi. More cor- 
rectly in 1577. Zamboni. ii. 186. 

-»— da Tivoli, so called from his loqg residence iheie ; or Filippo Roos, 
b. at Frankfort in 1655, d. 1705. Gwaimti. L 489. 

- Franc, a Genoese painter of the seventeenth century. Zaneiii. 
ii. 249,— iii. 276. 



428 INDEX. 

Ron, GioTsnni, d'Anrena, b. 1591, d. at Genoa in 1638. Saprami, 

i. 489,— iU. 255. 
SalTstore, a Neapolitan, b. 1615, d. 1673. Patteri. i. 479, — 

u. 50, 288. 

Sigiamoiido, a sdiolar of Ginteppe Chiari. OtUda di Ronta» i. 505. 

di, Anidla, or Annella, a Neapolitan, d. 1649, aged about 36. 

Domimei. ii. 40. 
-—^ Franoetco, called also Padoco, or Paoecco, a Neapolitan, b. 1654. 

Dominiei» See alto Badalocchi. ii. 39. 
RosaUba, Antonello, a Mesnnese, painted in 1505. Hakert. ii. 15. 
Roaelli, Niooolo, a Ferrarese, painted in 1568. BaruffcUdi, iii. 199. 
Ron, Zanobi, a Florentine, living in 1621. BaULinueei. i. 217. 

■ Giovanni, a Florentine, about the same period, i. 238. 
Rosignoli, Jaoopo, of Leghorn. His epitaph is dated in 1604. Delia 

Vaiie. i. 206,— iii. 297. 
Rositi, Gio. Batista, da Forli, painted in 1500. MS. iii. 31. 
RoflseUi, Gosimo, a Florentine, living in 1496. Boitari, i. 90. 

Matteo, a Florentine, b. 1578, d. 1650. Baidinucci, i. 220. 

Rossetti, Paolo, a Centese, d. old in 1621. Bagiione. i. 542. 

— ^— Cesare, a Roman, b. in the pontificate of Urban YIII. Baglione* 
i. 423. 

Gio. Paolo, di Yolterra, living in 1568. Vaeart, i. 149. 

or Fiamingfaini, see Rovere. 



Rossi, D. Angdo, of the district of Genoa, d. 1755, aged 61. Raid. 

in. 280. 

Giovanni and Niccolo, of Flanders, i. 166. 

— ^— — AnieUo, a Neapolitan, d. 1719, aged about 59. Dominici, ii. 58. 
— ^- Antonio, a Bolognese, b. 1700, d. 1753. Creapu iii. 166. 

Carlantonio, a Milanese, d. 1648, aged about 67. Orlandu ii. 535. 

— Enea, a Bolognese, pupil of the Caracci. Malvoaia, iii. 128. 

•— Francesco, eee De' Salviati. 

Gabriele, a Bolognese, master of Franc. Ferrari. Bart^aldL 

iii. 225. 
Gio. Batista, a Veronese, called 11 Gobbino, scholar of Orbetto. 



Pozzo, ii. 275. 

Grio. Batista, da Rovigo, scholar of Padovanino, b. about 1627, 



living in 1680. Guida di Bovigo, ii. 264. 

Girolamo, a Brescian, supposed pupil of Rama. Guida di Breeeiti, 



U. 182. 



INDEX. 429 

Rossi, another Girolamo, a Bologneaet pupil of Fbuninio Torre. Mahaiia, 

iii. 107. 

Lorenzo, a Florentine, d. 1702. Orlandu i. 247. 

Muzio (and by mistake Nunzio), a Neapolitan, flourished about 

1645, d. aged 25. Dotmntct. Or rather b. 1626, d^ 1651. Crespi. 

La CertOM di Bolognay p. 13. ii. 39. 
■ Nicoolo Maria, a Neapolitan, d. 1700, aged 55. JDomwici. 



ii. 58. 

— ~ Fftsqnalino, da Vicenza, b. 1641, liying about 1718. Orlandi. 



i. 515,— ii. 271. 

'— > or Rossis Angelo, a Florentine, b. 1742. Omrienti. i. 260. 

— Antonio, di Cadore, supposed to belong to the school of Jacopo 



Bellhii. MS. u. 157. 
Rosso, il, a Florentine, b. 1541. Vaaari, i. 161. 

il, of Pavia, flourished in the seyenteenth century. Orlandi. 

ii. 534. 
— . 11, a Venetian, tee Bianchi. 



Rotari, Conte Pietro, a Veronese, b. 1707, d. 1762. OretH, da Vita MS. 

ii. 248. 
Rothenamer, Gio. di Monaco, b. 1564. Sandrart. In the Guida di 

Venezia of Zanetti, he is called R6 and Rotamer, as he is also named 

by Ridolfi. ii. 196. 
Rovere, or Rossetti, GKo. Mauro, caUed II Fiamminghino, a Mikaese,. 

d. 1640. Orlandi. ii. 526. 

Gio. Batista and Marco, his brothers, d. about 1640. Orlandi. 

ii. 527. 

della, Gio. Batista, of Turin, painted in 1627. N. Guida dt 



Torino, iii. 303. 
— Girolamo, ib. 



Roverio, $ee Genovesini. 
to 

Rovigo, d' Urbino, flourished about 1530. Awoeato Paueri, i. 434. 
Rubbiani, Felice, a Modenese, b. 1677, d. 1752. Tiraboechi. ii. 367. 
Rubens, Peter Paul, b. at Antwerp in 1577, d. there in 1640. Bellori. 

i. 475. 
Rubini, b. a Piedmontese, painted in Trevigi about 1650. Federiei* 

iu. 306. 
Rnggieri, da Bruggia, lived about 1449. Ciriaeo ; in ColucH, Drew his 

own portrait in 1462. Morelli, NoHzia, p. 78. i. 289,— ii. 96. 
— — Antonio, a Florentine, pupil of Vannini. Baldinucci. i. 239. 



430 INDBX. 

"SinggitA, Antonio Mam, a MSanese painter of the eighteenth centaryy 

ii. 525. 
■ Gio. Batista, and Gio. Batista del Gesri, a Bolognese, d. in the 

pontifioate of Urban YIII., aged 32. BagUone, ii. 35,— 4n. 98. 
— — Eroole, brother of Gio. Batista, or Ercolino del Gessi, or 



Ercolino da Bologna. Mdlvagia, iii. 98. 

.•»^— Girolamo, b. at Yicenza in 1662, d. at Verona about 1717. 



Pozzo. ii. 308. 

— — Rnggieroy a Bokgnese aasistant of Primaticcao. Vamri. iii. 39. 



Ruoppoli, Gio. Batista, a Neapolitan, d. about 1685. Domudei, ii. 52. 
Rusdii, or Ruaca, Franc, a Roman, flourished about the middJIe of the 

seventeenth century. ZdiutiL ii. 249. 
Russi, de, Gio., of Mantua, flourished about 1445. Volta^ ii. 325. 
Russo, Gio. Fletro, of Capua, d. 1667. Dommiei. iL 28* 
RuBtid, Cristoforo, son of Rnatioo. Dilla VaOe. i. 303. 

Vincenzio, another supposed son, i. 295, 303. 

I Francesco, a son of Cristoforo, called 11 Rustidiino, d. yoang in 

1625. BeOdmaeei. i.317. 
o^— - Gabriele, a scholar of Frate. Vasari. i. 153. 



Rustlco, il, a Sienese, scholar of Baszi* Delia Vailt. i. 295. 

Ruta, Clemente, of Parma, d. old in 1767. 4jfb. Or b. 1688, d. 1767. 

Oreiiif Mem, ii. 414. 
Rttviale, Franoeaoo, called 11 Pblidorino, a Spaniard, d. alxmt 1550. 

Dominici, ii. 20. 
■ Spagnuolo, an assistant of Vasari abont 1545. Vaaari, i. 190. 

S. 

Sabbatini, or Andrea da Salerno, b. about 1480, d. about 1545. Domimci. 

i. 400,— u. 17. 
— - Lorenso, called also Lorenlino da Bologna, d. 1577. MahHuta, 



i. 147, 416,-4iL 43. 
Sabbioneta, see Pesenti. 
Sabinese, il, see Generoli. 
Sacehi, Andrea, a Roman, b. 1600, d. 1661. PoMeri, But his epitaph 

gives his age sixty-three years, four months. Siato delta Ch. Laieran, 

i. 463. 
— -— — P. Giuseppe, a Minor Conventual, his son. Guida di Biama* 

t464. 



INDEX. 431 

Sacchi, Carlo, di Payia, d. old in 1706. OrUmdi. ii. 534. 

Pierfrancesco, a Pavese. His notices at Milan about 1460. 

Lomazzo, At Genoa from 1512 to 1526. Soprani. I must notice 
that the long career of this artist leads me to suspect there must be 
some error in the date of his notioesi or that the name of Pierfrancesco 
Pftvese belonged to two different artists, iii. 237. 

a Payese family of Musaicisti, m mos8ic>workers. Guida di 



MUano of 1783. i. 242. 

— M.y di Casale, contemporary vith Moncalvo. Delia Voile, 



iii. 300. 

Ant, di Ckmio, d. 1694. Orlandi. ii. 536, 

Gaspero, da Imola. His altar-piece in the sacristy of Castel 



S. Pietro at Imola, with the name, and year 1517 ; and at Bologna in 

S. Francesco in TaTola, 1521. Oretti, Mem, iii. 131. 
Sacco» Sdpione, a supposed scholar of Raffaello. SccamelU, and Gua- 

risn/t. He painted 1545. Oretii, Mem. L 401, — ^iii. 56. 
Sagrestani, Gio. Camillo, a Plorentme, b. 1660, d. 1731. 22. Gall, of 

Ftorenee. i. 252. 
Salter, or Seiter, CaT. Daniello, a 'Vieimese, b. 1649, d. 1705, aged 63. 

Orlandi. i. 475,— ii. 257,— iu. 308. 
Salai, or Salaino Andrea, a Milanese, scholar of Vind. Vatttri. i. 130, 

— u. 489. 
Salerno, da, eee Sabbatini. 
Salimbeni, Arcangdo, a Sienese, painted in 1579. Delia VaUe, i. 309. 

■ Cav. Ventura, his son, called II CaT. Bevilacqua, b. 1557, d. 
1613. Beldkmm. i. 312,— iii. 255. 

Salincomo, da, Mirabello, perhaps Cavalori, a scholar of Rldolfo Ghir- 

landaio, lifiogin 1668. VomH. i. 164. 
Salini, Ca?. Tommaso, b. about 1570, at Rome, d. 1625. Boflione. 

i. 489. 
Salis, Carlo, a Veronese, b. 1680. Oretti Notizie. d. 1763. Letter, 

Ptttor. torn, Y. ii. 310. 
Salmegg^, Enea, aBergamese, called II Talpino, d. old in 1626. Tom, 

ii. 281. 

■ Francesco, his son, painted in 1628. Tom. ii. 282. 

• Chiaia, his daughter, painted in 1624. Tuti, ib, 

Saltarello, Luca, b. at Genoa in 1610, d. young at Rome. Soprani. 

iii. 258. 
Salvettrini, Bartolommeo, a Florentine, d. in 1630. Baldinucei. i. 214. 



432 INDEX. 

SalTettifFnoic., a Floreiitiiie, pupil of Gabbiani. Serie de' jnu lUuHri 

Pittori. i. 251. 
Salvi, Tarqainio, da Sanoferrato, painted in 1573. MS, u 465. 
Gio. Batista, his son, called H Saasoferrato, b. 1605, d. 1685. MS. 

Hanns and othen» hj mistake, snppoae him to bare lived in the six- 
teenth centniy. ib, 
Salviati, de' Franoeico Rossi, caUed Ceoehino, de' SalTiati, a Floreatine, 

b. 1510, d. 1563. Va$aH. i. 405. 
— — del, Giuseppe, see Porta. 
SalTolioi, 9ee Episcopio. 
Salvucd, Mattio, of Perogia, b. about 1570, d. about 1628. PatcoU, 

i. 474. 
Samacchini, Orazio, a Bolognese (and Somachino, Lomazio : and by 

mistake Fumaccini, Fosort), d. 1577, aged 45. Mahatia, i. 406, — 

ii. 410, — ^iii. 44. 
Samengo, Ambrogio, a Genoese, scholar of Gio. Andrea Ferrari. Soprani. 

iti. 272. 
Sammartino, Marco, a Neapolitan, living in 1680. Guida di Bkmino, 

Or a Venetian. Melckiorif OuarienH, He seems to be the same as 

the Sanmarchi of Malvasia. iii. 173. 
San Bernardo, di, tee Minzocchi. 
Daniello, di. Me Pellegrino. 

— Friano, da, 9ee Manzuoli. 

— Gallo, da, Bastiano, called Aristotele, a Florentine, d. 1551, aged 
70. Va$an, i. 94, 167. 

Gimignano, da, Vinoenzio, d. a few years subsequent to 1527. 

Fofort. i. 397. 
-^— Ginesio, da, in the Picenum, Fabio di Gentile, Domenico Balestrieri, 

Stefano Folchetti, painters of the fifteenth century. Colucei, i. 334. 

— Giorgio, di, Eusebio, of Perugia, b. about 1478, d. about 1550. 
PascoH. i. 347. 

Giovanni, da, Ercole, «ee De Maria. 

Giovanni, da, in the Florentine state, Gio. Mannozzi, b. 1590*, 

d. 1636. Baldmued. i. 221. 
— — Gio. Garzia, his son, i. 222. 

— Giovanni, da, Oliviero, a Ferrarese, lived about 1450. Baruffaldi. 
iii. 188. 

— Severino, da, Lorenzo, and his brother, lived in 1470. MS. 
i. 336. 



iNDBjc. 433 

Sandrino, Tommaao, a Brescian, d. 1631, aged 56. OrUtndi. More 

correctly in 1530. Zamboni, ii. 291. 
Sandro, di, Jacopo, a Floreiitiiie» asaUtant of Bonamiod. Vatari. i. 138. 
Sanfelioe, Ferdinando, a Neapolitan, scholar of Solimene. Ftaren. Die. 

ii. 62. 
Sanmarchiy Me Sammartino. 
Sansonoi 9ee Marchesi. 
Sanso^ino, Jacopo, a Florentine, or Jacopo Tatta, a scholar of Andrea 

Cantuod, da San Sayino ; who, as well as his scholar, was called San- 

sovino ; d. 1570, aged 91. Borghini. ii. 226. 
Santa Croce, Francesco Rizzo, da S. Croce in the Bergamasco. His 

notices from 1507 to 1529. Tarn. (Eren to 1541. Federici.) ii. 105. 
Girolamo, da S. Croce in the Bergamasco, as Rizzo. His 

works from 1520 to 1549. Tatri. ib. 

Pietro Paolo, painted in 1591. Guida di Padova. ii. 283. 



Santafede, Francesco, a Neapolitan, scholar of Saleroo. Dommici. ii. 19. 
— — — Fkbrizio, his son, b. about 1560, d. 1634. Domhuei, ib, 
Santagostini, Giacomo Antonio, a Milanese, d. 1648, aged about 60. 

Orlandi. ii. 527. 

■ Agostino, his son, living in 1671. Nuava Ouida di Mi^ 

lano» ib, 
— «— — ^^— Giadnto, another son of Giacomo Antonio. Orlandi. ib. 



SantareUi, Gaetano, a noble of Pescia, and scholar of Ottar. Dandini, 

d. young. MS, i. 249. 
Santelli, Felice, a Roman, competed with Baglume, Cfuida di Roma. 

i. 473. 
Santi, Antonio, di Rimino, d. young at Venice in 1 700. Guida di Rimino, 

m, 167. 
~— - Domenico, a Bolognese, called II Mengazzino, d. 1694, aged 73. 

Orlandi. iii. 139. 

— Bartol., a Lucchese, and theatrical painter of the eighteenth century. 

MS. i. 260. 
Santini, the elder, and the 3rounger, of Arezzo, in the seventeenth century. 

MS. i. 231. 
Santo, dal, Girolamo, 9ee Da Padova. 
Sanzio, or di Santi, GioYanni, of Urbino. father of Raffaello, living in 

1494. Ze//.P<//.i. del torn. i. d. before 1508. MS. 1.337, 356. 
*-^— - Galeazzo, Antonio, Vinoenzio, and Giulio, ancestors of Raffadlo. 

Bottari. i. 356. 

TOL. III. 2 F 



4S4 INDEX. 



Saiizio, Btttiatadi Piero. Lazxari. i. $57. 

RaffaeUo, di Urbino, b. 1483, d. 1520. FoMri. i. 292, 356, 

415, and frequently t h iotigfaont the entire work. 
Sencino, or Sanoeni, Carlo, caBed, &«■& bis birthplace, Carlo Yeae- 

ziano, b. 1585. Orlandu d. aged about 40. Baglione, i. 453, — 

ii. 247. 
Sarti, Antonio, da Jen, flourished about 1600. Cb^iteet, tem. z. i. 431. 

Eroole, calkdIlMBtodiFicarolo,b. 1593. CUtadOItL iii. 209. 

Sarto, del, Andrea Vanimcchi, a Florentine^ b. 1488, d. 1530. VoMori. 

i. 154, et seq, 
Sarzana, mc Fiaiella. 

Sarsetti, Angjoloy a Sunineae, liringia 1700. QmdA ii iltflttse. iii. 167. 
Saasi, Gio» Batista, a Milanes, living in 1718. Ortouit. & 533. 
Sassoferrato, ne Salvi. 
Sa:Tdd0, GiioL, a Breeoan, flonnahed in 1540. OrUrndL Galled also 

Gio. Gtrolamo BreidanoL JiordZt NoHziaf, p. 70. iL 185. 
Savolini, Crittirfbso, da Cesena, Uving in 1678. Jlafooita. iii. 113. 
Safoaa, di, flPiete, m« Ghudobcou. 

Sayonanzi, Emilio, a Bolognese, b. 1580, d. aged 80. Orkmdi. iiL 48. 
Sarofdli, SabastiaDOr of Foifi, a scholar of Cigpani. Guarienti. iii. 168. 
Scaodani, Camillo, da Pesaro, called Carbone, lived towards the end of 

the eig^ilenth cestnry. MS. i. 524. 
^caoeiati, Andrea, a Florentine, b. 1642,, d. in the eighteenth eentory. 

Orlandi. i. 237. 
SeagHa, Crirolaino, da Lueca, called IlPanaigianino, painted at Piza in 

1672. Morrona, i. 259, 463. 
Scaiario, Antnmo, called also Da Ponte and Bassano, from his birth« 

place, d. 1640. Verei, ii. 204. 
Scalabrini, Marcantonio, a Veronese, flourished in 1565. Pozzo. ii. 207. 
Scalabrino, lo, aSienese, pupilofRazzi. Delia Valli, i. 414. Perhaps 

aPistoieae. ib. 
Scaligero, Bartolommeo, a Paduan, scholar of Alessandro Yarotari. 

Zaaettu u. 264. 

• Luda, his niece, still young in 1660. BotcMni, ii. 262. 

Scalvati, Antonio, a Bolognese, d. in the pontificate of Gregory XY.^ 

aged 63. BagUone, L 421, 432. 
Scaminosd, RaffaeUo, di Borgo S. Sepolcro, a scholar of RaffaeBe del 

Cdle. Orlandi, I have also heard him called ScanUnttui. i. 2^3. 
Scannabecchi, tee Dalmasio, see Muratori. 



D^DEX. 435 

Scannavini, Manrelio, a Ferrarese, d. 1698, aged 43. Bart(faidi, iii. 222. 

Scaramuccia, Gio. Antonio, of Perugia, b. 1580, d. 1650. PaseoH. 

i. 459, 470,— ii. 532. 

— — — Lnigi, his son, scholar of Guido, b. 1616, d. 1680. Paacolu 

A scholar also of Gn^cino, Mdhatia, i. 459. 

Scarsella, Sigismondo, or Mondino, a Ferrarese, d. 1614, 



aged 84. BaruffMu iii. 207. 

Ippolito, his son, called Lo ScarseUino, b. 1551, d. 1621. 



Bart^tOdi. ib. 
Schedone, now more commonly Schidone, Bartolommeo, da Modena, 

d. young in 1615. JHrabogcki. ii.360»411. 
Schianteschi, Domenico, di Borgo S. Sepolcro, flourished the beginning 

of the dghteenih century. MS* i. 261. 
Scfaiavone, Andrea, da Sebenioo, b. 1522, d. aged 60. BidolJL ii. 173. 
■ Gregorio, a feUow-pupil of Mantegna. Bidolfi, who by 

mjatike calls him Girolamo. ii. 116. 

■ Laca* liTod about 1450. LomoMZO, ii. 506. 



Schioppi, see Alabardi. 
-SchivenogliA, «ee Rainieri. 
Schizzone, Uving in 1527. Voioru i. 398. 
Sdacca, Tommaso, di Mazzara, d. 1795, aged 61. PiUure di Lendmarm* 

ii. 64. 
Sdameroniy lee Furini. 
Sdarpelloni, see Di Credi. 
Sdlla, or Silia, Agostiao, a Messineae, b. 1629, d. 1700. Hakert. An 

academician of St. Luke in Bome, 1679. Orlandi, i. 502, 539,— 

ii. 44,— iii. 309. 
Giadnto, his brother, d. 1711 ; and Saverio, his son. Hakert, 

i. 539. 
Sdorina, deUo, Lnenzo, a Florentine, living in 1568. Vasari. i. 197. 
Scipione, Jacopo, of Bergamo, his notices from 1507 to 1529. Tassi* 

ii. 124. 
SdaTO, Luca, a Cremonese, lived soon after 1450. ZausL ii. 421. 
Scolari, Gioseffo, a Viccntese, living in 1580. Orlandi, ii. 179. 
Scor, called Gio. Paolo Tedesco, an academician of St. Luke in 1653. 

OrlandL 1.476. 

Egidio, his brother. Taia. ib. 

Scorza, Sinibaldo, b. at Voltaggioin the Genovese, 1589, d. 1631. Soprani.. 

iiL303. 

2 F 2 



436 UfDUL. 

Soonini, Pietio, a Lnecheie, painter of timtm. MS. L 260. 
Sootto, StebaOf a MUanese, master of Gandeozio. Lamasz: ii. 475. 
Fdkse, his work of 1495. M8. ib. 



Scnan, Cristofoio, a Germaii. Rid^yi. d. 1594. Baldtmrneci. ii. 175. 
Scatellari, Andrea, di Yiadana, in the Cremoneie, painted in 1588. 

Zmsi. It 428. 

Francesco, a painter of the sizteendi oentary. ib. 
Sfhawtiani, Lazsaro, a Yeaetian, sdiolar of Caipaodo. Ridol/i. ii. 105. 
Sebeto, da Yerona. Vaimri. Fainted about 1377. Gmida di Padatm. 

iL 76. Most probably it is a name resnltingfrom a mistake of Yasari. ib. 
Seocante, Sdiastiano, an Udinese. His works to tiK year 1576. RauddU. 

11.154. 

■ Giaoomo, his brother, painted in 1571. SebastiBno, a yonnger 

son of Giaoomo ; his works from 1571 to 1629. Seccante de' Seccanti 

painted in 1621. JtnuOdu. ib, 
Seochi, Gio. Batista, called II Cara^agg^, painted in 1619. Bortien. 

ii. 530. IntiiePaiMreir/la/ta,Tol.i.p.214,heiscaUedCaravaggino, 

and an inscription is cited : — Jo. Bapt. Siee. de Caravof. 
Seochiari, Gtnlio, a Modenese, d. 1631. Thraboieki. ii. 361. 
Segals, Gio., a Yenetisn, d. 1720, aged 57. ZantUi. ii. 295. 
Sdter, Daniele, a scholar of Loth, ii. 257. 

SeDitto, Carlo, a Neapolitan, scholar of Annibal Caracci. Domimei, ii. 34. 
Semenza, or Sementi, Giaotmio, a Bologne8e,b. 1580, d. young. Bagli- 

one and Mahatia. iL 97. 
Semini, Micfaele, a sdiolar of Maratta. Vita del Cm. Maratta. i. 508. 
Semino, and more commonly Semini, Antonio, a Genoese, b. about 1485, 

pamted in 1547. Sopram. iii 237, 243. 
— ^ Andrea, his son, d. 1578, aged 68. Sopram. ib. 
■ Ottavio, another son, d. 1604. Sopram. ib. 

Semitecolo, Niccolo, a Venetian, painted in 1367. Zaneiti. ii. 79. 
Semolei, see Franco. 
Semplice (Fra.), see Da Yerona. 
Serafini, de', Serafino, da Modena, painted in 1376 and 1385. Tiraboechi. 

u. 345. 
Serano, see Cerano. 

Serenari, Ab. Gaspero, of Palermo, a scholar of Cav. Conca. MS. i. 519. 
Serlio, Sebastiano, a Bolognese, painted at Pesaro in 1511 and 1514 ; or 

rather, he resided there. Guida di Pesaro. d. at Fontainbleau, old in 

1552. Histor. Die. iii. 52. 



INDEX. 437 

Sermei, Car. Cesare, di Onrieto, d. aboat 1600| aged 34. Orlandi, 

i. 426. 
Sermolei, aee Franco. 
Sermonetai da, see Siciolante. 
Serodinei Gio., di Ascona, in Lombard j, d. jonng in the pontificate of 

Urban YIII. i. 455. 
Serra, CristoforOi da Cesena, liying in 1678. Malvaria. iii. 113. 
Serri, de', Costantino, a Florentine, b. 1554, d. 1622. Baldinucci. 

i. 195, 243. 
Seeto, da, Cesare, or Cesare Milanese, d. towards 1524 ; and Cesare 

Magni, bj some supposed the same Cesare da Sesto who still painted 

in 1533. JBtoficom. Gmda di Milano cm Note. MS. ii. 485, 487. 
Sestri, da, see Travi. 

Setti, Ceochino, a Modenese, painted in 1495. Tiraboschi. ii. 346. 
*-^ de', Ercole, a Modenese ; his notices from 1568 to 1589. Tiraboschi. 

ii. 355. 
Sfi^uazzella, lo, Andrea, a scholar of Sarto. Viuari, i. 161. 
SgUBZzinoy lo, di Cittadi Castello, living about 1600. MS. L 429. 
Siciolante, Girolamo, called from his birthplace Sermoneta, living in 

1572, as appears from an inscription placed to his son. {GaUet, I, Rom. 

tom. ii.) d. in the pontificate of Gregory XIII. Baglione. i. 406, 

408, 430. 
Siena, da, Agnolo and Agostino, Florentine sculptors in 1338. Delia 

Valle, i. 33. 
Ansano, or Sano, di Pietro. His notices from 1422 to 1449. Delia 

Valle. i. 287. 
— — > da, Bema, for Bernardo, d. joung about 1380. Baldinucci, i. 284. 
I Ducdo, Guidncdo, di Boninsegna. His notices from 1282 to 1339* 

Delia Valle. i. 277. 

— Francesco, a scholar of Peruzzi. Vasari. i. 319. 
Francesco, Ant., his work of 1614. MS. i. 303. 

Francesco, di Giorgio, an architect and painter. Delia Valle. 

i. 298, 303. 
Georgio and Gio., called Gianella, scholars of Mecherino. Delia 

VaUe. i. 303. 

Giovanni, di Paolo, father of Matteo. Delia Valle. i. 288, 305. 

Guido, his work of 1221. Delia Valle. i. 37, 271. 

Matteo, di, Gio., his works from 1462 to 1491. Delia Vaile. i. 288, 

«->ii. 6. 



438 INDEX. 

SieoA, anotiier Matteo, or MatteiiiOy d. in the pontificate of Sixtus V., 

aged 55. Baglione, i. 304, 432. 
da. Maestro Mino, or Minuccio, to be distingiiisiied from Fr. Mino 

da Torrita, i. 274. 
■ MicJiriangelo da Siena, or Dm Luoca, tee Anselmi. 

Segna, or Boninsegna, painted in 1305. Detta Valle, i. 276. 

Ugolino, d. old in 1339. Delia Valle, i. 50, 276. 

— "— Simone, tee MemmL Maroo, tee Da Pino. Baldasare, Me Pemzzi. 
^-— other painters less celebrated, or scholars of those masters, 

i. 284, 322. 
Sighizzi, Andrea, a Bologneae, tiving in 1678. Mahasia, iii. 138, 140. 
Sigismondi, Pietro, a Lnccheae. OrUmdi, i. 259. 
Signorelli, Lnca, da Cortona, b. about 1440, d. 1521. Vaaari. i. 91. 
Francesco, his nephew. Notices of him until about 1560. Bottart. 

i. 169. 
Signorini, Guido, a Bolognese, cousin of Guido Reni, d. abont 1650. 

Orlandi. liL 166. 

■ another of the same name and country, a scholar of Cignani. 

Creapi, ii* 
Silvestro, Don, a Florentine, a monk of Camaldoli, d. about 1350. 

Vasari. i. 67. 
Silvio, Gio., a Venetian, his altar-piece of 1532. MS, ii. 171. 
Simazoto, Martino, or Da Capanigo, living in 1588. MS. iii. 292. 
Simone, Maestro, a Neapolitan, d. 1346. Dominici, ii. 5. 
di, Antonio, a Neapolitan, and an artist of this age. Dominici. 

i. 531. 
— — Francesco, a Neapolitan, flourished in 1340, d. about 1360. 



Dominiei. ii. 3. 
Simonelli, Giuseppe, a Neapolitan, scholar of Giordano, d. about 1713» 

aged 64. Domtmct. ii. 58. 
Simonetti, see Magatta. 
Simonini, Francesco, of Pomui, b. 1689, living in 1753. Guida di 

Bovigo. • ii. 414. 
Sirani, Gio. Andrea, a Bolognese, b. 1610, d. 1670. Orespi and Oreiti, 

Mem, iii. 99. 
Elisabetta, his daughter, b. 1638, d. aged 26. Malvagia. Or 

d. 29th August, 1665, and interred at S. Domenico. Orettiy Memor, ib, 

Anna and Barbara, also fab daughters. Creepi, ib. 

' - female pupils of Elisabetta, iii, 100. 



INDEX. 439 

SmargiassOi l0| see Ciaffisri. « 

Sobleo, tee Desubleo. 

Sederini Idaaro, m Florentine^ painted in 1730. Leil, PiU. ytf. iL 

i. 253. 
Sodoma, il, see Razzi. 

dd, Giomo, or Girolamo, a Sienese, i. 292. 

Soggi, Niccolo, a Florentine, ^ old in tbe posfai&cate of JulixLi IIL 

VoMOn. i. 93. 
tSogiJam, GiaaantxiBio, a Florentine, d. aged 52. Vaaari, FaiBted it 

Pisa about 1530. Morrona. i. 131. 
Soiaro, see Gatti. 
Solari, or Del Gobbo, Andrea, a Milanese, flonrirind dt>ont 1530. Vamn» 

a. 499. 

Solarip, Anton., called Lo Zingaro (the gipsy), da Civita, in AbnuEO, 

b. ^at 1382, d. about 1455. J}ommiei, ^.S. 

Sole, dal, Antonio, a Bolognese, called II Monchino da' Paesi, d. 1677. 

Cretpi. Or rather in 1684, i^ 78. Ontti,firmm ike Begis^ ^ 

ktMuddmlena. iii. 1S3. 

Gio. Gioieffo, hia son, b. 1654, d. 1719« ZnmtU. m. 147. 

Soleri, Gioq^ di Akandria, d. 1587. MS. m. 296. 

RaffaeUo, Angiolo, hia son. MS, ib, 

Solfarolo, il, or GmembooeA, a pixafeer of the leventoenth oentux^ 

iii. 286. 
Solimene, comaoniy so eiBed, bvt m his epilaph, Solimena, Caar» 

Fnaceao^ caHed L' Abate CSocio, fa. at Neoen de' Pagani, 1657. 

Dominici, d. at Naples in 1747. R. Gall, qf Fhr. fi. 60. 
SoBi (as he tbu aigna hiniietf)^ or Soens, Gio., da Mcddnch, wm aged 

57 in 1604. Omda di PUuseaza. Living in 1607. 4#^. Ji. 411. 
Soprani, Ralbello, m Cknoese, b. 1612, d. 1672. OsMnaa, mnuiffesf 

this artist, iii. 272. 
Sordo, £, Sestai, aae Travi. 
— d* Urbino, see Viviani. 
dd, Gn., eaHed Iffloe da f^ an artiet ef die seventeentfc 

oentorj. JArroaa. L 234. 
Soriani, Cado, paaated at Pavia in the aevcnleenth oentuy. PiUure 

d* Italia, ii. 534. 

Kiocdlo, perhaps a Ciemonese, d. 1499. JBan^aldi. vL 202. 

Sorri, Pietro, b. in the Sienese, 1556, d. 1622. Baldinucd. i. 310,— 

iiL255. 



440 

SoltBO, GMtiM, » ScOhb. OmidmdiBnm. 5. M 

SoCTi) CNifiOy A CstmMf md nssouoo. Jtfo. t#. 

Spdb, liowDo, • BologMK, d. 1622, «eed 46. Mwhwnm. fi. 363,— 

nt 140. 
Spadvino, 4M GallL 



8pi«gMri, 6io., of Bcgpo, d. 1730. 71y«lwdb'. iL 366. 
FdkgriDO, Ins mi, d. in Fknce, 1746. TJruhmehL •». 



SfMgDft, lo,or Lo 8|Mgmolo, Giofami, ikwriilieduitil 1524. 

Or longier. L 346. 
Spagnoktto, lo, Me Ribcn. 
8|wgniiolo, lo, MC UrooB, tee CiopL 
Spera, CloDente, pamted it Milai in com pm y of Ti— mJrino. RaisL 

iL536. 
SpeiBim and Ycnuio, of Yineaua, idicdan of Mant^gna. Vmaaru. 

n.118. 
■ Gio. Batiata, a Boinan, d. jomg in 1640. Baf fioM. L 426. 

Spifimbergo, di, Iicne, a nqipoaed pnpQ of Titian. She died aome time 

before 1576. Faaori. iL 175. 
Spineda, Aacanio, of Trevigi, b. 1588. P. Federiei. LtYing in 1648. 

JUdol/l. ii. 244. 
SpineDo, Aretino, b. 1308, d. 1400. BotUui. L 70. 
Spinem, Parri (for Gasparri), hu ion, linng in 1425. Bo/teri. L 70, 174. 

Forzore, another aon, a worker in nieDo. Faaori. L 100. 

Spirito, MoDsienr, liring in the aerenteendi oentnrj. Ste PUHire 

d'ltaiw. iii. 309. 
Spiaano, "^^ncenzo, called also PteaneDi, and Lo SpisaneUi di Orta in 

the Milanese, d. at Bologna in 1662, aged 67. Malvaaia. iii. 49. 
Spoletti, FSerlorenxo, b. at Fbiale In the Genoveae in 1680, d. 1726. 

MttH* iiL 315* 
SpolTerini, Ilario, di Parma, d. 1734, aged 77. Guida ii PiaeenzM. 

ii. 414. 
Spranger, Bartolommeo, of Flanden, b. 1546, d. old. Orimdu ii. 432. 
Sqnarcione, Francesco, di Padora, d. 1474, aged 80. Orlandi. Some 

bj mistake call him Jaoopo ; supposed by Gftarienti to be a different 

person from Francesco, ii. 91, — iii. 189. 
Stanzioni, Cav. Massimo, a Neapolitan, b. 1585, d. 1656. Dommiei, 

u. 38. 

Stamina, Gherardo, a Florentine, b. 1354, d. 1403. Baldinueei. i. 69. 



INDEX. 441 

Ste£uie8chi» P. Gio. Batista, a monk of Monte Senario, b. at Ronta 

in the Florentine state, 1582, d. 1659. Baidinueei. i. 240. 
Stelani, de% Tommaso, a Neapolitan, b. 1230. JDeteriz. di Napoli, 

ii. 2. 
Ste£uio, a Florentine, d. 1350, aged 49. Vaaari. i. 65, 74. 
— »^ di, Kiccolo, da Belliino, floorished about 1530. MS. ii. 167 
■ Vincenzio, a Veroneae, flonrished in the fifteenth century. Pozzo, 

ii. 89. 
Stefimone, a Neapolitan, d. old about 1390. DowUniei, ii. 4. 
Stella, Fermo, a Milanese, employed in 1502. MS. ii. 499. 
— — — — Giacomo, a Bresdan, d. in the pontificate of Urban VIII., 

aged 85. Baglione. JBardon asserts he died in 1657> aged 61 ; and 

that he came from Lyons, i. 419. 
Stendardo, we Van Bloemen. 

Stem, Ignazio, b. in Bayaria about 1698, d. 1746. Gall. Imp. i. 522. 
Storali, Gio., and Pisanelli, Loren., Bolognese, pupils of Baglione, iii. 54. 
Storer, or Stora, Cristoforo, di Costanza d. in Milan 1671, aged 60. 

OrkauU. ii. 524. 
Storto, Ippolito, a Cremonese, scholar of Antonio CampL Zaiit» ii. 442. 
Strada, Vespaiiano, a Roman, d. under Paul V., aged 36. Baglione 

i. 436. 
Stradano, Giovanni, di Bruges, b. 1536, d. 1605. Baidinueei. i. 181. 
Stresi, Pietro Martire, a Milanese, d. 1620. MS. ii. 503. 
Stringa, Francesco, a Modenese, b. 1635, d. 1709. Ttraboechi. Or 

bom in 1638. Cart. Oretti. ii. 365. 
Stroifi, Don Ermanno, a Paduan, founder of the congregation of 

S. Filippo Neri at Venice ; d. there in 1693, aged 77. Ftaminio 

Comer, Churches ef Venice, yol. iii. p. 232. ii. 250. 
Strozzi, Zanobi, a Florentine, b. 1412, living in 1466. Baidinueei. i. 78. 
or Strozza Bernardo, called II Cappuccino, or also II Prete, a 

Genoese, b. 1581, d. 1644. Soprani, iii. 266. 
Snardi, Me Bramantino. 
Subissad, Sempronio, of Urbino, a scholar of Carlo Maratta, d. in 

Spain. Lazzari. i. 508. 
Subleyras, Pietro, b. at Gilles 1699, d. 1749. Memorie deUe belle Arti, 

▼ol. ii. Or b. at Uses, and d. aged 48. Bardon. i. 521. 
Subtermans, Giosto, d' Anversa, b. 1597, d. 1681. R. Gall, qf Florence. 

1.240. 
Suppa, Andrea, a Messinese, d. 1671, aged 43. Hakert. ii. 44. 



442 nsBC 



is ti» nniane of fbderigo di Ludboto, cdad wim I>d Pklo- 
YSDO, Me Dd Fidorano. 



T. 



TVMDoni, Imeoeniio, » Bnlngnw, acbobr <tf Aawitoil, d. ytttaag. Bt^U* 

one. m. 82. 
Tafi, Andna, a VloreDtaie, d. 1294, aged 31. Vmmri. L 49. 
Taglianocld, Gio. Batiste, di Bo^bo S. Doomiw, d. 1737. GMadk iK 

P i aeautt. n, 415. 
TUami, Orario, of Reg^ b. 1625, d. 1705. 7ir«»iMdU. iL364. 
Talpino, see Sahneggia. 
Tamburini, 6io. Maria, a Bolognese, scholar of G«ido» d. old. GmmIs 

diBoiogum. liL 125. 
TBMmdi, nKppo, a Mnnifg, b. 1655, d. at Fdcmio 1725. MUert, 

iL49. 
Tandino, di Beragna, liYing in 1580. Ortirn Bispoeia^ Sec L 427. 
Taateri, Yaioio, and otber oopyistB df CristofiKo ABori, L 217. 
T^Biri, Antotto, di A]agM^ in die NonuDBse, d. 1644, agad abnoat 70. 

Co. Durando. ii. 521. 
— »^ (Ho. Mdiduorre, bis brotber, ib. 
Taraboti, Caterina, lining in 1660. SoBekaU. u. 262. 
Tarasdu, Givlio, a Modeneae, painted m 1546. Tirateseftt. ii. 351. 
^^— two brotbers of tbe preoedingi ik. 
Taricoo, Scbastiano, b. at Chenato in tiie PiedmoBtese ia 1645, d. 1710. 

DeHa VaOe, iiL 311. 
Tarimo,Gio. Batiste, a MBanese, bis irorktif 1575. MS. iL521. . 
Taraffi, finaio, a Bcdogneae, bu 1633, assassinated in 1696. (Vcijpt. 

iii. 157. 
Tassi, Agostino, of Perugia, b. 1566, d. aged 76. Pmueri, Pr^ six. 

i. 232, 484,— in. 255. 
TsssnMBvGio. Batiste, a F^Dveae, bis worin of 1610 and 1613. POiure 

d^ Italia, ii. 535. 
Tsanne, Cario, a Cresaonese, flonoBbed about 1690, d. aged 70. ZmiMi. 

ii. 451. 
TasBoni, Giusqype, a Roman, d. 1737, aged 84. DomimtL iL 66. 
Tatte, 9ee Sansovino. 
Tavarone, Lsxzavo, a Genoese, b. 1556, d. 1641. Sepramu in. 248. ■ 



INDEX. 443 

favella. Carlo Antonio, a Genoesei b. at Milan in 1668, d. at Genoa in 
1738. Batti. iii. 286. 

Angiola, his daughter, d. 1746, aged 48. RaiU, ib, 

Tedesoo, Emannello, a scholar of Tltiaa. Bidotfi. ii. 175. 

Gio. Paolo, Me Soot, aee aUo Luaberto. 

del, Jacopo, a Florentine, sdiokr of Domenico del Ghirlandaio, 

i. 90. 

Temperello, il, tee Caselli. 

Tempesta, il, aee Mulier. 

Tempesti (in theZe//. PiUor. and in other books Thi^etto, and in LotHni 

called Tempettino), Antonio, a Florentine, d. 1630, aged 75. Baglione, 

i. 207, 417, 433." 
Tempestino, a Roman, flourished ^ont 1680. PneolL i. 485. 
or Tempesti, Domenico, a Florentine, perhaps caUed also 

Dei Marchie, b. 1652, living in 1718. Orlandi. i. 261. 
Teniers, Da^id, of Antwerp, called II Bassano, d« 1649. Sandrert, 

i. 479,-.u. 205. 
Teodoro, a Mantuan, aee Ghigi. 
— — Monneur, aee Hembreker. 
Teofane, of Constantinople, lived in the thirteenth century. BamffaldL 

in. 185. 
Teoscopoli, eee Delle Greche. 
Terenzi, Terenzio, called II Rondolino, a Pesarese ; called also Tertnso 

d' Urbino ; d. m tiie pontificate of Paul V. BtigUeme. i. 448. 
Terzi, Cristoforo, a Bolognese, d. 1743. Guida di Bologna. iiL 165. 

Franoeaeo, a Bergamese, d. oidat Borne about 1600. Tksai. ii. 187. 

Tesauro, Bernardo, a Neapolitan, flourished from 1460 to 1480, or near 

it. Domliifet. iu 14. 

- FQippo, a Neapolitan, b. about 1260, d. about 1320. JJemimet. ii.3. 
Raimo, Epifanio, a Neapolitan; his works from 1494 to 1501. 

DommieL ii. 14. 
Tesi, Manio, of the state of Modena, d. at Bologna in 1766, aged 36. 

Cretpi. iii. 179. 
Teao, il, of Turino, m scholar of Mengs. M8. m. 315. 
Testa, Pietro, a Lnochesey caEed II Lnechesiiio, b. 1617, d. 1650. Pateeri , 

i. 236. 
Testorino, Brandolin, a Bresdan. liied peiliaps in the foort eenth centvy. 

See MoreUi Noiaia. iL 86. 
Tiariniy Alessandro, a Bolognese, b. 1577, d. 1688. Medvueia, vi» 117. 



444 INDEX. 

Tlbaldiy or PeDegrino di Tibaldo de' Pdlegrmii called PeDegrino da 
Bologna, b. 1527, d. 1591. Uft of Tiluddi, wntteti by Gio. Pieiro 
Zanotti. iii. 39. 
■ Domoiico, hii brother, b. 1541, d. 1583. Gmda di Bologna. 

Or d. 1582, aged 42, as stated in P. F. Flaminio da Parma, who gives 
his epitaph in the Memorie Storiehe, &c. Pftrma, 1760. Oreiti, Memor. 
iii. 40. 
Hepolo, Gio. Bat., a Venetian, d. 1769, aged 77. Zanetii. Or d. 1770. 

Conea. ii. 301. 
ThieiU, CaT. Tiberio, b. 1586, d. 1638. Bidolfi. u. 251. 
Tinti, Gio. Batista, of Ptarma, painted in 1590. Affh, ii. 412. 
Tintore, del, Cassiano, Francesco and Simone, of Lucca, flourished 

towards the end of the seventeenth century. MS. i. 237. 
TintoreUo, Jaoopo, of Vioenza, flourished in the fifteenth century. Guida 

di Vieenza. iL 90. 
Tbtoretto, see Robusti. 

Tio, Francesco, a Fabrianese, painted in 1318. Colueei. x. 333. 
Tisio, tee Da Garofolo. 
Tito, di, or Titi, Santi, da Borgo S. Sepolcro, b. 1538, d. 1603. 

Beldmueci, i. 194. 
— -* Tiberio, son of Santi, long survived his father. Baldinucei. ib. 
Tiziano, see Tizianello, see Yecellio. 
Tiziano, di, see Dante. 
Tognone, or Antonio, of Vieenza, a scholar of Zelotti, d. young. Bidolfi, 

u. 224. 
Tolentino, di, MhrcaDtomo, a painter of the sixteenth century. Coined, 

i. 430. 
Tolmezzo, di, Domenico, of Udine, painted in 1479. Benaldis. ii. 94. 
Tommazi, Tommaso, di Pietra Santa, a scholar of the Melani. MS. i. 261 . 
Tommaso, di, Stefono, see Giottino. 

Tonduzzi, Giulio, da Faenza, painted in 1513. Orlandi. At S. Bernardino 
di Faenza is one of his pictures with the name and year 1532. Oretti^ 
Mem. iii. 60. 
' Tonelli, Giuseppe, a Florentine, lived in 1718. Orlandi. Painted from 
the year 1668. Descrip. de la Gallerie B. de Fhr. p. 51. He was 
sent to study at Bologna under Aldovrandi. Orefti, Mem. i. 239. 
Tonno, a Calabrese, who killed Polidoro. Hakert, ii. 22. 
Torbido, Francesco, called II Moro, a Veronese, scholar of Giorgione. 
VasaH. ii. 139. 



IXDEX. 44.5 

TorelU, Maestro, or Tonelli, pupQ of Correggio. Ratii. ii. 398. 

— ^-— Cesarei a Roman, painter and mosaic-worker, d. in the pontificate 

of Paul y. Baglione, i. 425. 
Felice, a Veronese, b. 1667. Zanoiti. d. 1748. Cretpi. Or 

b. 1670, bj Biancolini, d. 12th June, 1748, as I learn from OreUt. 

iu. 149. 

Lucia, bj birth Casalini, a Bolognese, the wife of Felice, b. 1677, 



d. 1762. Crespu ib, 
Toresani, Andrea, a Bresdan, an artist of the eighteenth century. Gua- 

rienti. d. aged about 33. Carbone presto V Ortttiy in 1760. MS, 
ii. 307. 
Tomioli, Niccolo, a Sienese, Uving in 1640. Lett. Pitiorichef torn. i. 

i. 306. 
Torre, Bartolommeo, and Teofilo Aretini, the second pupil of the former, 

flourished in 1600. Orkmdi. i.231. 
— i^>^ Flaminio, a Bolognese, called Degli Andnelli, d. joung in 1661. 

Orkmdi. iii. 107. 

della, Gio. Batista, originally of the Polesine,d. 1631. Baruffaldi, 



He was established at Ferrara. iii. 217. 

Gio. Paolo, a Roman, scholar of Muziano. Baglione. i. 419. 



Torregiani, Bartolommeo, d. young shortly after 1673. Pasaeri. i. 481. 
Torri, written also Torre and Torrigli, Pierantonio, a Bolognese, lining in 

1678. MalvMia. iii. 92. 
Torricelli, Me Buon&nti. 
TorteUi, Gioseffo, a Brescian, b. 1662, living in the time of Averoldi, or 

perhaps in 1700. Orlandi, ii. 280. 
Tortiroli, Gio. Batista, a Cremonese, b. 1621, d. aged 30. Zaist. The 

date of his birth should be placed earlier, as he painted well in 1632. 

See Cbluccif who cites one of his works with the name and ancient date 

iuTol. xiz. ii. 449. 
Tossicani, Gio. Aretino, a scholar of Giottino, i. 66. 
Tozzo, del, Gio., a Sienese, flourished towards the year 1530. Delia Voile, 

i. 309. 
Traballesi, Bartol., a Florentine, assistant of Vasari. Deterip. de la Gall. 

R. de Flor. i. 198. 
— "- Francesco, painted at Rome in the pontificate of Gregory XIII. 

Baglione. ib. 
Traini, Francesco, a Florentine, scholar of Andrea Orcagna. Vatari. i. 64. 
Trasi, Lodovico, of Ascoli, b. 1634, d. 1694. Guida di A»eoli. i. 508. 



446 I19DEX* 

Travi, Antonio, da Sestri, in the Genovese, called II Sordo ^ Sestii, 

d. 1668, aged 55. Suprani. iu. 272. 
Trevilio, da, in the Milanese, Bernardo, or Bernardino Zenale, d. 1526. 

MS. iL 469. 
Trerigi, da, Dario, flourished about 1474, as we read in the CUy Guide, 

and not 1374. ii. 116. 
■ Antonio, hia paintings in 1402 and 1414. i>. F^derici. ii. 93. 

Giorgio, living in 1437. Motaetti, ib. 

Girolamo, His paintings from 1470 to 1492. P. Federiei, who 

somames him Aviano. iu 116. 

•Girolamo, the younger, b. 1508, d. 1544. , Ridolfi. And supposed 



of thePeonaochi family. F^derici, ii. 146. 
Trerisani, Angelo, a Venetian, was living in 1753. GnmrietUi. 

ii. 298. 
Francesco, di Trcvigi, b. 1656, d. 1746. Boy, GalL of JPlor. 

i. 514,— n. 298. 
Trezzo, da, Giacomo, a mosaic-worker in pietre dure. Of the Milanese 

school. d.l595. MS. L 242. 
Tricomi, Bartolommeo, a Messhieser scholar of Domwiichino. HdJteri. 

ii. 44. 
Triva, Antonio, da R^ggio, b. 1626, d. 1699. TinioaekL ii. 364,— 

in. 309. 

Flaminia, his sister, living in 1660. Boachmi, ib. 

Trivellini and Bemardoni, Bassanese, scholars of Volpato. The first 

inscribes the date of 1694 on a picture at Castelfranco. JFMenct. 

u. 272. 
-Trogli, Ginlio, called U Paradosso, a Bolognese, living in 1678. Mai- 

rasia, d. 1685, aged 72. Ouida di BologfUL. iiL 98. 
Tromba, tee Binaldi. 
Trompetta, see Da Pesaro. 

Troppa, Cav. Girolamo, supposed pupil (^ Maratta. MS. 1.507. 
Trotti, Cav. Gio. Batista, a Cremonese, called XL Malosso, b. in 1555 

Zaist, Living in 1603. Zamboni, p. 151. His Pieta at the chapel 

of S. Gio. Nova in Cremona, with date of 1607. OretH, Mem. iL 445. 
' Euclide, his nephew. Zaist, ii. 448. 
Troy, Gio. Francesco, b. at Paris, 1680, d. 1752. Abrigi de la Vie, 

&c. vol. iv. i. 521. 
Tnocari, Gio. a Mesranese, b. 1667, d. in the plague of 1743. Hakeri. 

ii. 65. 



INDEX. 447 

TnnoottOi Giorgio, living in 1473. Co. Jkatmdo, ill. 293. 

Tura, CosimOy called Cosme da Ferrara, d. 1469, aged 63. Baruffdldu 

m, 189. 
Turchi, Alessandro, called L' Orbetto, a Veronese, painted at R(»ne in 

1619. Oatologo Vianellu d. there in 1648, aged 66. Pezzo, b.l580» 

d. 1650. Passen. i. 473,— ii. 273. 
Torco, Cesafe, d' Ischitella, b. aboat 1510, d. about 1560. Jkmiiiiei, 

ii. 19. 
Torestia, Francesco, a TenetiBt moMDC-worker, painted in 1618. ZanetiL 

ii. 232. 
Tarrita, da, in the Senese, F. Mino, or (ziacoino, d. about 1289. Guidm 

di Roma. His mosaic-work at S. M. Ma^;iore, whicb, aoeordii^ to 

Oretti, bears the date of 149&> seems to have been retouched, i. 33, 

50, 273. 
Turini, Grio., da Siena, lived about 1500. VaHKii. i. 100. 



V. 

Vaocariniy Bartol^ da Fenara, IWed aboat 1450. Baruffaldi. iii. 188. 
Yaccaro, Andrea, a Neapolitan, b. 1598, d. 1670. Dotmnici. ii, 42. 

The Andrea Yaocari, a Genoese^ or Roman, mentioned by GuarienH^ 

appears to aw one of hSm usual mastakes. 
Yaoche, dalle, F. "^Hncenzo, a Yeronese, an Olivetan monk. NoHz. 

Moral, ii. 126. 
Yaga, del, or de' Ceri, Perino, or Fierino Bonaccorsi, a Florentine, 

d. 1547, aged 47. Vasari. Or aged 46. Oreiiif from the Inscrip. 

in the Rotonda. i. 165, 394, 404,— iL 23,— iiL 239. 
Yagnuod, Franc., ii Assisi, flouriahed the beginning of the sixteenth 

century. MS. L 426. 
Yaiano, Oiario, called from his biithj^ace, II Florentino, painted at 

Bfilan about 1600. MSL ii. &16. 
Yalentin, Monsieur Pietro, called by Baglione Valentino, a Frenchman, 

native of Brie, near Paris, d. 1632, aged 32. Bardon. i. 454. 
Yalentina, di, Jacopo, da Serravalle i his painting of 1502. MS. ii. 93. 
Yalerianl, P. GioKi^, dell' Aquila, d. in the pontificate of Clement 

YIII. Baglione. u.28. 

' Domenioo and Giuseppe, Bx>mans, directed by Marco Ricci. 

Zaneiti. ii. 316. 



448 CTDBX. 

Valaw, Gio. Ldgit a BologMW, d. in Ut ptiae nder ti^ pootificate 

of Uibn Yin. Ba^Hme. iSL 8S. 
Yalle, da, in the Milmrir, or Yalli, Gio., paiated aboat 1460. 

it 464. 
Ctflo, k» bradwr, nr. 234. Jfor^ia, p. 403 ; cdled. as it 

Ctflo Mflinoe. iL 468. 
Van Bloanest eOBUBOnlj Yaa BloncB, CSq. F kaace a w , ciDed Oriz- 

xonte, maArmnnm of St. Lake in 1742, d. 1749. MS. i. 536. 
— FSetio, GdledMouiearSteBdaido, brodierorOriBonte. Cttalogo 

€!oUnma, L 537. 
Yanderrert, oC linden, a piqal of daade Loraiae. In the Caialo^ 

CoUnma he ii iMmed Enrico Wander?at. L 483. 
Yandi, Sute, a BologneK,d. at Loreto, 1716, aged 63. Oeqpt. iiL 175. 
Yandfcfa, and Yandycfc, Antonio, b. at Antwerp 1599, d. at London 

1641. BeOnni. L 475,— iiL 255. 
•— Daaide, a ftcndunan, painted m 1658. Ztmeiti. iL 250. 



Yanetti, Maioo, da Loreto, pi^ of CSgnanL Life ^f Cm, 

L524. 
Yan Ejdi, or Abeyk, Gioranni, di Ifaaaejdi, called De Bmgea, or 0a 

Bmggia, and bj ^^^ao, who wrote his eology, /o. GaiUeut, b. 1370, 

d. 1441. Gaff. Ingt. L 80,-^. 8, 95. 
Yaaloo, Giamhatiata, of Aiz, d. 1745, aged 61. Serie degli Uotmm 

piu Jlhutri m Pittmra, &c. toL ziL Or aged 69. BanUm, torn. ii. 

i. 521,— iiL 314. 

■ Carlo, hu bradier and pnpil, ib. 
Yanni, Car. Francesco, a Sienew, b. 1565, d. 1609. Baidmueei, Or 

1610. Mariett, Deaeriz. L 314. 

Car. Micfadangdo, his son, firing in 1609. IMiaraffe.L 306, 316. 

■ Cav. R a ff aeB o , brother of the preceding, academirian of St. Lake 

in 1655. OrUmtU, He was aged 13 in 1609. Delia VaUe. ik. 
Gio. Batista, a Florentine ; according to others a Pisan ; bat in 



the epitaph called Cms Flor, {Morem, torn, iv.) b. 1599, d. 1660. 

Baldmueei. L 218. 
Yanno, del (scholars of Cst. Yanni the elder), Gio. Antonio and Gio. 

Francesco. Ouida di Boma. i. 471. 
di, Andrea, a Sienese, his works from 1369 to 1413. DeUa VaUe. 

L284. 

NeUo, a Pisan, a painter of the fourteenth century. Jtfbrrofto. 



L64. 



INDEX. 449 

Yansii oUier, FiaanSi i. 72. 

Vannmi, Ottavio, a Florentme, b. 15S5, d. 1645. Baidbmeei. i. 216. 

Vannacchi, Me Sarto. 

Vaninioci, Me Pietro Perugino. 

Yante, a Florentine (signed himself also Attavante), living in 1484. 

Vatarif and Lett. Pittar, torn. iii. i. 93. 
Vanvitelli, or Vanvitel, Gaspare, called Dagli Ocdiiali, b. at Utrecht 

1647, d. at Rome in 1736. Dizumario Ittorieo. i. 541. 
— — Luigi, his son, ib, 
Yaprio, Costantino, a Milanese, painted about 1460. Lomazzo. ii. 465. 

Agostino, his painting of 1498. MS, ib. 

Yametam, Francesco, b. at Hamburg 1658, d. 1724. Ptueoli, i. 538. 
Yarotari, Dario, a Yeroneee, b. 1539, d. 1596. Bidol^. ii. 261. 
— Alessandro, his son, called, from his birthplace, II Padovanino, 

d. 1650, aged 60. OrUmdi. ii. 262. 
■ Chiara, his sister, living in 1660. Borffhini, ib. 

' Dario, the younger, son of Alessandro, living in 1660. Berffbini. 



u. 264. 
Yasari, Giorgio, of Arezso, Cav., b. 1512, d. 1574. Bottwri. i. 178, 

— ii. 24,— iii. 34. 

another Giorgio, and Lazsaro, his ancestors, i. 178. 

Yasconio, Giuseppe, a Boman, academician of St. Luke in 1657. 

Orlandi. i. 474. 
Yaselli, or Yaaello, Alessandro, a scholar of Brandi. OrUmdi and Gtitd^ 

diBoma. i. 461. 
YassaUo, Antonmaria, a Genoese, scholar of Mal6. SoprmU. iii. 274. 
Yassikcchi, Antonio, called Aliense da Milo, b. 1556, d. 1629. Bidolfi. 

ii. 241. 
Yaymer, Gio. Enrico, a Genoese, b. 1665, d. 1738. Batii, iii. 275. 
Uberti, Pietro, a son of Domenico, a Yenetian, flourished about 1733. 

Gmda di Venezia dello Zanetti. ii. 315. 
Ubertini, Baccio, a Florentine, scholar of Pietro Pemgino. Vaari. i. 93. 
' Francesco, his brother, called II Bachiacca, lived to the year 

1557. Baldinueei. ib. 

Antonio, another brother, a worker on tapestry and embroidery. 



Vamuri. i. 166,— ii. 506. 
Uccello, Paolo, a Florentine, d. 1472, aged 83. Bottari. i. 74. 
Udine, da, Girolamo, painted an altar»piecs at Ciridale in 1540. Benaldis. 
ii. 155. 
VOL. lU. 2 G 



450 vmvsi. 

tJdinei da, GKoyanni Nannii or Ricamatore, b. 14M, d. 1564. JW- 
dhmeeu Bmt laore llkdf b. 1489, d. 1561. RmMi». Note, «liit 
in the Carte Antiehe of CTcftiiei also signed by Giofanni, tfaoe is finnid 
only the fiunily name Rtcanutiore; and periiape NmmU — ^ iVM, 
which » Mine .phees m Itely ttand for Giovanni, las hj i»s«farry«* 
been taken for his surname. 1. lfi&, 363, 305,— -iL 139, 228. 

' ■ da AiartiBo, set Fdli^griao. 

Vecchi, de', Giomomi, di Boigo 6. Sepolcro, d. 1614,^ 76. BofUone. 
i. 204, 425. 

Vecdna, FtakR>,«Veaetiaa, b. 1605,d.aged73. Orlmt&wadMdeiion. 
Or towards the clon of tttd seventeenth ootary. EmtM* In the 
G«Mfa<«JSOv^itisstatedhewasor tfaeMnttDniinuty. ii. 255. 

Vecchietta, m he s^^na himself, Loranso, di Hofaro, a Steasae, d. 1482, 
aged 58. roMri. i. 287« 

Vecchio, il, di S. Bernardo, see MinsuKchi, ase «2ro CSverchie. 

Yecellio, Tiziano, da Cnhire, Car., d. 1576, aged 99. JUdo^ iu 156. 
■■ Oraiio, hii MB, d. m in piime, 1576. Bid^yL E. 167. 

■II — Francesco, brother of Titian, painted in 1531. MS. A. 

— — Maii09, a nqihevr of Titian, d. 1611, aged 66. JUdo^ 
ii. 168. 

Tizianefld, son of Iteoo, living in L648.'j2iifo^ ik, 

— ««- of anoiher 'branch, Ccaare, son of Ettoze, d. tavacds 1600. 



Reneddu. u.169. 

-— --^ SUitWD, JbrotlHr or Gestce, d. In 15B0. MmuddM. ii. 168. 

Tommaso, a kinsman also of Titian, d. 1620. Bemtldm. jL 203. 



Veg^, MaMD and Piero, VenetianB, their paintings of 1508 and 1510. 

^mgftu ii. 1Q5. 
Velasquez, Diego, i. 475. 
Veli, Benedetto, a FkKntiae painter of the aeventeentn century. MS. 

i. 220. 
Vellani, Franc, a Modenese, d. 1768, aged 80. TiraioieM, iL 366. 
VeUetri, da, Andrea, painted in 1334. MS. i. 383. 
-^— - LeUo, ^o aigns himself l^eUugde Vtlkiro puuit. Oram RU^ 

posta, i. 341. 
Veltroni, StaAmo, daJfoote S. Sa^ino, living in 1566. VmarL i. 202. 
Yenanzi, Gio., by some called Francesco, a Pcaarese, living about 1670. 

Guida di Pesum, In the iOretti MSS, is dted ins S. Onofrio at the 

Carmine di Pesaso, vdiere he readJlMt, Vmumtiua PitrntHmmtt 1688 ; 

d. on the 2nd October, 1705, aged 78. OreiH, Noiiz, iii. 106« 



INDEX. 451 

Venezia, da, Ijoren^y painted in 1358. Za$ietti. And in 1368. Quadrena 
Ercolani, ii. 78, — ^iii. 11. 

Jacometto, painted in 1472. Noiiz, MorelU, ii. 86. 

■■ " ■ Maestro Gionumi, living in 1227. Za$ieiti, ii. 74. 
— ^— — Nicc<^o, flouriabed in the time of Perino del V^ga, ii. 506. 

Mandro Paolo, bia notices of 1333 and 1346. Merm. ii. 78. 

' Jaoopo and Gio., his sons, ib, 
'- (da), fm Santo, a Capnchin, painted abont 1640. Melchior^^ 



u. 2^6. 

Veneziano, Agostino, an engraver and pupil of Morcantonio. Vaaari, 
i. 108. 

— ^— Antonio, a Venetian by birth, according to Va§ari. A Floren- 
tine, as stated bj others ; d. iiged 74, about 1385. jBMiamcm. i 68, 
— ii. 79. 
■ another Antonio, a Venetian* Nourished abont 1500, i. 69. 

-^— — Carlo, see Saracini. 

— — ^-r*-"- DoMenico, d. aged 56. Vouari. About 1470. OrlandL 



i. 81,— U. 8. 

or, as Va$ari «pmtes, Vinizlano, Sebastiano, see Del Piombo. 



Venier, Pietro, an Udinaae, d. at an advanced lage in ^737. BemUdis. 

ii. 303. 
Ventnrini» Gaspero, a Ferrareae, pauated in 1594. Botm^Mu iu. 211. 
-^— ~- Angelo, a Venetian, scholar of Balestra. Qukdfi (It Vene^- 

U. 310. 
Venusti, Marcello, a Montuan, d. in the pontifieate of Gregary XIII. 

BagWme, i. 146, 404. 
Venicini, AgottiBo, » Flof«ntinei pnpQ of Baatian Eiooi* .M8.^ d. 1762. 

OniH, Memor. i. .252. 
Veralli, Filippo, a Bobgnese, painted in 1678. Malvasia, iii. 133. 
VerceUesi, Seba&tie&o, da R6ggio, livug in 1650. TiradoedU. Ii. 364. 
VeroelU, da, F. Fietro, painted abont 1466. DeUaVdOe. ii. 477. 
Verdizzotti, Gio. Mario, a Venetian, d. 1600, aged 75. Bidolfi, ii. 228. 
Verhnik, Coroelio, di Botterdam, b. 1648, living in 1718. Orlandu 

lit 174. 
Vermiglio, Giuseppe, a Tnrinese, living in 1675. MS, Iii. 305. 
Vemet, Joaeph, a scholar of Manglard, b. at Avignon in 1712. Acade- 

midan of St. liake, 1743, d. at Paris in 1786. MS. i. 537. 
Vemid, Gio. Batisto, scholar of the Camoci. Mahagia, d. at Foisom- 

brone, 12th March, 1617. OreiH, Memor. iii. 129. 

2g2 



452 INDEX. 

Ternigo, Girol., a Veronete, called Girolamo da' Paesi, d. 1630. Pozz9. 

ii. 287. 
Yerona, da, Batista, ne Zelotti. 

■ da, F. Gio., an OUyetan monk, d. 1537, aged 68. Pozzo. ii. 126. 

Jafiopo, painted in 1397. Quida di Padova. ii. 76. 

' P. Massimo, a Capuchin, d. at Venice, aged 80, in 1679. 

Mehhiori, ii. 276. 
■ ■ F. Semplioe, a Capuchin, d. at an advanced age in 1654. ib. 

Stefano, called also Stefano da Zevio {Pi€U!enza)f flourished about 



1400. Vatari. i. 68,— ii. 88. 

Stefimo, di, Vinoenzio da Verona, perhaps a son of the preceding. 



Vatttri. ii. 89. 

Maffei, a Veronese, d. 1618, sged 42. Ridolfl, ii. 223. 



Veronese, Claudio, see Ridolfi, Paolo, see Caliari. 

another Paolo Veronese, an embroiderer, flourished about 1527. 

Viuari, ii. 506. 
Verocchio, del, Andrea, a Florentine, b. 1432, d. 1488. Baldmucci, 

i. 80, 126. 

Tommaso, a Florentine, assistant of Vasari, i. 201. 

Veruzio, Vaaarif probably Francesco Verio, called in Vicenza, his country 

perhaps, Verluzo or Verluccio, living in 1512. P. FaecioH, ii. 118. 
Verzelli, Tlburzio, da Recanati, d. about 1700. MS, i. 541. 
Vetraro, 11, tee Bembo. 
Uggione, or Uglone, or Da Oggione, Marco, a Milanese, in the Registry 

called Marco da Ogionno (a district of the Milanese), d. 1530. MS. 

ii. 490. 
Viadana, da, Andrea, a scholar of Bernardino Campi. Lamo* ii. 511. 
Viani, Antonmaria, a Cremonese, called II Vianino, living in 1582. Zaist. 

u. 339. 

Giovanni, a Bolognese, b. 1636, d. 1700. Creepi. iii. 155. 

Domenioo, his son, b. 1668, d. at Pistoia in 1711. Zmiotti. 

iii. 156. 

Vicentini, Antonio, a Venetian, d. 1782, aged 94. MS. ii. 318. 
Vicentino, Francesco, a Milanese, flourished in the azteenth century. 

Lomazzo, ii. 505. 
Andrea, a Venetian, d. 1614, aged 75. Bidolfi, A date to be 

corrected on the authority of a document edited liy P. Federici» in 

which, while painting at Trevigi in 1590, he is termed M. Andrea 

Micheli Vi